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:N SOCIETY



ARCHBISHOP IRELAND







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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



THE Church



AND



MODERN Society

LECTURES AND ADDRESSES
BY

JOHN IRELAND

Archbishop of St. Paul

Vol. II.



THE PIONEER PRESS A1FG. DEPTS.

ST. PAUL, MINN.

1905.



Copyright, 1905, bt

JOHN IRELAND,

Saint Paul,.



"S




CONTENTS



PAGE

The Friend of America: Gilbert Motier, Marquis De

La Fayette 5

Jeanne D'Arc, Patron Saint of Patriotism 29

War and Peace 67

Conscience: The Mainstay of Democracy 83

The American Republic: The Ideal Embodiment of

Democracy loi

Abraham Lincoln: The Savior of the Union, The

Exemplar of Democracy 121

Devotion to Truth: The Virtue of the Teacher 143

Leo XIII 163

The Pope's Civil Princedom 193

The Church in America 219

Fifty Years of Catholicity in the Northwest 251

A Catholic Sisterhood in the Northwest 279

A Catholic Sisterhood and Education 303

Personal Liberty and Labor Strikes 326

Labor and Capital 341

Religion, Deepest Instinct of the Human Soul 377

Jesus Christ, Yesterday, and Today; and the Same

For Ever 401



1 61 SI 4 6



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA

GILBERT MOTIER, MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE



THTC Statue of the IMarqtiis de La Fayette, which
graces the "Place du Carrousel," in Paris, was
unveiled the fourth day of July, 1900.

The statue was an offering of the people of the
United States, in token of their gratitude to France
for the services given by that country to the patriots
of the Revolutionary War.

The erection of the statue was first proposed by
Mr. Robert J. Thompson, of Chicago. The project
was warmly approved by Air. Ferdinand W. Peck,
General Commissioner of the United States to the
French Exposition of 1900, who made it an impor-
tant part of his work in Paris. A Commission, com-
posed of distinguished American citizens, lent their
willing co-operation to ]\Ir. Peck. The burden of
the details was borne by Mr. Thompson, who served
as Secretary of the Commission. The sculptor
chosen to design the statue was ]\Ir. Paul W. Bart-
lett.

The cost of the monument was defrayed by the
voluntary contributions of the children of the
schools, public and private, of the United States,
and by a generous appropriation from the National
Congress.

(5)



6 MARQUIS DR J. A FAYETTE.

Acts of the American Congress and of the French
Chambers gave international dignity to the project.

A letter (jf the President of the United States
ap])rovc(l tlie selection which the Commission had
made of Archbishop Ireland as the speaker at the
ceremony of the unveiling of the statue.

At this ceremony America was represented by
her Ambassador, General Horace Porter. France
was represented by her President, Monsieur Loubet,
and by several of the ministers. Among notable
personages holding places of honor at the ceremony,
was Monsignor Lorenzelli, Nuncio of the Holy See
to France.

General Porter and I\lr. Peck spoke for America.
Faithfully interpreting the sentiments of his coun-
trymen, Mr. Porter said: — "This statue of La Fay-
ette is a gift from the land of his adoption to the
land of his birth. Its purpose is to recall the record
of his imperishable deeds, to testify that his name
is not a dead memory, but a living reality, to
quicken our sense of appreciation and emphasize
the fidelity of our affection." The address of Mr.
Peck was in a similar strain: — "France, a great
nation across the sea salutes thee to-day. Her
children, bowed in gratitude, pay thee homage for
the heroic deeds of thy countryman, who came with
sword and treasure to succor a struggling people."

jNI. Loubet responded in the name of France: —

"GrntlEmex : 1'his magnificent monument con-
secrates the time-honored friendship and union of
two great nations. In generous impulse the Govern-



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 7

ment of the United States, the House of Represent-
atives, and the Senate have given adhesion to the
ceremony which brings us here before the image
of this common ancestor. But the initiative of this
fete springs from the schools of youth nourished by
the beautiful examples of history and the noblest
traditions.

"I am happy to associate myself with the cordial
thanks which the Chambers have already sent to the
people of the United States, and which I renew in
the name of entire France. The spectacle of these
two republics penetrated this moment by the same
emotions and animated by the same thoughts is not
less a lesson than a fete. It shows that among na-
tions, as among individuals, the calculations of self-
ishness are often more opposed to their interests
than the generous impulses of the heart.

"When La Fayette crossed the ocean to help a
tlistant people to win its independence, he was not
the plaything of heroic folly. He served a deep
political purpose. He was about to found the friend-
ship of two peoples on the common worship of their
motherland and liberty. This friendship, born in
the brotherhood of arms, has developed and
strengthened through the century which is ending.
The generations which follow us will not let it be-
come enfeebled. They will strive to multiply the
amicable relations and exchanges of sympathy be-
tween the two shores of the Atlantic, and will thus
give a precious pledge to the peace of the world and
to progress and humanity."



8 M.lRQi'IS DE LA FAYETTE.

In introducing' Archbishop Ireland, Mr. Porter
read tlie letter of President McKinley: —

Executive ]\Iaxsiox,
Washington, June ii, 1900.

Most Rkw Dear Sir: Within a few days I
have approved a resolution of Congress which voices
in fitting terms the profound sympathy with which
our people regard the presentation to France by the
youth of America of a statue of General La Fayette.
It has given me much pleasure to learn that you
have been selected to deliver the address on this
most interesting occasion.

Xo more eminent representative of American
eloquence and patriotism could have been chosen,
and none who could better give appropriate expres-
sion to the sentiments of gratitude and afifection
which bind our people to France.

I will be grateful if you say how we honor in our
national capital the statue of La Fayette, erected by
the French people, and convey my hope that the
presentation of a similar memorial of th.e knightly
soldier, whom both republics are proud to claim,
may serve as a new link of friendship between the
two countries and a new incentive to generous
rivalry in striving for the good of mankind.
A^ery sincerely yours,

WiLEiAM McKinley.

The I\Iost Rev. John Ireland, Archbishop of St.
Paul.



^THE FRIEND OF AMERICA

GILBERT MOTIER, MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE



TO-DAY a nation speaks her gratitude to a nation :
to-day America proclaims her remembrance of
priceless favors conferred upon her by France.

France ! America salutes thee ; America thanks
thee. Great is her obligation; not less great her
gratitude.

We speak in the name of America, under com-
mission from her Chief Magistrate, William McKin-
ley, from her Senate and her House of Representa-
tives, from the pupils of her schools, from the tens
of millions of her people, who to-day rejoice in the
rich inheritance won in past years by the allied
armies of France and America. We are bidden to
give to France, in the hearing of the world, testi-
mony of America's gratitude.

Once poor and weak and sorely in need of sym-
pathy and succor, now the peer of the mightiest,
asking naught save the respect and the friendship
to which she is entitled, the Republic of the United
States of America holds in fond remembrance the
nation from which in days of dire necessity she
received powerful and chivalrous support.

lArchbishop Ireland delivered his discourse in French.
(9)



10 M A R or I S D /•; LA 1- AY li T T I: .

Noble men, noble nations, forget injuries; they
do not forget favors.

The fourth day of July of the year 1776, the
American Colonies of Great Britain made procla-
mation of freedom and of independence.
nebeiuon of the ^^ "ation was born— born in the name
Colonies. q{ mauhood and citizenship, of civil

and political liberty.

The Colonists, at first, had contended only for
such rights as were then enjoyed by the people of
Great Britain. King and Parliament, however, had
been obstinate ; war had come, and with war came
to the Colonists the resolve to win separation from
the mother country and to found a republic.

Was the infant nation to live and grow in
strength and power, or was it to die and bear into
oblivion with its name and its memory the spirit of
liberty, at whose bidding it had sprung into ex-
istence? This, the awful issue cast into the scales
of destiny.

Bunker Hill, Trenton, Saratoga, Monmouth told
the skill and the valor of America's warriors. What
brave hearts and stout arms could do, Washington
and his army were sure to do. But Avhat hope could
there be of the ultimate triumph of America? She
had only a small army ; she was without a navy ;
she was without money. Against her was arrayed
a nation whose soldiers were legion, whose ships
were upon every sea, whose resources were exhaust-
less. What could time bring to the Colonists but
utter defeat and ruin?



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 11

Soon, despite early victories, America was made
to understand the realities that confronted her ; soon
the gloom of despair was darkening her skies and
benumbing the souls of her people.

Anxiously she questioned the nations. Where,
if anywhere, were there hearts to beat in response
to her heart? Where, if anywhere, were there
hands to uphold her hand?

There is a land, above all other lands the land
of chivalry, of noble impulse, of generous sacrifice,
the land of devotion to noble ideals. The sons of
this land, with souls attuned by nature to the har-
monies of the true and the beautiful, leap into the
arena at the call of high-born principles, resolved to
die, if need be, that truth and justice prevail. The
pages of its history glisten with names of heroes
and of martyrs, of knightly soldiers of country's
honor and of saintly missionaries of religion and
civilization. It is of France I speak.

To France America spoke her hopes and her
fears. Quick and generous was the response of
France.

That it were mine, this morning, illustrious son
of old Auvergne, to put into fitting words the sweet
and warm love which a century ago was given
to thee by America's Revolutionary sires ! That it
were mine, this morning, to pronounce thy name
with such tenderness and reverence as Americans
beyond the ocean wish me to pronounce it in the fair
capital of France !

In America, two names are idols of national wor-



12 MARQUIS DR LA FAYETTE.

ship, the burden of fireside tales, the inspiration of
poet's song- and of orator's discourse : one, the name
of the Father of his Country — George Washington ;
the oilier, the name of Washington's true and
trusted friend — Gilbert ]Vlotier, Marquis de La Fay-
ette.

La Fayette loved America. "The moment I

heard the name of America," he said, "I loved her;

the moment I learned of her struggles

Devotion of La r i • i t • ^

Fayette to ^^^ liberty, 1 was inflamed with the de-
.tnuricuH In. girc to slicd my blood for her." La

ticpendcnce.

Payette knew, as few others knew, the
meaning of the war that was being waged in Amer-
ica. "Never," said he, "has so noble a purpose
offered itself to the judgment of men." The
struggle as he saw it was a supreme struggle for
liberty. The defeat of the American cause would
have left freedom without home and without
hope. La Fayette's devotion to America was as
unselfish as it was intense. "I offer myself," he
wrote, "to serve the United States with all possible
zeal, without pension or allowance.'

A\^ealth, rank, favor of court and king, distinction
in the armies of France, endearment of wife and
child — all that ambition longs for, all that heart's
affection craves, the youth of nineteen summers
resolutel}' put aside, to cast his lot with a strange
people, with them to battle against fearful odds at
a moment when their fortunes were at lowest ebb
and ho])e had nigh abandoned their standards.

In his eagerness to serve America La Fayette set



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 13

no bounds to his zeal and generosity. The repre-
sentative of America in Paris declared that he could
make no provision to convey La Fayette and the
other French volunteers across the Atlantic. La
Fayette replied, "I will myself buy a ship and take
your men with me." La Fay-ette bought the ship
and defrayed all the expenses of the voyage.

A command in the Army of Independence was
assigned to La Fayette. At all times he was the
"preux chevalier sans peur et sans reproche." On
the battle-fields of America, he revived the highest
traditions of French chivalry. Roland, Bayard
Duguesclin were again among the living.

Ever first in the charge, he was ever last in the

retreat, ^^^^en his horse was killed, he fought on

foot. When soldiers quailed before

Bravery and overwhelming masscs, he compelled

■military skill , , , . , .

of La Fayette, them by his couragc and example to
hold their ground and turned defeat in-
to victory. "The Marquis," says an official report,
"is determined to be in the way of danger."

When fearlessness availed, he was fearless ; when
peril lurked in haste, he was slow and self-controlled.
"This nobleman," wrote W^ashington, "unites to
all the military fire of youth an uncommon maturity
of judgment." Washington knew men and put his
trust only where trust was justified. To La Fay-
ette he confided enterprises most important and
dangerous — tasks of which La Fayette acquitted
himself wath consummate ability. One is lost in
amazement that a youth bordering on his twentieth



14 MARQUIS DR LA rAYETTR.

year could displa}' such prudence and skill as char-
acterized the operations that fell to his lot.

At Barron Tlill, I. a Fayette's position was so
hopeless that before marcliinj^ against him General
Howe had invited friends to meet at dinner on the
coming evening "a captive marquis." At the time,
however, named for the dinner, La Fayette was far
away, and the angry and disappointed General was
obliged to seat himself at table without "a ca])tive
marquis" as his guest.

The critical campaign of Virginia was put vmder
the sole direction of La Fayette. The opposing
forces outnumbered four to one those under the
American commander ; they were provided with
abundant supplies and a perfect equipment ; they
were led by Philips and Cornwallis. "The boy can-
not escape me," said Cornwallis. But the boy did
escape him, foiling his plans, fatiguing and harass-
ing his forces to such a degree that he w^as obliged
to retire to the sea coast and to leave the American
Army in peaceful possession of the wdiole inland
territory. Then came the great opportunity of hast-
ening the close of the war. La Fayette seized the
opportunity. He drove Cornwallis into Yorktown
and there held him fast, pending the arrival of De
Grasse and Saint Simon by sea and of Washington
and Rochambeau by land. It was La Fayette who
made possible, and even easy, America's decisive
victory.

La Fayette by magnanimity of soul and grace of



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. ]5

manner, no less than by military prowess, became

the idol of the American army. He

^ was an American in the inmost fibre

Ch t V atru of

La Fauvttv. of his heart, proud of America as were
the proudest of her patriots. Of her
honor and her name, on all occasions, whether
among Frenchmen in France or among Americans
in America, he was the damitless champion. No
patriot of America was more cheerful than he amid
the hardships of camp and march ; none more fear-
less than he on the battle-field. His devotion to
America was limitless : more than once he pledged
his family fortune to purchase food and clothing for
her soldiers. "The soldiers' friend," the army called
him. His influence was all-powerful ; at a word of
cheer from him drooping spirits were roused, at his
word of command faltering columns rushed head-
long into the fray. A French visitor to the Ameri-
can Army, the Marquis de Cbastellux, wrote: — "La
Fayette was never spoken of without manifest
tokens of attachment and afliection."

Like every true soldier, La Fayette was ambi-
tious of glory. But the path to glory he left to
others, however brilliant the triumphs in sight, if
the merest hint were given that the general welfare
summoned him elsewhere. More than once, for the
sake of harmony among officers, he surrendered his
right of precedence and allowed others to bear ofif
the coveted laurels. Li the whole history of the
war there is no other episode so radiant of grandeur
of soul, so redolent of sweetness of heart, as that



16 MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE.

which shows La Fa3'ette at Yorktown, holding
l)ack his troops from the assault, patiently awaiting
the arrival of Washington, to whom he wished to
reserve the honor of the victory. Cornwallis, hem-
med in by land and by sea, could neither escape nor
be reinforced. La Fayette was in command of the
American army ; no directions from Washington
hampered his movements ; every rule of war coun-
selled immediate action. De Grasse and Saint Simon
were chafing under delay. Success was certain.
It was an opportunity of supreme glory. But
friendship and chivalry forbade the attack. La Fay-
ette waited for Washington, and gave to Washing-
ton the palm of victory.

Great as were La Fayette's services in the field,
they were the lesser part of his contribution to the
cause of American independence. La Fayette served
America best as "the link binding together America
and France."

Most important, indeed, is the part that events
allotted to La Fayette in maintaining the co-opera-
tion given by France to America
r« Fayette- throughout the Revolutionarv War.

the link be- o

tireen America At the beginning of the war, his enlist-

and France. . , . . .. ,

ment m the American army, disavowed
though it was at the time by the French court for
reasons of policy, was a significant token of the
sympathy with which men of thought and influence
in France viewed the war, and it had the effect of
widening and intensifying this sympathy among
the whole people. When, at a later period, the gov-



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 17

ernment of France declared war against Great Brit-
ain, and Count d'Estaing's ships were sailing in
American waters, there was for a moment serious
danger of disagreement between the French and the
American armies : La Fayette's tactful mediation
averted the danger and preserved harmonious rela-
tions between the allies. Then came the critical
year of 1779. In America all was dark. Utter defeat
awaited the patriots unless further help were
received without dela}'. La Fayette hastened across
the ocean to lay before Louis XVI and his ministers
America's piteous appeal. Patiently and eloquently
he pleaded, now in the name of France herself,
whose honor was at stake, now in the name of Amer-
ica, whose only salvation was in the hands of her
ally. Success crowned his efforts. His enthusiasm
swept away all difficulties, overcame all opposition.
De Terney and Rochambeau were sent to America ;
America was saved. 'Tt was well," said the minis-
ter, De Maurepas, "that La Fayette did not ask to
be allowed to strip \'ersailles of its furniture for
the dear Americans, for stripped Versailles would
have been."

As long as the starry banner floats, so long shall
the name of France be loved and honored in
America !

As long as the starry banner floats, so long shall
shall the name of La Fayette be loved and honored
in America !

The value of the aid given by France in the Rev-



18 MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE.

olutionary War I must not attempt to measure in

words ; I may only say that America

M hat Franrc owcs her life and her liberty to France.

(lilt for A)iie)i- ^- . i /: 4. ^ t i

^^1 r ranee was the nrst to stand spon-

sor for America's nationhood. The
Republic of the West took her place in the family
of nations leaning on the arm of France, radiant
with the splendor of France, strong with the
strength of France. As Franklin, the envoy of
America, entered Versailles, and as General de Ray-
nevel, the envoy of France, saluted the American
Congress, in Philadelphia, America thrilled with new
life and vigor, and awoke to full consciousness
of her dignity and her security. Washington, at
Valley Forge, offered solemn thanks to the Heaven-
ly Father, summoned his soldiers to forget forever
past hardship and despair, and bade them march
with resistless coin-age to victory. The country's
lawmakers proclaimed that beyond a doubt Amer-
ica had come into the possession of independence,
and refused a hearing to the delegates whom
Great Britain had authorized to concede in plenary
form the rights and privileges in defense of which
the Colonies had at first broken away from the
mother-country. A new sun illumined America's
skies, dispelling clouds of gloom, shedding upon the
new nation rays of hope and gladness.

France poured into America's empty treasury
the vast sums of money needed to keep an army in
the field. At the very ovitset of the war she placed
a million livres at the disposal of the American gov-



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 19

ernment for the purchase of military supplies, and
obtained another million for it from Spain. When
she recognized American independence, request
upon request went over to her for further grants;
and in return millions upon millions of livrcs were
sent across the Atlantic. At times the French min-
isters of finance made courteous remonstrance
against "les immenses demandes du Congres ;" but
"les immenses demandes" were always accorded.
At last the exchequer of France was almost ex-
hausted and could no longer endure the expendi-
tures required by France's own army and navy and
by America's ever increasing" demands. r>ut al-
though there were limits to the French exchequer,
there were no limits to French generosity. It
sought new ways of serving America. Louis XVI,
disregarding, it did seem, the voice of prudence,
pledged the security of his Government for the
punctual payment of the interest upon a loan of
10,000,000 livres which America was seeking from
Holland. In 1782, Franklin reckoned America's ac-
count with France.- He found that, besides the
guarantee of the interest upon the Holland loan,
France had made to America loans amounting to
18,000,000 livres — a sum augmented in the following
year by another loan of 6,000,000 livres — and that in
addition she had sent free gifts to the amount of
12,000,000 livres ! "From those gifts," Franklin



2Bolk^s, The Financial History of the United States from
1789. p. 244.



20 MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE.

wrote, "no returns but those of gratitude are ex-
pected. These I hope may be everlasting."

France sent to America the flower of her nobility
and the bravest of her soldiers and seamen. The
ships of France protected our coasts, kept our ports
open to commerce and confined the British naval
occupation to the harbor of New York. The sold-
iers of France, by their presence on American soil,
were the means of sustaining the enthusiasm of the
patriots and of bringing the Government of Great
Britain to a realization of the difficulties that con-
fronted it in its trans-Atlantic warfare. The army
and the navy of France, co-operating with the Amer-
ican army at Yorktown, gained the decisive victory
of the war. It was the victory of Yorktown that
won the independence of America. "It is all over,"
said Lord North, when the news reached London.
To forget Yorktown, to forget the men who fought
at Yorktown, to forget the banners that floated at
Yorktown over land and sea, is to forget the very
existence of America.

Thou wert at Yorktown, banner of France, en-
twining there in folds of affection and of hope the
banner of America ! Ye were there,
„, . , „ great-hearted De Grasse and De Bar-

The victory of *

Yoikfoirn. ras, guarding against foemen's sail the

waters of the Chesapeake ! Ye were
there, noble sons of France, bearers of names most
illustrious in France's history, noblest of the noble,
chivalrous Rochambeau, De Chastellux, De Lauzun,
De Rouerie, De Dillon, De Viomenil, De Choisy, De



THE FRIEND OF AMERICA. 21

Deux-Ponts, De Laval-AIontmorency and De Saint
Simon: ye were there, vying in fondest devotion
to America, with Lincohi, Hamilton, Knox, Picker-
ing, Laurens and Von Steuben ! Ye were there,



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