John J. (John Joseph) Lalor.

Cyclopædia of political science, political economy, and of the political history of the United States online

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district tribunal is divided into two sections, one
civil and the other criminal. The proceedings are
public. When the penalty inflicted carries with
it loss of civil rights, and there is no question of
a crime against the faith or against the state, nor
of a press offense, the tribunal is assisted by juries
selected from among persons of all classes, and
their verdict is subject only to be reversed by the
court of cassation. Press matters are brought be-
fore the court of justice of the government. In
case of a crime against the state, the court of jus-
tice that tries it is assisted by the marshal of the
nobility of the government, by a marshal of the
district, and by a golova or ataroste. — Civil pro-
cedure is oral. The assistance of advocates or
barristers, optional before the justices of the peace,
is obligatory before the superior courts. The ad-
vocates or barristers are subject to the disciplinary
power of a syndical chamber. — Connected with
each tribunal and each court there is an imperial
attorney, with one or more substitutes; and to
each department of the court of appeals there is
attached a superior procurator. — In 1863, Alex-
ander II. modified the system of corporal and cor-
rectional punishments, and abolished the use of
the knout, as well as that of rods or sticks. The
punishment of the plHe, a whip composed of sev-
eral twisted straps, remains. The death penalty
is reserved for military justice and for cases of an



attempt against the state or against the person of
the sovereign. But condemnation to forced labor
in the mines is fully equivalent to the last punish-
ment, and simple transportation to Siberia, which
is always preceded by corporal punishment, is ex-
tremely rigorous. Only the women and the sick
I are transported in wagons or by train; the men
'have to make the journey on foot, loaded down
I with chains. Some are condemned to temporary
deportation to a fortress for a year at least, others
to transportation to a penal colony, and others to
transportation with forced labor, temporary or
perpetual. Forced labor " in perpetuity " can not
exceed, except in case of a second offense, twenty
years; after this period the condemned is set at
liberty, and placed, if he can be utilized, among
the colonists of Siberia. The number of exiles in
1874 was about 100,000. —V, Public Instruction.
Public instruction commenced only in 1863 to be
organized according to a studied plan and one
comprising the different kinds of instruction.
There are now nine universities established- at St.
Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkof, Kasan, Dorpat,
Kief, Warsaw, Odessa and Helsingfors. There
were about 6,800 students and 600"free attend-
ants on the lectures in 1874. The best attended
courses are law and medicine. 2,400 students
are admitted gratuitously. Each university is ad-
ministered by a rector and a council over which
he presides. The rector and the members of the
council are elected for four years by the profes-
.sors. There are, besides, the imperial institute of
history and philosophy, established at St. Peters-
burg in 1867; the Lazareff institute, for instruc-
tion in the oriental languages; the two academies
of agriculture and forestry of Warsaw and P^-
trovsko^; a law school; a school of engineering;
three medical schools, at St. Petersburg, Moscow
and Wilna ; three veterinary schools, at Khar-
kof, Dorpat and Warsaw ; and an institute of
technology at St. Petersburg. — In 1873 the state
established commercial and industrial schools.
There were, the same year, 133 gymnasia and
33 progymnasia, in which Latin and Greek were
taught; the number of pupils was 43,791. The
expenses amounted to 4,467,644 roubles, of which
3,215,887 were charged to the state, 513,534 to
the provinces and cities, and 738,333 to the pu-
pils.' For girls, there were 54 gymnasia, 108 pro-
gymnasia, and 34 other schools. The pupils num-
bered 23,400. — Superior primary instruction is
given in the district schools, and elementary prf-
mary instruction in the parish and village schools.
The number of the latter is estimated at 24,000,
and the number of pupils at 870,000. The state
established, in 1872, ten normal primary schools,
which brought the number of these institutions up
to twenty-flve. Grants are voted annually by the
provincial assemblies for the establishment and
maintenance of primary and normal schools, and
to these grants are added the private contributions,
which, from 1865 to 1871, amounted to the sum
of 1,183,540 roubles. Every one feels that the
emancipation of the serfs has rendered the spread

of primary instruction still more urgent. * — Y[.
Army and Namy. The organization of the amy
and of military service was reformed by a ukase
of Jan. 1, 1874. " The service," it is said in this,
act, ' ' weighed exclusively upon the bourgeois claw
and the peasants, and a large part of the Russian
subjects were freed from a duty equally sacred to
all. This system does not answer the military ex-
igencies of the age. Contemporaneous events have
proven that the strength of states does not con-
sist alone in the numerical value of the army, but
principally in its intellectual and moral qualities
which only reach their highest degree of develop-
ment when the defense of the fatherland becomea
the common work of the nation; when all, without
distinction bf rank and class, unite for the accom-
plishment of this sacred task." — In accordance
with these principles, the emperor sanctioned &
number of laws in 324 articles, the principal pro-
visions of which are as follows; The male popu-
lation, without distinction of class, shall be sub-
ject to military service. The paying of a sum of
money to escape the service, and substitution, are
hereby forbidden. The armed force of the empire
shall be composed of a standing army and a militiav
the latter shall be called into service only in ex-
traordinary circumstances in time of war. The
standing army shall consist: 1, of the active army,
recruited by levies of men throughout all the em-
pire; 3, of the reserve, which serves to complete
the effective force of the troops, and is composed
of men sent on leave till the end of their term of
service; 3, of Cossack troops; 4, of troops formed
of foreigners. The naval army is composed of
the fleet and of its reserve; the number of men
necessary to complete the effective force of the
army and the fleet is fixed by law each year. —
Entrance into the service is determined by a draw-
ing of lots. The individuals whose numbers do
not call them into the active service are enrolled
in the militia. Each year the young men who
have attained the age of twenty years by the first
of January, are liable to service. For the marine

* Under the miniBtry of public Instnictlon, Russia is di-
vided into eleven educational districts, each presided oTer bj^
a curator. The nine universities, in ISTS, were attended by
6,350 students. In 1876 there were 34,466 primary schools,
with 1,019,488 pupils ; in 1877 there were sixty-eight nor-
mal schools, with 4,596 pupils; while the various secondary
establishments— lycenms, gymndsiums, district schools, etc,
-r-had 88,400 pupils. In the budget for the year 1888, a sura
of 18,030,867 ronbles was set down for public education. -
The mass of the population of Russia is as yet without
education. In 1860 only two out of every hundred recruits
levied for the army were able to read and write, but the
proportion had largely increased in 1870, when eleven out
of every hundred were found to be possessed of these ele-
ments of knowledge. In the grand dnchy of Finland, which
has a system of public instruction separate from that of
the rest of the empire, education is all but universal, the
whole of the inhabitants being able at least to read, if not to
write. The empire, Finland excepted, is divided, as above
stated, into educational districts, each of which has a number
of lyceums, at which the young men intended to fill civu
offices are mostly instructed, besides gymnasiums, high
schools and elementary schools, varying according to area
and population. The eleven districts arc those of St. Peters-
burg, Moscow, Kharkof, Kasan, Dorpat, Kief, Odessa, Wihia,
Warsaw, Caucasus and Orenburg. — F. M.



the young men best fitted for that service are
chosen. In the land army the term of service is
fifteen years, six in active service and nine in the
reserve. In the marine the terra is ten years,
seven of active service, and three in the reserve,
la war time all the men remain in active service
as long as the needs of the state demand it.
The soldiers and marines can be sent into the re-
serve before their term of active service expires.
The men of the reserve are subject to the ordinary
laws, and enjoy the rights peculiar to their station.
When they are called into active service, in case
of war, their families are supported by the city or
rural corporations, in which they are domiciled.
Soldiers mcapable of continuing in service and
deprived of resources, receive from the treasury
three roubles a month, or are placed in the hos-
pitals. The militia comprises the men who do not
form part of the standing army, but who are ca-
pable of bearing arms, from the age when they are
liable to be conscripted up to forty years com-
pleted.— Besides the exemptions for bodily defects
or for family reasons, reprieves are granted as fol-
lows: 1, two years, at the most, for individuals
who personally manage their landed property or
who direct the commercial or industrial establish-
ments belonging to them, excepting dealers in
strong liquors; 2; from two to seven years, to
pupils of various ecclesiastical, collegiate or artistic
establishments, divided into five classes. More-
over, the term of active service is reduced, accord-
ing to circumstances, to four years, three years,
and even to six months, and that of the reserve
to eleven years, in favor of young men who have
graduated at certain establishments of public in-
struction. Members of the Christian clergy only
are completely exempt. Young men who have
the ranli of doctor of medicine or of licentiate in
the veterinary art or in pharmacy, or who are pen-
sioners of the academy of fine arts sent to a foreign
land, or who are professors in establishments of
public instruction, are enrolled at once in the
reserve for fifteen years. There are also certain
temporary exemptions in the fleet, and reductions
of service from one to two years in certain cases. —
Volunteers are received into the land army, on their
proving : 1^ that they are at least seventeen years
of age; 2, that they are minors, and that their
parents or guardians have consented to their en-
listment; 3, that they have passed an examination
in the complete course of studies in an establish-
ment of public instruction, or a special examina-
tion detei-mined by the ministers of war and of
public instruction. They serve for three months,
it they have passed the examination in an estab-
lishment of the first class; for six months, if in an
establishment of the second class; and for two
years, if they have only passed the special exam-
ination. At the expiration of these terms they are
5 allowed, in time of peace, if they are not ofHcers,
'o remain in the active service or to pass into the
militia, where they are kept for nine years. Vol-
r unteers admitted into the guard or into the cavalry
must support themselves at their own expense; in

the other troops they are supported by the state.
In the navy the special examination is appropriate
for that service; volunteers are held for two years'
active service and five years in the reserve. — The
annual contingent is divided among the provinces-
by the minister of war; then that of each province
is divided among the subdivisions by a recruiting
board. In each district or city a committee is
charged with drawing up the lists of names, sub-
ject to the drawing by lot, with visiting the young
men, and deciding upon their admission or exemp-
tion. The provincial assembly controls the opera-
tions, examines the complaints, and decides upon
or refers them to superior authoritj*. — The ukase
does not apply to Cossacks and the other popula-
tion whose military obligations are determined
by special provisions. — The regular army pre-
sented, on a peace footing, Jan. 1, 1872, an effective
force of 760,000 men, of which 28,000 were offi-
cers of all ranks, and 732,000 non-commissioned
officers and soldiers, forming 82 battalions of in-
fantry and 281 squadrons of cavalry. The 732,000^
non-commissioned officers and soldiers were thus
divided: infantry, 572,400; cavalry, 61,700; artil-
lery, 80,500 ;■ engineer corps, 17,400. To these
figures must be added 560,000 men on leave, who-
could be called for in case of war. — The naval
forces were composed, in 1870, of 216 vessels,
of all classes, 194 of which were steamships,
and 22 sailing vessels, carrying 1,464 pieces of
ordnance. There were eight iron-clad frigates,
three bomb-protected batteries, thirteen iron-clad
batteries, five ships, twelve frigates, and fifteen
corvettes. The effective force of the military
marine was 75 admirals, vice-admirals and rear
admirals, 2,340 officers, and 20,986 marines and.
sailors. There are two admiralties, one at St.
Petersburg for the fleet of the Baltic, and one at
Nicolaief for the fleet of the Black sea. The
principal dock yards are in these two cities, and.
at Okhta, Cronstadt, Kherson and Archangel. A
great arsenal is established at Kolpina, near St.
Petersburg.* — VII. Finances. Peter the Great,
according to historians, had, to meet all his enter-
prises, a revenue of only 5,000,000 roubles, with
tributes in kind, and the expenses were propor-
tioned to the receipts. Both increased after his.
reign, but the expenses chiefly. Catherine II. , hav-
ing exhausted all other expedients, had recourse
to a paper currency, which, in 1817, amounted
to 210,000,000 roubles. To reduce it, recourse
was had to internal loans; then, this recourse not
being sufficient, in 1820, foreign loans were nego-

* The following was the composition of the regular Eas-^
sian army in 1882 :













The nominal strength of the various divisions of the Bussiaii



tiated. In 1847, the debt bearing interest reached
the sum of 315,000,000, with 184,000,000 of paper
money in circulation; and in 1860, in consequence
of the increase in the military expenses and the
construction of the first railways, the amount of
the debt was more than doubled. But the em-
army, according to the returns of the ministry of war, was
as follows in 1882 :

1. Eegnlar army:

Infantry „





2. Irregular army





General total



















To this has to be added the staff, gendarmerie, militia (raised
only in time of war), etc., which would raise the war forces
to a total of 2,733,305 men.— By the law of Dec. 18, 1878,
which came into force Jan. 1, 1881, personal military service is
declared obi igatory in Finland. The Finnish troops form nine
battalions of riflemen, each with eighteen officers and 505
men, and number in all 4,883. —Among the irregular troops
of Russia the most important are the Cossacks. The country
of the Don Cossacks contains from 600,000 to 700,000 inhab-
itants. By imperial decree, dated April 29, 1875, every Cos-
sack of the Don, from fifteen to sixty years of age, is bound
to render military service. No substitution is allowed, nor
payment of money in lieu of service. Exemption from mil-
itary service is granted, however, at all times, to the Clu'is-
tian clergy, and, m times of peace, to physicians and veter-
inary surgeons, apothecaries, and teachers in public schools.
The regular military force consists of fifty-four cavalry regi-
ments, each numbering 1,044 men, making a total of 56,876.
The number of Cossacks is computed as follows :



In Military

On the Black sea









Great Bnsaian Cossacks on the Can-

Don Cossacks . _-.._

Orenburg Cossacks. — .






The military organization of the Cossacks is in eight districts,
called woisskOB. Bach woissko furnishes a certain number
of regiments, fully armed and equipped, and undergoing con-
stant military exercise, so as to be prepared to enter the field,
on being summoned, in the course of ten days. The two
larger districts are the woissko of Kuban, which has the
privilege of furnishing a squadron of picked men for an im-
perial escort in time of war, and the second the woissko of
Terak, which furnishes a like escort in time of peace. — The
Cossacks are a race of free men; neither serfage nor any
other dependence upon the land has existed among them.
The entire territory belongs to the Cossack commune, and
every individual has an equal right to the use of the land,
together with the pastures, hunting grounds and fisheries.
The Cossaclu pay no taxes to the government, bat, in lieu of

Direct taxes


Indirect taxes :




Beet-root sugar




Passports, maritime duties and tolls

Begalian rights :


Coinage _


Telegraphs _

Domains of the state

Miscellaneous receipts

Revenue of Transcaucasus

peror brought about improvements in the man-
agement of the finances ; he wished to have a
regular budget, and for the first time that of 186"^
was given to the public. This was, according!
L. Faucher's expression, a veritable revolutiJ
According to the financial accounts, the ordinal™
receipts in the years 1864 and 1871, in roubles,
were as follows :












The only diminution is in connection with the
domains of the state, and is a result of the eman-

this, they are bound to perform military service. They are
divided into three classes: viz., 1, the minors, or mtMet-
niye, up to their sixteenth year ; 2, those on actual Bcrv-
ice, the slushUiye, for a period of twenty-five years, there-
fore until their forty-second year; 3, those releaBed.from
service, the otstavniye, who remain for five years, or until
their forty-seventh year, in the reserve, after which period
they are regarded as wholly released from service and In-
valided. Every Cossack is obliged to equip, clothe aad
arm himself at his own expense, and to keep his horse.
While on service beyond the frontiers of his own country,
he receives rations of food and provender, and a bimU
amount of pay. The artillery and train are at the charge of
the government. Instead of Imposing taxes on the Don
Cossacks, the, Rnssian government pays them tin annual
tribute, varying In peace and war, together with grants to
be distributed among the widows and orphans of those who
have fallen in battle. Besides the regular CoBsacks, there
are, on the Orenburg and Siberian lines, the Bashkir Cos-
sacks, numbering some 200,000 men. — The Russian navy
(1883) consists of two great divisions, the fleet of the Baltic,
and that of the Black sea. Each of these two fleets is again
subdivided Into sections, of which three are in or near the
Baltic, and two in or near the Black sea. The divisions, like
the English, carry the white, blue and red flag, an arrange-
.ment originating with the Dutch, but without the rank of the
admirals being connected with the color of the flag. - Atthe
end of the year 1880 the strength of the various divisions of
the Russian navy was returned officially as follows : 1, the
Baltic fleet, consisting of one hundred and thu-ty-seven men-
of-war, comprising twenty-seven armor-clad ships, forty-
four unarmored steamers, and sixty-six transports; 2, the
Black sea fleet, consisting of thirty-one men-of-war, com-
prising three armor-clad ships, twen^-flve unarmored steam-
ers, and three transports; 8, the Caspian sea fleet, consisting
of eleven unarmored steamers and eight transports; 4, the
Siberian fleet, consisting of flfteen unarmored steamers and
twenty-one transports. The total comprises 223 men-or-
war, all steamers, armed with 561 guns, with engines aggre-
gating 188,120 horse power.— The iron-clad fleet of waroi
Russia, comprising thirty ships, twenty-eight in t^ Bainc
and two in the Black sea, was made up, at the end o> '<«''' "
the following classes of ships : Ist class, three mastless tur-
ret ships, 12 and 14 inch armor thickness; 2d class, nine sea-



cipation of the peasants. If the expenses of col-
lection and the anticipated deficit in receipts are
^ deducted, viz., 43,000,000 for 1864 and 52,000,000
for 1871, we find, for the first of these years, a
total of 304,246,000, and for the second a total of
\ 487,966.000. But as the budget of Poland has been
joined to that of the empire, 30,000,000 must be
added to the first of the two totals, and by add-
f ing them we find an increase in the receipts, of
153,720,000 roubles, without any increase in taxes
except upon liquors. The following table shows
the ordiilary expenditure for the years named, in
lonbles ;


Qrotid body or corps of the state.

Inprial household..
~ ffiign affairs.......


Domain&of the empire..

Interior .-

Public instruction

Means of commnnication


General control of the empire

The stud

Expenses of Poland

Administration of the Caucasus..
































Deluding the expenses of Poland, we have for
1864 a total of 351,346,000 roubles, and for 1871
a total of 498,422,000 roubles, consequently an in-
crease which is not the result alone of the increase
in the debt and the military expenses, but also of
the improvements made in the different services. —
The expenditure of 1864, compared with the re-
ceipts, presents a deficit of 47,000,000; in 1871 we
find 10,000,000 deficit,but we shall see, further on,
that the debt had increased. — The expenses con-
nected with the construction of railways and of
certain ports, are paid separately from a special
fund raised by means of loans. The budget of
1874 was thus fixed: receipts from all sources,

, 539,851,fi56roubles; expenses, 536, 688, 886 roubles.

L —The debt is divided into the public debt prop-

' erly speaking, or consolidated debt, the floating
debt, and the paper currency. The coiisolidated
debt is composed of loans effected at different
periods since 1798, at different rates and under
different forms, some domestic and some foreign;
some to be liquidated or redeemable at a fixed
time, others at no determinate period; lastly, some

i to reduce the paper currency, others to cover the
deficits, and others to pay the expense of the con

going cmisers, 4 to 6 inch armor; 3d class, sixteen vessels for

««8t defense, 4 to 4i inch armor; 4th class, two circular

I "™tor8, 11 »nd 18 inch armor. — The imperial navy was

? «manded, in 1880, by 17 admirals, 32 vice-admirals, 31 rear

"™™8, 201 flrst^slass captains, 98 second-class captains, 803

raptain lieutenants, 443 lieutenants, and 129 midshipinen of

I Jr.''*""' <«>n>8 attached to the navy. The navigation de-

r «t!ff « ' """"^i"**- at the same date, five generals and 508

S; ranoffleers; the naval artillery, four generals and 197 staff

offlcere'-'w* tke naval engineers, six generals and 139 stafE

Online LibraryJohn J. (John Joseph) LalorCyclopædia of political science, political economy, and of the political history of the United States → online text (page 172 of 290)