John Jacob Anderson.

A grammar school history of the United States: to which are added the ... online

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Jones, Paul 86

Kansas .91

Kentucky 90

Kosciusko. 39

Lafayette. 98

LaSalle 99

Law's Bubble 21C

Lee, Gen. Charles 96

Lee, Gen. Rol)ertE 97

Length of U. S. Wars 196

Lincoln, Abraham 94

Lincoln, Gen 9S

Louisiana IM



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92



LIST OF TOPICS.



Lyman, Gen. P 82

Madison, Jame* 112

Maine 106

Marion, Gen 108

Marquette 100

Maryland HI

Mason and Dixon's Line S18

Maasachasetts 104

McClellan, Gen 120

McCrea, Jane 190

Meade, Gen 115

Micliigan 117

Minnesota 119

Mississippi 109

Mississippi VaUey Settlements ... 209

Mississippi Babble 210

Missouri 116

Monroe, James 114

Montgomery, Gen 102

Morgan, Gen 110

Mormons, The 223

Morris. Robert 106

Nebraska 179

New Hampshire 123

New Jersey 124

NewYorkCity 122

NewYorkState 121

Nevada 131

New Mexico

North Carolina 125

"Northwestern Difficulties".. .. 178

Northwest Territory 128

Object of New England Colonies. . . 202

Object of other Colonies 203

Ohio .^ 129

Oldffickory 222

Ordinance of 1787 gl2

Oregon 130

Penn,Wm 132

Pennsylvania 133

Philadelphia 134

Pierce, Franklin 140

Pitt, Wm 135

Plymouth Colony 195

Political Parties 224

Polk, James K 139

Pope, Gen 141

Porter, Admiral 142

PresidentB of the United States. ... 180
Pulaski, Count 137



Putnam, Gen 18f

Raleigh, Sir Walter 147

RebeOions in United States 145

Rhode Island 146

Rosecrans, Gen 1481

Sanitary Conmiissions 150,

Savannah 150*

Schuyler, Gen 151

Scott, Gen 156

Sheridan, Gen 158

Sherman, Gen 157

Slavery 17

Smith, John 140

South Carolina 126

States from conquered territory 204

States from purcnased territory 206

States from other territory 206

Stark, Gen 226

St. Augustine 156

St. CMr, Gen 158

Succession of States 187

Sullivan, Gen 158

Sumter, Gen 154

Surrendered Commanders 200

Taylor, Zachary 168

Tennessee 160

Territory acquired 188

Territory, how acquired 20T

Texas 161

Ticonderoga, Ft 107

Treaties 19

Tyler, John 162

United States Flag 194

Van Buren, Martm 172

Vermont. 178

Virginia 178

Warren, Gen 166

Wars during the Colonial Period.. 144

Wars with the U. S 148

Washington aty 167

Washington, George 164

Washington's military movements. 198

Webster, Daniel 177

Western Reserve 214

West Pohit 169

West Vir^ia m

Wilkinson, Gen 166

Wilmot Proviiio 216

Wisconsin ITO



ADDITIONAL INDEX.



Speedwell and the Mayflower 227

Leislerand Milbome 228

Kidd, Captain William 229

Locke and his Grand Model 230

Burning of Charlestown 231

England's Foes and Friends of the 232

Revolution

Notable Historical Sayings

Popular Names given to the States

Familiar Names applied to i>er8ons and things in the History of the

United States



Clark, Gen. Geoiee Rogers

Hayne, Isaac— Hfe Execution

Alien and Sedition Laws

Presidents' Cabinets

Cessions by the State to the General

Government

Fulton and his first steamboat

> ^?P>?c-



237
238

86
87

89



Total number of pagesy 840, besides Mi^ and IlliistraliiMis.



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VEEMONT.



1« An especial interest attaches to Vermont, as being
the first of the " new States," or the States admitted after
the formation of the government in 1789 (page 107, ^3).
It is supposed that Samuel Champlain, who discovered the
lake which now bears his name, was the first white man
to visit (1609) any portion of the country included within
the Hmits of this State.* On his return from the expedi-
tion, he prepared and pubUshed a map of the lake.

2« During the wars between the French and the Eng-
lish, hostile parties passed uj^ and down the lake ; but no
portion of the country bordering on its eastern shore was
occupied by Europeans until 1690, when an expedition
was sent by the governor of New York to the mouth of
Otter Creek, and a small stone fort was built at Chimney
Point,f in the present county of Addison, in order to
aid in the operations against the Indians during that
dreadful period. This position was afterward aban-
doned ; but a French settlement was subsequently made
there.

Note.—" It is now agreed that at the time of the first knowledge of New Eng-
land by white men the territory now called Vermont had no permanent Indian
inhabitants ; that it was disputed territory over which the Iroquois and the Hnron
roamed and hunted, and fought wherever thejmety— Charles JReed^ Librarian
of the Vermont Historical Society, in his report for 1872.

* It is not certain that the French explorer, in this memorable expedition,
actually landed on the eastern shore, but it is to be presumed that he aid, since
he explored it, and made a map of the lake.

t Chimney Point is in Addison township, on the shore of Lake Champlain, fifty
miles S. W. from Montpelier. Previous to the erection of this fort, a fort had
been built on Isle La Motte, and called St. Anne. From this post the French
sent an important expedition against the Mohawks, in October of 1666.



1. Why does an especijil interest attach to Vermont? Who is snpposed to
have been the first white man to visit this region ? What did Champlain do on
his return ?

a. When was the eastern shore of the lake first occupied by Europeans?
What led to it? What fort was erected? For what purpose? Was it main-
tained ?



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82 BBIEF SKETCH OF THB

St During Queen Anne's War (1702-1713, page 35), the
country was repeatedly traversed by war x>arties ; but no
permanent settlemenfc was made in ifc until 1724, when a
fort was built on the present site of Brattleboro,*, called
Fort Dummer,f and a settlement was commenced on the
" Dummer Meadows," in the immediate vicinity of the
fort. This fort was soon afterward attacked by the In-
dians, and many of the settlers were killed or carried into
captivity. Several other attempts at settlement in this
region were made, during the next thirty years ; J but
owing to the wars between the French and English, and
their Indian allies, they were unsuccessful.

4. After these troubles were ended, by the conquest of
Canada, in 1760 (page 62), people flocked into this region,
and many thriving settlements were formed. In that
year Guilford was settled, which, in a short time, became
the most populous town in the State. Previous to this,
however (1749), Governor Benning Wentworth, of New
Hampshire, began to issue grants of land west of the
Connecticut Kiver; and among the first of the townships
thus founded was Bennington, so called in allusion to his

* " Among those bom at Brattleboro were Wilbur Fisk, the Methodist divine
who twice refkised a bishopric, and was President of Weeleywi University, Ct.,
1830-39: R. M. Hunt, the architect; W. M. Hunt, the painter of genre pictures;
and Larkin G. Mead, the sculptor, who, while yet a mere lad, worked one long
winter night on a snow figure, at the head of Main street, and next morning
(New Year's) the citizens were startled to s^ec there a statue of the * Recording
Angel ' modeled in purest snow."— Osgood's New England Hand-Book.

t This fort was constructed to protect the towns in the valley of the Connec-
ticut River against the attacks of the Indians, which extended along the whole
northern frontier of Massachusetts. It was named after William Dummer, then
acting governor of that province. The settlement was commenced by John,
Thomas, and David Sargear t, Nathan Willard, John Alexander, Fairbank Moore
and son, John Ames, and Samuel Wells. John Sargeant was the first white per-
son born in Vermont.

X One of these was at Pntney, in 1742: but it was soon abandoned. Bridg-
man's fort and Sartwell's fort were built in Vernon within the next fhree or four
years. These two forts were captured by the Indians in 1747. A settlement
was begun at Rockingham in 1753; and in 1754 a settlement was again made at
Putney. __^

3. When and where was the first settlement ? What was the fbrt called ? Its
history ? What other attemps at settlement were made ? With what result ?

4. What took place after the conquest of Canada ? What Is said of Guilford ?
What grants were issued? What township was formed? What stopped the
BQttlements?



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HISTOBY OF VERMONT. 83

own Christian name. These grants were rapidly taken
by people from Connecticut and Massachusetts ; but emi-
gration was soon stopped by the breaking out of the
French and Indian War (pa^e 54).

5. After the termination of hostilities in 1760, emi-
grants rapidly settled along both sides of the Upper Con-
necticut, imder grants from Wentworth, some of these
settlements being west of the Green Mountains, toward
the shore of Lake Champlain. This granting of lands
west of the Connecticut River led to a violent controversy
between Wentworth and Colden, Heutenant-govemor of
New York, who claimed the river as the eastern boundary
of that colony ; and in 1764 a royal order was issued,
confirming the claim. The settlers, however, who held
their lands under Wentworth's grants, contended that the
order did not affect the validity of their titles ; and a
royal order, issued in 1767, forbade that lands previously
granted by New Hampshire, should be again granted by
New York. The territory was for many years afterward
known as the " New Hampshire Grants."

6. After the royal orders above referred to, the south-
western townships of the newly-settled region were an-
nexed to the County of Albany, and the others formed
into two additional counties of the Colony of New York*
The demand that the proprietors, who had already paid
for their lands, should take out new patents from the Gov-
ernor of New York, at an exorbitant price, met with violent
resistance, in which the chief leaders were Ethan Allen*

* Ethan AUm was born in Connecticut on the 10th of Jannary, 1787. He emi-
grated at an early age to Vermont. After the difflcnlties referred to in the text,
he took a prominent part in the commencement of the Revolntionary struggle.
Through his skill and daring Fort Ticonderoga was captured by the American
patriots May 10, 1775: after which he made a bold attack upon Montreal, but
was defeated ; and being taken prisoner, was sent to England in irons (Septem-

5. When was emigration renewed ? How far did the settlements extend?
What controversy ensued ? What led to it ? What royal orders were issued in
17W and 17(57 ? What position was taken by the settlers? What was the terri-
tory called ? , ^ , 1 *

6. What was done with the southwestern townships ? What met with violent
resistance ? Who were the chief leaders in this ?



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84 BRIEF SKETCH OF THE

and Seth Warner,* afterward so celebrated for their
patriotic zeal and courage during the revolutionary
strugglaf

7. Through the influence of their appeals, the people
were greatly excited, and at meetings held in several of
the towns, appointed " Committees of Safety/' to provide
for the common defense ; and very severe measures were
taken against any of the settlers who yielded to the aggres-
sive claims of the people and governor of New York.
Military companies of the settlers were also formed, which
received the name of " Green Mountain Boys." After the
government of New York was assumed by Tryon, he en-
deavored to arrange matters with the people, but failed
of success4

8. At the breaking out of the Revolutionary War, the
men of this distiict took a prominent part in organizing
resistance to the unjust claims of Great Britain, and
operations were commenced against the British posts on
the shores of Lake Champlain. In these measures Ethan
Allen took a distinguished part (See page 69, ^ 17, and

ber 25, 1775). After Buffering a captivity of more than two years in England,
Halifax, and one of the prison-ships of New York, he was released by excSinge.
He never afterwards actively engaged in military service, but died at Burlington
in 17S9. A heroic statue of Allen was inaugurated at Burlington, Julv 4th, 1873,
when ten thousand persons were present, and the Hon. L. E. Chittenden, a great
grandson of the flrt«t governor of the State, delivered the oration. A heroic sca-
tue previously made of the same hero, stands in the capitol of the State.

* Seth Warner was born in Connecticut in 1743. He took part in the capture
of Ticonderoga and captured Crown Point in 1775 ; was at the battles of Hub-
bard ton, Bennington, and Bemis Heights, and served, as related in the text, with
Montgomery in Cana^fa. He died in Connecticut in December, 17&4.

t " The maps of the period, published under the eye of the British Court, and
circulated through all the colonies, extended from New Hampshire to Lake
Champlain. Never doubting the authority of the agent (Gov. Wentworth) to
give them a perfect title, thev had paid for these lands in hard-earned money,
had entered upon them, felled the forests, planted the crops, and established
their homes. "—Z. E. Chittenden's Oration, Jvly U, 1873.

$ *' In the early contest with New York, Remember Baker was the associate
and worthy peer of Allen and Warner. He was killed in the early part of thfe
Revolatlonary War, at the head of a scouting party sent out by Montgomery
when he first entered Canada."— Co^. B. C. Benton.



7. What was done by the people ? What were the military companies called 1
What was done by Governor Tryon ?

8. What was done by the men of the district on the breaking out of the Revo-
lution f What operations were undertaken f Who took a prominent part in
these ?



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HISTOBY OF VEBMONT. 85

note on this page) ; * as also did Col. Seth Warner (See
note), by whom Crown Point was captured in 1775.

9« In capturing the remaining posts, as well as in the
invasion of Canada, which soon after occurred, the in-
habitants of the New Hampshire Grants also took an
active part, and were greatly distinguished for their miH-
tary daring and skilL After Montgomery's death (See
page 72, ^f 25), CoL Warner, who had joined the army
before the attack on Quebec, rendered gallant service
during the retreat in bringing up the rear.

10* In consideration of the important service thus ren-
dered, Congress authorized a new regiment of Continental
Begulars to be raised, and selected the officers from
among the Green Mountain boys who had served in

* Capturk op Ticonderoga.— " Just then (May 8, 1T75) Benedict Arnold ar-
rived at Castleton, Yt., with only one attendant. He brought a cummittdion from
the Ma:«Kachu8ett8 Committee of Safety, which wan disregarded ; the men hud
anauimonsly elected £itiaa Allen their chief. Ou the Uth, the party bte^n the
march ; late on the 9th, they arrived at Shoreham, opposite Ticonderoga, In Ver-
mont. With the utmost difflcnlty a few boats were got together, and eighty-
three men crossing the lake with Allen, landed near the garrison. The boats
were sent back for Seth Warner and the rear guard ; but if they were to be
waited for, there could be no surprise. The men were, therefore, at once drawn
up in three ranks, and as the first beams of morning (May 10) broke upon the
mountain peaks, Allen addressed them : ' Friends and fellow soldiers : We must
this morning quit our pretensions to valor, or possess ourselves of this fortress;
and inasmuch as it is a desperate attempt, I do not urge it on contrary to your
will. You that will undertake voluntarily, poise your firelocks.' At the word
every firelock was poised. * Face to the nght,' cried Allen ; and placing himself
at the head of the centre file, Arnold keepmg emulously at his side, he marched
to the gate. It was shut, but the wicket was open. The sentry snapped a fhzee
at him. The Americans rushed into the fort, darted upon the guards, and rais-
ing the Indian war-whoop, such as had not been heard there since the days of
Montcalm, formed on the parade in hollow square, to face each of the barracks.
One of the sentries, after wounding an officer and being wounded himself,
cried out for quarter and showed the way to the apartment of the commanding
officer. ' Come forth instantly, or I will sacrifice the whole garrison,' cried Allen,
as he reached the door. At this, Delaplace, the commanaer, came out undressed,
with his breeches in his hand. * Deliver to me the fort instantly.' said Allen.
* By what authority ?' asked Delaplace. * In the name of the great Jehovah and
the Continental Congress ! ' answered Allen. Delaplace began to speak again,
but was peremptorily interrupted, and at sight of Allen's drawn sword near his
head, he gave up the garrison, ordering his men to be paraded without arms."—
Bancrofts Hist. U. 8.

" Colonel Seth Warner, who had brought over the residue of the party, was
now sent with a detachment against tJrown Point, which surrendered on the
lith, without firing a gonr— Irving' 8 Life qf Washingtm.



9. What else was done by the people of the New Hampshire Grants ? What
Is said of the New Hampshire Grants ? What is said of Colonel Warner ?

1 0. What did Congress authorize on that account ? What is said of the
regiment ?



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86 BBIEF SKETCH OF THE

Canada, Warner being appointed lieutenant-coloneL This
-was the regiment which afterward gained so much renown
at Hubbardton and Bennington (App., p. 91, ^ 26).

lit Meanwhile, New York continued her claims to the
control of the New Hampshire Grants, but the people in-
habiting that region were determined not to yield submis-
sion to it. They were, consequently, very greatly embar-
rassed by the want of established laws, and civil officers
of acknowledged authority. Accordingly, on the 16th of
January, 1776, a convention met at Dorset, and drew up
a petition to Congress, which they styled " The humble
petition, address, and remonstrance of that part of Amer-
ica, being situate south of Canada Hne, west of Connecticut
river, commonly called and known by the name of the
' New Hampshire Grants.' "

12* In this petition, they avowed their readiness to bear
their full part in the war with Great Britain, and to com-
ply with all the demands of Congress, but declared their
unwillingness to act under the provincial government of
New York. They therefore asked that whenever Congress
should find it necessary to call upon them for any aid or
service, they should be recognized as inhabitants of the
New Hampshire Grants, not as subjech to the government
of New York.

13. The committee of Congress to whom this petition
was referred, reported : " That it be recommended to the
petitioners to submit for the present to the government
of New York, and to assist their coimtrymeh in their con-
test with Great Britain ; but that such submission ought*^
not to prejudice their right to any lands in controversy, or
be construed to affirm or admit the jurisdiction of New
York over the country, after -the present troubles have

1 1 . What claim continued to he made hy New York ? What was the reeiilt of
this ? What convention met ? What did they style their memorial ?

la. What did they avow in this ? What did they ask?

1 3. What report did the committee of Congress make f What was done with
the petition ?



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HISTOEY OF VERMONT. 87

ceased." To avoid any decision at that time, the petition
was withdrawn.

II. The Declaration of Independence (July 4th, 1776) left
the people of the New Hampshire Grants in a still more
embarrassing condition. New Hampshire had renounced
all political connection with them ; and the controversy
with New York was resumed. The convention of the lat-
ter State had unanimously voted, August 2d, 1776, " That
all quit-rents formerly due to the King of Great Britain
are now due and owing to this Convention, or such future
government as shall hereafter be established in this State."

15. To submit to the claims of New York was to give
up the whole of their property and to reduce themselves
to a state of dependence and beggary. To oppose her
claims and authority would unavoidably bring on a con-
test, not only with New York, but with Congress also ;
and to continue without some form of government was
impossible.

16. In this situation, some were disposed to renew their
allegiance to New Hampshire, while others saw no way of
avoiding a submission to New York ; but the more cour-
ageous and spirited of the people were in favor of assum-
ing the powers of an independent State or Government,
and hazarding all the consequences of such a measure.
To determine the prevailing opinion, therefore, ^it waf
found necessary to call a convention.

17. This convention, called by circular letters from in-
fluential persons, consisted of fifty-one members, repre-
senting thirty-two towns. It met at Dorset, July 24th,
1776. The result of its deliberations was an agreement
that no association should be entered into with either of

14. How did the Declaration of Independence leave the people ? What had
the New York Convention voted ?

15. In what embarrassing position did the people find themselves ?

16. What sentiments were held by diflferent parties? What was done to de-
termine the prevailing opinion ?

IT. Of whom did this Convention consist? WTiere and when did it meet?
What was the result of its deliberations ?



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88 BRIEF SKETCH OF THE

the counties formed within their territory by New York,
or submission made to its government ; and that any of
the people of the New Hampshire Grants who should act
in opposition to this agreement should be deemed enemies
to the common cause.

18. At a subsequent meeting of the Convention (Septem-
ber 25th) a resolution was unanimously adopted, '' To take
suitable measures, as soon as may be, to declare the New
Hampshire Grants a free and separate district ; " also that
'* no laws or directions from the State of New York should
be accepted.'' The Convention met again at Westminster
October 30th, but adjourned. January 15th, 1777, it met
once more at Westminster, and after a very serious debate
resolved to form a new State.

19. They (Jan. 16th) made and published the following
declaration : " This Convention, whose members are dtdy
chosen by the free voice of their constituents in the several
towns of the New Hampshire Grants, in public meeting
assembled, in our own names, and in behalf of our con-
stituents, do hereby proclaim, and pubhcly declare, that
the district of territory comprehending, and usually known
by the name and description of the New Hampshire
Grants, of right ought to be, and is hereby declared for-
ever to be considered as a free a:^d independent jurisdic-
tion, or State, to be forever hereafter called, known and
distinguished by the name of New Connecticut [afterwards
called Vermont].

20. " And that the inhabitants that at present are, or
that may hereafter become, resident within said territory,
shall be entitled to the same privileges, immunities, and
enfranchisements which are, or that may at any time here-
after be, allowed to the inhabitants of any of the free and
independent States of America. And that such privileges

18. What was done at a subsequent meeting? What resolution was finally
adopted ?

19, SO. What declaration did the Convention make and publish?



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HISTORY OF VERMOITT.



and immunities shall be regulated in a bill of rights, and
by a form of government, to be estabUshed at the next
session of this Convention."

21. In a declaration and petition to Congress^ they an-
nounced to that body the step which they had taken ;
with a renewal of the assurance, previously given, that
"they were at all times ready, in conjunction with their
brethren in the United States, to contribute their full pro-
portion towards maintaining the present just war against
the fleets and armies of Great Britain." They also peti-
tioned that Vermont might be ranked among the free and
independent Americiin Statea

'22. This measure on the part of the people of Vermont,
in declaring their independence, was variously viewed by
the adjacent States. New Hampshire was disposed to
favor it ; and in Massachusetts and Connecticut it was
rather applauded thaa condemned. New York, however,
looked on it in no other light than a revival of the rebel-
lion with which her lawful authority had been opposed by
the people of the New Hampshire Grants.

23. The Committee of Safety of New York, therefore,
took up the matter at once ; and, by their direction, the
president of the New York convention sent information
to Congress of the " revolt of a part of tho State against
its lawful authority," and asked that tho commissions
issued to Col. Warner and others should b^ revoked, A



Online LibraryJohn Jacob AndersonA grammar school history of the United States: to which are added the ... → online text (page 34 of 39)