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between this slothful and licentious monarch and the
great Protector who had made the name of England so
glorious throughout the world by his careful and vigorous
administration. Dunkirk, which had been acquired dur-
ing that splendid period, was now sold to the French to
supply means for the king's extravagant pleasures (1664)^

62. But scarcely any amount was found adequate for
this purpose ; and in order to obtain supplies from Parlia-
ment, he recklessly plunged into a war with Holland, th^
avowed cause of the war being certain alleged wrongs
committed by the Dutch against the English trade. Be-
fore the war had been formally declared, a fleet sent out
by the Duke of York took possession of New Netherlands
in North America (1664), and some of the Dutch settle-
ments in Africa were captured. De Ruyter retaliated by
attacking Barbadoes and some of the other English de-
pendencies. At the beginning of the war, a great naval
battle was fought oflf the eastern coast of England, in
which James, the Duke of York, assisted by Prince Ru-
pert and the Earl of Sandwich, defeated the Dutch fleet
with immense loss (1665).

63. The French monarch (Louis XIV.) then took sides

61* Marriage of Charles? His treatment of the qneen? Popular Bentimenti
regarding Charlea f Sale of Dunkirk ?

62* Why was war waged with Holland? Captnre of New Netherlands ? Othei
settlements ? How did De Ruyter retaliate ? What naval battle was fonght ?

68* Coarse of Lonis XIV. ? The King of Denmark ? What great naval en-
gagement occurred ? Its result ?

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188 THE ^UART FAMILY. [A. ». 1666.

with the Dutch, alarmed lest the English might acquire
an unlimited control of maritime affairs. The King of
Denmark also declared war against' England. The com-
bined fleets of the allies, commanded by the great Dutch
admiral De Euyter and the Duke of Beaufort, were de-
feated by those of the English, under the Duke of Albe-
marle and Prince Rupert (1666). This battle lasted four
days, and was one of the most terrific naval engagements
eyer fought: it occurred near the southeast coast By it the
English gained the unquestioned supremacy of the sea, and
were able with impunity to insult the Dutch in their own

64. During this war, the Oreat Plague broke out in
London; and such was the awful mortality occasioned by
it, that in the city alone the number of deaths during the
year (1665) was estimated at no less than 100,000. The
rich and panic-stricken fled from the city; grass grew in
the streets ; and the silence of death reigned eyerywhere,
except when it was broken by the rumbling of the. dead-
cart as it carried away its fearful burden. Close upon this
calamity followed the Great Fire, which raged for three
days, and destroyed 13,200 dwelling-houses, besides ninety
churches (1666).* St Paul's cathedral was burned; but on its
site was' afterward erected, by the distinguished architect
Christopher Wren, that beautiful edifice, the dome of which
now towers above the smoke-staiiied roofs of London, f

65. The desire of Charles to saye expense, in order thai
ne might haye means for his extravagant pleasures, led to
neglect in keeping up the naval force of the kingdom; and
the Dutch, taking advantage of this, defiantly entered the

• See Note 9, end of the Section.

t Except St. Peter's at Rome, tbls it considered the finest church edifice In Enrc^M. It waa
oouroencd in 1675, and required *Vrty-fitre years for its completion. Wren superintended tha
whole. He also drew designs fok. «ore than fiftv other chiircnes in place of those destroyed hf
%ae fire, and formed a plan for the entire rebuilding of the metropolis, embracing wide ttrealB,
magnificent quays, and other valuable improvements. He d'ed in 1723, in his Qlst year.

64. Tbe Oreat Plague f The Great Fire ? Whai buildings were burned 7 St
Panrs Cathedral ?

65* What diMster was caaaed by the king*s n^Iect f What followed the doM
of the war ? Lord Clarendon t

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4. B. 1667.] THE STUABT FA^Ll. 189

harbors, and did immense havoc to the shipping. They
eyen sailed up the Thames, and extended their ravages a^
far as London Bridge (1667). Peace was, however, declared
the same year. The disgraceful close of this war, together
with the previous measures of the government, excited in-
tense indignation among the people, particularly agalnot
Clarendon, who was accordingly impeached and banished.
He survived his banishment six years, which he spent in
Prance, employing his leisure in the composition of his
great work, the "History of the Eebellion.'*

66. After the fall of Clarendon, five ministers were chosen,
whose unprincipled intrigues subsequently caused them to
be stigmatized as the " Cabal.'' * Their first measure was,
however, very popular. This was the formation of a league
with Holland and Sweden (hence called the "Triple Alli-
ance'') for the purpose of restraining the French king,
Louis XIV., in his ambitious scheme of seizing the Spanish
Netherlands.! Louis was thus obliged to abandon the enter-
prise, and to submit to the terms agreed upon by the pleni-
potentiaries of the three countries, among whom England
was represented by the celebrated Sir William Temple,!
and Holland by the famous statesman John de Witt.§

67* Charles, however, disliked the alliance against Louis, ^
although so acceptable to the people, because he hoped, by

*The initial letters of the names of these ministers— Clifford, Ashley, Bnckingham, Arlington,
and LanderdHle-Tgave point to this term of reproach, which at that period, as at present, was
osed to signify any secret committee, or junto.

t That part of the Netherlands which remained in the possession of Spain after the Dutch pro-
vinces had retrolted, and achieved their independence. It chiefly consisted of the present king-
dom of Belgium.

t Sir Wittiam Temple was especially celebrated for his skOl as a negotiator. After spending
twenty years in the affairs of state, he retired in 1680 from public employment, and spent the re-
mainder of his life in literary pursuits and in the cnltiration of his grounds. He died in 17UU,
at the age of seventy-one. His works, consisting chiefly of memoirs of public affairs, are very

g John De WiU, fbr several years " Grand Pensionary** of Holland, was noted for his scientifie
attHininents, eminent ability as a statesman, and incorruptible integrity. He whs at the head
of affairfc during the wars with England under Cromwell and Charles II., but uniformly depre-
cated a warlike policy on the part of the two countries. His hatred of the Ornnge family Htid
the Stiidthulder was intense, and involved him in many troubles. During a popular insurrection
occasioned by tlie invasion of the French in 1672, the odinm of which was attached to him, he
and his brother were seised by the enraged mob, and murdered with every circumstance of iu<
dignity and cruelty.

66* What ministrv sacceeded Clarendon ? Why were they called the " Cabal ?*•
(See Note.) The '' Triple Alliance.** Its result ? Who were the plenipotent iariei
of England and Holland ?

67* Why did Charles dislike the alliance f What treaty did ].e make? B|
whom was it negY)iiated ?

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190 THE STUART FAMILY. [A. ». 167a.

means of aid received from that monarchy to make himseU
independent of the English parliament. He, therefore
secretly concluded with Louis a most disgraceful treaty,
agreeing to assist him in subjugating Holland, and to make
a public profession of the Roman Catholic religion. In re-
turn, he was to receive a large sum of money (£200,000)
yearly, and was promised an army in case of an insurrec-
tion in England (1670). The negotiations by which this
was brought about were chiefly carried on by the Duchess
of Orleans, the sister of Charles, aided by a beautiful French
lady, who afterward came to England, and having won the
favor of the king, was made Duchess of Portsmouth.

68. One of the most dishonorable acts of Charles's gov-
ernment, in order to obtain supplies, was the closing of the
Exchequer, or Treasury, in which the London merchants
and goldsmiths had deposited their funds, on which they
were now told that they would receive only the interest, as
the principal would not be paid (1672). General bank-
ruptcy and ruin followed this shameful violation of public
credit; and all trade was for a time completely paralyzed.
Other measures adopted by the king without the consent
of Parliament were of an arbitrary and unconstitutional

69. A few months later, England joined France in a war
against the Dutch; and while the fleets of the latter con-
tended against those of the English, commanded by the
Duke of York, the French army invaded the territory of
the republic, captured many of its citiesi, and droTC it to
the extreme measure of opening the sluices, and inundating
the country. In these perilous circumstances, the Dutch
forces were commanded by William, Prince of Orange,*

• Afterward William III., King of England. He was then in the twenty-aeocmd vear of hli
Age, but had already given many indications of the greatness of character ft>r which be sak*
•eqnentljr became so m&tingnished.

68* What dishonorable act was con^mitted by the goTemment f Tbo oob80>
qaences ?

69. What war followed ? What were its effectA on Holland ? Its dnratloB I
How terminated ?

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who gained great distinction by his determined courage and
patriotism. The war continued about two years, at the
end of which it had become so unpopular, that the king
was compelled to make a treaty of peace with the Dutch
provinces (1674).

70. While this war was in progress, the "Test Act" had
been passed by Parliament (1673), obliging all government
officers to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and
to abjure the doctrines of the Eoman Catholic church. In
consequence of this, the Duke of York, who had previously
made a public profession of his faith in that church, re-
signed his office as admiral, and was succeeded in the com-
mand of the fleet by Prince Eupert. The subsequent mar-
riage of the' Duke with a Catholic princess (Mary of
Modena) very much increased the popular feeling against

71. The general distrust and suspicion felt at this time
against the Catholics, led to what was called the " Popish
Plot" (1678). This was a conspiracy alleged to have been
formed by the Catholics to set fire to the city of London,
assassinate the king, massacre the Protestants, and betray
the kingdom to the French. The principal witness in this
absurd accusation was one Titus Gates,* whose false and
malicious statements were received with implicit confi-
dence, and occasioned the wildest excitement. The rewards
bestowed upon him led others to commit similar perjuries,
and many innocent persons suffered death before the im-
posture was discovered. The most illustrious of these vic-
tims was William Howard, Viscount Stafford, whose gray
hairs could not save him from an unmerited death. He
was condemned, after a trial of six days, and perished on

*Thit infamont character had been a clergyman, bat was dismissed for Tidous praeticet.
During the reign of James II. be was condemned for peijary, and sentenced to be whipped
and piUoried. He died in 1705.

70* The Test Act? Oondact of the Duke of York? By whom facoeeded m
tdmiral ? Hie marriage f

Yl« The BO-K»Ued '^Popish Plotr Titna Oatet? Viaoonnt Stifford? mi

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192 THE STITABT FAMILY. [A. D. 16ft0«

tlie scaffold, amid the londly-expressed sympathies of the
spectators (Dec. 29, 1680).

72. The year preceding this eyent was rendered memorable
by the passage of the famous "Ha^beas Oor'pus Act/^*
securing all subjects fi:om imprisonment, except where it
can be shown to be justified by law. This was designed to
check the illegal and arbitrary arrests made by the author-
ity of the king, who in many respects exercised the most
despotic sway. He depriyed many of the cities, London
included, of their charters, in order to extort money for
their restoration ; and no one felt himself secure from the
numerous gangs of spies and informers who were employed
by the court.

78. This state of things led to a conspiracy called the
** Eye-house Plot," from the name of the house in which
the conspirators met, it being situated at a place called
Bye, a lonely spot on the road by which the king returned
from Newmarket to London. The plan was to oyerturn a
cart, so that the king's coach would be stopped, and then
to rush out and assassinate him. The failure and discoy-
ery of this plot brought to light the existence of another
combination, the object of which was to create a reyolutiop
by dethroning Charles, and placing his natural son, thf
Duke of Monmouth, on the throne, or at least to compel
Charles to acknowledge him as his successor, there being a
rumor that his mother had been lawfully married to the

74. The chief members of this combination were the
Duke of Monmouth, Lord William Eussell, Algernon Sid-
ney, John Hampden (grandson of the distinguished patriot

* Hab«cu Cbrpu$ maana, *' bare the body." The writ, or order of the court of Justice, was m
ealled because it enjoioR any person restraining another's liberty, to have hi» body, that is, lo
prodnee the prisoner, before the court, so that the cause of his detention may be known.

72. The " Habeas Ck>rpas Act?" Its object ? Arbitrary conduct of the king?

73* The *' Rye-hoase Plot ?** Its object f The resalt ? To what diseoTeiy md
Its failure lead?

74. Who were the chief conspirators ? Who were beheaded f Lord Boiflelll
Bidneyf (See note, pa^^e 198.) uampdan? Monmonth?

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A. 1>. 1686.] THE STUART FAMILY. 193

of that name), the Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard. On
the evidence of some of the conspirators, Russell and Sid*
ney were beheaded; but Monmouth escaped by flight
(1683). The fate of Lord Eussell, who was a most virtuous
nobleman, excited the deepest sympathy; and that of Sid-
ney,* who was in principle a Republican, and had fought
in the civil war against the late king, was also greatJy
regretted. Hampden was punished only by the imposition
of a heavy fine; and Monmouth, having made a hujnble
submission to the king, was pardoned.

75. A short time after this, Charles married his niece,
the Lady Anne, daughter of the Duke of York, to Prince
George, brother to the King of Denmark, thinking to in-
crease his popularity by allying himself thus closely to a
Protestant prince. The death of the king soon followed,
being caused by an apoplectic fit (1685). During his last
illness he received the offices of the Catholic church. The
only redeeming traits of his character were his affability,
ease, and cheerfulness as a companion. In other respects, he
was most unworthy, being utterly unprincipled, and immoral
in the lowest degree. His whole court was steeped in vice
and profligacy; and the tone of society, in every grade, was
affected by his degrading example. With no natural dis-
position to tyranny, his recklessness and extravagance
caused him to disregard the most sacred privileges of his
subjects, and to trample, without scruple, upon their dear-
est liberties. He left no legitimate children, and therefore
the crown descended to his brother Jam6s.

76. In the first part of the reign of Charles IL (1667),
fche celebrated poet, Jcihn Milton^ published his greatest

• Sidiiey was the lecond son of Robert, Earl of Leicester. He made Brutus his model, in his
political character; and on Cromwell's usurpation he retired in disgust from the country. H«
ntnmed in 1077, having obtained the king's pardon. His political writings, especially the Die*
eonrae on Oovemment, have been very greatly admired.

75* Marriagfeof theLady Anne? The king*s death? His character? Effect!
of his example ? Of his extravagance ?

76. What writers flourished ? Milton? Banyan? Bntler? Locke 7 Drydoi
The drama ? Sir Matthew Hale ?


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194 THE STUART JJ'AMILY. A. ». 1685.1

work, "Paradise Lost" This illustrious man had been
Foreign Secretary under. Cromwell, and had distinguished
himself bj his writings in defence of the Commonwealth,
His principal contemporaries in the field of literature were
John Bunyariy the author of " Pilgrim's Progress;" Samud
Buttery who wrote " Hudibras," a burlesque poem on the
Puritans and the civil war; and John Lackey the author
of the immortal " Essay on the Human Understanding."
Dryden also wrote several of his finest poems, and was
made poet-laureate. The drama received many talented
contributions from Of way, Wych'erly, and others; but,
taking its character from the court, it was shamefully im-
moral. Sir Matthew Hale, the just and pious judge, also
flourished during this period.

1685 '^'^' James II. — No opposition was made to the
to accession of the Duke of York, his title being gen-
1699 erally recognized as indisputable; but noth withstand-
ing the glory which he had acquired as a naval commander,
lie was viewed with distrust by the people on account of
the attachment which he had openly manifested to the
church of Rome. Soon after the coronation of James
and his queen. Parliament assembled, in his address to
which the king showed something of the same spirit of
defiance which had involved his father in so much trouble.
All the chief offices of the crown continued in the hands
of Protestants.

78. The Duke of Monmouth, who had fled to Holland
during the preceding reign, now, under the instigation of
the Earl of Argyle, an exiled noblenian from Scotland,
renewed his claim to the throne. Argyle landed in the
western part of Scotland, but was soon defeated, taken pris-
oner, and a short time afterward executed at Edinburgh.
Monmouth landed in England with scarcely one hundred

77* James 11. ? Popnlar feeling toward him ? His address to Parliament ?
78* The Duke of Monmonth? The Barl of Ai^le ? Monmonth^s InTiskm
lu resolt f Monmoath^s condoct and fttte ?

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A. B. 1685.] THE STUABT PAJCILT. 195

followers, but was soon joined by a considerable force, and
proceeded slowly into the interior of the country. At Sedge-
moor he was met by the royal army, and, after a battle of three
hoars, defeated with great slaughter. Monmouth fled, but
in a few days was found concealed in a ditch, and taken to
London. In an interview with the king he threw himself
on his knees, and imp?ored forgiveness ; but as he had plotted
several times against the government, and had publicly
proclaimed James a traitor, a tyrant, the murderer of
his brother, and a popish usurper, the king was deaf to
his entreaties. Two days afterward he was beheaded

79. Those who had been concerned in this rebellion were
pursued with the most dreadful ferocity, an officer named
Eirke acquiring a disgraceful notoriety by the shocking
cruelties perpetrated by his soldiers, who were ironically
styled "Kirke's Lamba*'* Trials were held under the infa-
mous Judge Jefireys; and many innocent persons were con-
demned and executed. This circuit was called the " Bloody
Assize,*' Jeffries boasting of the large number of persons
(more than three hundred) whom he had caused to be
hanged. More than eight hundred others were sent as
slaves to the West Indies, under the orders of court favorites
to whom they had been granted, and who made a shame-
ful gain by their sale, or extorted various sums for their lib-
eration. Two women were executed for sheltering fugitives,
and their case excittd much compassion, more especially
that of Alice Lisle (Ule), widow of one of Cromwell's lords,
who was sentenced by Jeffreys to be burned alive; but
through the intercession of friends, her sentence was
changed to beheading. [See Note 11, end of the Section,]

80. The imprudent zeal of the king in promoting
Catholics to office and power, occasioned great excitement

* See Note 10, end of the Section.

79; Treatment of the re'ielt? '*Eirke*t Lambs?** Judge JefiHeat The
^BloodrAasljser* Alice Li» let

80* What caused much popular excitement f What declaration waa pabllahed
}fj the king T What led to the arrest of the bishops t

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and dissatisfaction. Haying published on his own author*
ity, and in opposition to the Test Act, a declaration allowing
• liberty of conscience, and declaring that non-conformity to
the established religion should no longer be punished, he
issued an ord^ requiring that this declaration should be
read in all the churches. This, as being illegal, the clergy
refused to obey; and a petition was presented against it by
seven bishops, including Archbishop Bancroft. James,
greatly exasperated at this opposition, caused the bishops
to be committed to the Tower, where they remained a week
before they were set free on bail (1688).

81. The popular excitement produced by this conduct of
the king was intense. Crowds attended the bishops as they
were conducted from the Tower, and signified their sym-
pathy and veneration in every possible way. The trial tx)ok
place in Westminster Hall, the bishops being charged with
having published a false and seditious libel ; and when the
jury had delivered their verdict, " Not Guilty," and the bish-
ops were discharged, the city of London was illuminated,
and the people became almost frantic with joy. During
these exciting events the queen gave birth to a son; and a
rumor was spread by the Protestant party that the child
had been brought into the palace, in order to be imposed
upon the people as an heir to the crown. The infant was
baptized by the name of James.

82. The king expecting opposition, had collected a stand-
ing army of about 16,000 men ; but these openly expressed
their sympathy with the Protestant party. By the advice
of the French minister, James had obtained several regi-
ments of Irish soldiers, in whom, as being Catholics, it was
thought reliance could be placed. These were hated by the
English; and a popular air, called from its burden LiUe-
MerOy still farther fanned the flame against James and the

81. Condnct of the populace? The trial of the bishops? Effect of thdx
acqnittal t The king*s son ?

89. What course did James pnreae ? Lillebnlero? Message to William, FHuM
ftf 0ranjj;e?

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A. ». 1«89.1 THE STUART FAMILY. 197

Irish troopa lu the mean time, some of the leading nobles
and clergy of England had sent to William, Prince of
Orange, nephew and son-in-law of the king, entreating
him to come with an army and aid them in defending their
religion and their freedom. [See Note 12.]

83. William promptly accepted the call, and haying col-
lected an army of 14,000 men and a fleet of fiye hundred
ships, he sailed from Holland, and landed safely and
without opposition at Torbay, on the southern shore
(Nov. 5, 1688). He was receiyed with acclamations of joy
by the people, and advanced slowly, reaching Exeter in
four days. James at first resolved to stake his kingdom
on the issue of a great battle ; but being abandoned by his
subjects, among them Lord Churchill (afterward so cele-
brated as the Duke of Marlborough), and other distin-
guished noblemen ; and being deserted also by his daughter
Anne, and her husband. Prince George, he* resolved on
flight. Having previously sent away his queen and son to
France, he followed them in disguise; but was captured
and brought back. His enemies were, however, not de-
sirous of retaining him; and, the Dutch soldiers having
occupied London, he was permitted again to escape; where-
upon he sailed away to France, and joined his wife at tlie
castle of St. Germains, near Paris, being received by Louis
XIV. with the greatest sympathy and kindness.

84. A convention parliament was immediately called
(Jan. 23, 1689), and the crown was bestowed on William
and Mary for their lives, the former to have the sole
administration of the government. The succession was
settled, first on the children of Mary, and then on those
of her sister Anne ; and, these failing, on the children of
William by any other wife. Annexed to this settlement

83. What WM doiio by William f By Jame« f i5y whom was he abandoned .
BiB escape ? By whom washe received ?

84. What was called ? What did the Convention do? The settlement of th«
Mown Declaration of Rights H

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198 THE STUART PAMILT. [A. D. 1689<

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