John Jacobs Thomas.

The American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States online

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Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 20 of 31)
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melting, rich, sweet, with no acid, .and of fine flavor.
Early winter. Succeeds best on the quince. Preferred
to Beurre d'Aremberg by those who like a sweet pear
and differs from it in its sweet flavor, shorter neck, more
rounded or tapering crown, even (not oblique) stalk, and
more obtuse neck.

Louise Bonne. Large pyriform ; smooth, pale green ; stalk
rather short, straight, slightly enlarged towards insertion ;
calyx small, basin shallow ; flesh white, rather coarse,
third-rate in quality. Early winter. Old French.

Pound. (Syn. Winter Bell, Angora.) Very large, pyri-
form, approaching obconic, crown wide ; skin yellowish-
green, with a brown cheek ; stalk two inches long, calyx
crumpled, basin narrow ; flesh solid, hard, stems reddish
color, a first-rate culinary pear. Trees strong, healthy, pro-
ductive ; shoots stout, upright, dark. Uvedale's St. Ger-
main nearly resembles or is identical with this variety.

Spanish Bonchretien. (Syn. Bon Chretien d'Espagne.)
Large, pyriform, irregular, narrowed to the stalk, one-
sided ; surface deep yellow at maturity, with a bright red
cheek, and reddish brown dots ; stalk an inch and a half
long, bent slender, scarcely sunk; basin rather deep,
narrow, irregular; flesh white, crisp, or half breaking,
moderately rich first-rate for cooking worthless as a
dessert fruit.



Fig. 177 Vicar of Winkfield. Fig. 178-Prmce's St. Germain.


St. Germain. Large, long obconic-pyriform ; surface yel-
lowish green, faintly tinged with brown to the sun ; stalk
an inch long, oblique ; basin small and shallow ; flesh
white, slightly gritty, juicy, melting, sweet, and agreea-
ble ; fails in many localities, and becomes a third-rate
fruit. Late autumn and early winter. Shoots slender,
light olive ; leaves narrow, folded and recurved. The
Striped St. Germain is a sub-variety, differing only in its
faint yellow stripes.

VICAR OF WINKFIELD. (Syn. Le Cure, Monsieur le Cure,
Clion, Dumas.J Quite large ; long pyriform, approaching
oblong-obconic, with a conical taper towards the crown ;
skin smooth, pale yellow, or pale yellowish-green, with a
dull reddish cheek ; stalk an inch to an inch and a half long,
slender, often fleshy at insertion, oblique, not sunk ; basin
narrow, very shallow ; flesh greenish or yellowish white,
juicy, buttery, with a good, second-rate flavor sometimes
slightly astringent, but if ripened in a warm temperature it
proves a good table pear. Ripens late autumn and early
winter, for about- three months. Growth spreading and
irregular, or straggling, shoots strong, dark olive. Fine
on quince stocks. The great and uniform productiveness
of this pear, its fine qualities for cooking, and the long
period of its continuance, render it eminently valuable.

It was formerly cultivated at Boston under the erroneous
name of Bourgermester. The true Bourgermester is a
third-rate pear, the wood of which cankers badly.

Section II. Medium in size.

Beurre Ranee. (Syn. Beurre de Ranz, Beurre de Rance>
Hardenpont du Printemps, Beurre Epine, Beurrt? de Flan-
dre.) Size medium, obtuse pyriform ; dark green, rough-
ish ; stalk an inch and a half long, cavity very shallow or
none ; calyx small, basin slight ; flesh greenish white,
melting, gritty at core ; when well ripened, sweet, juicy,
and of fine flavor, Only second-rate as far north as Bos-
ton, but better further south. Ripens late in winter and
in spring. Shoots brownish-yellow, straggling; leaves
flat. Originated at the village of Ranee, near Mons, in


Colmar. Medium in size, or large, pyriform, obtuse ; skin
smooth, pale greenish yellow, becoming light yellow ;
stalk an inch and a half long, rather stout, bent, cavity
often uneven ; basin wide, deep ; flesh half buttery, melt-
ing, juicy, rich about second-rate. Early winter. Bark
of the tree very rough.

Jaminette. (Syn. Josephine.) Medium or rather large,
obovate-pyriform, approaching obovate, small specimens
roundish turbinate, varying ; crown broad ; skin yellow-
ish-green, with some brownish russet ; dots numerous,
often confluent ; stalk three-fourths to an inch long, thick,
cavity little or none ; calyx small, erect, stiff; basin round,
even ; flesh juicy, melting, buttery, sweet, of good second-
rate flavor. Late autumn and early winter. Origin, Metz,

in France.


Las Canas. Size medium, regular pyriform, somewhat ob-
conic ; neck tapering into the stalk ; skin yellow, some-
times sprinkled with thin russet, rarely with russet blotch-
es, dots small and numerous ; stalk an inch long ; calyx
slightly sunk ; flesh juicy, melting, good, nearly first-

Passe Colmar. (Syn. Colmar Souverain, Colmar Harden-
pont, Colmar Gris.) Medium or rather large ; skin yel-
lowish green, becoming pale yellow, often lightly sprinkled
with russet ; stalk an inch and a quarter long, cavity ob-
tuse or none, calyx erect, basin moderate ; flesh fine-
grained, buttery, juicy, sweet, rich, and when well
grown and ripened, of excellent, first-rate flavor but
when overloaded, with small, badly matured fruit, the
quality rs worthless. The tree overbears, and 'the fruit
needs thorough thinning. Leaves rather small, nearly
flat. Early winter. Belgian.

Vicompte de Spoelberch. Medium or rather large, obovate-
pyriform, somewhat obconic; skin slightly rough, yellow,
with a purplish blotched cheek to the sun, very slightly
russeted ; stalk an inch and a fourth long, stout, curved ;
basin round, shallow ; calyx erect, short ; flesh buttery,
melting, rich, fine. Needs high cultivation to develope its
fine qualities. Early winter. Belgian.


Sectio?i I. Large Pears.

Columbia. (Syn. Columbian Virgalieu, Columbia Virgou-
leuse.) Large, long obovate, regular, handsomely round-
ed or obtuse, largest near the middle ; surface pale green,
becoming pale yellow, always smooth and fair ; stalk an
inch and a quarter long, rather slender ; cavity narrow,
deep ; calyx erect, basin small ; flesh white, melting, and
buttery, of moderately rich, second-rate or third-rate fla-
vor. Ripens early winter. Growth upright, vigorous,
shoots brownish yellow. The large, handsome fruit, and
the great productiveness of the tree has rendered this
variety popular and profitable for market. It does not ap-
pear to succeed so well as far north as Boston and Roches-
ter, as further south. A native of Westchester County,

Easter Beurre. (Syn. Doyenne d'Hiver, Bergamotte de la
Pentacote, Beurre de la Pentacote, Beurre de Paques,
Chaumontel tres gros, Canning, Seigneur d'Hiver.) Large,
obovate, approaching oval ; surface yellowish-green, with
some russet ; often a broad, dull reddish cheek ; stalk
stout, an inch long, cavity deep, sometimes obtuse, ab-
rupt ; calyx small, closed in a moderate or rather shallow,
plaited basin ; flesh fine-grained, very buttery, melting
and juicy, and when well grown and ripened, of excellent,
first-rate flavor. It does not often mature well in the
northern states. Keeps through winter. Growth strong,
rather upright, shoots reddish-yellow ; leaves narrow,
folded, recurved. Grows well on the quince.

Knight's Monarch. Large, regular, obovate ; surface yel-
lowish-brown, reddish to the sun, dots numerous ; stalk
very short, half an inch long, thick; set on the rounded
base with little or no cavity ; basin shallow ; flesh buttery,
melting, rich, of fine quality. Mid-winter. Shoots yel-
lowish. Scarcely as yet proved in this country, spurious
sorts having been widely disseminated. English.


Black Worcester, Chaumontel, and Glout Morceau, of the
preceding class, often approach this class in form o

Section II. Mediu?n in size.

BEURRE GRIS D'HIVER NOUVEAU, or "Gray Winter Beurre.'
Size medium ; obovate, obtuse ; skin greenish, conside 1
rably russeted ; stalk thick, short, cavity moderate ; basir
small; flesh greenish, buttery, melting, very juicy, rich
slightly sub-acid resembling in flavor the Beurre d'Areni'
berg, but rather richer and less acid. Early winter
French. New. Promises to become valuable.

Bezi Vaet. Size medium, obovate ; skin rather rough
greenish yellow, russeted with a brown cheek ; stalk ar
inch and a fourth long, cavity and basin slight ; flesh juicy,
sweet, with a second or third-rate flavor. Early winter

Brandos St. Germain. Size medium ; obovate, often con-
siderably pyriform, narrowing to both ends, smooth anc
regular ; skin yellowish green, thickly dotted with large
russet specks ; stalk an inch long, thick, obliquely set :
calyx small, stiff, erect; basin small, narrow, often none :
flesh buttery, melting, yellow towards the core, with a
pleasant, slightly acid, good, nearly first-rate flavor.
Early winter. English. New.

Caen du France. Medium in size, obovate, largest at the
middle, skin with a rough russet ; stalk an inch long,
cavity and basin rather small ; flesh tender, juicy, rathei
sweet, resembling Winter Nelis in flavor, but less melt-
ing. Ripens at mid-winter.

Comstock. Medium in size, obovate ; yellow with a crim-
son cheek ; stalk and calyx slightly sunk ; flesh crisp,
sprightly, about third-rate in quality handsome but poor.
Early winter. Shoots long, upright, reddish yellow. Ori-
gin, Dutchess Co., N. Y.

Coter. Size medium, obovate, obscurely pyriform, nearly
regular, light yellowish green, brown in the sun, some-
what russeted ; stalk an inch long, without cavity ; seg-
ments of the calyx distinct and widely reflexed ; basin


round, moderate ; flesh white, rather coarse, buttery, rich,
slightly perfumed, nearly or quite first-rate. Late au-
tumn. Belgian.

Easter Bergamot. (Syn. Winter Bergamot, Paddington,
Bergamotte de Paques, Bergamotte d'Hiver.) Size me-
dium or rather large ; round-obovate, approaching turbi-
nate, narrow at stalk ; surface yellowish green, dots con-
spicuous ; stalk from three-fourths to an inch and a halt
long; calyx small, basin round; flesh firm, becoming
melting, juicy, buttery; a second or third-rate dessert
fruit, but fine for stewing, keeping through winter.
Differs from Easter Beurre in its inferior quality, rounder
form, lighter color, and in its green shoots.

Eckassery. (Syn. Echasserie, Bezi d'Echasserie.) Size
medium; round-oval, or irregular roundish; color pale
green, becoming yellowish ; often a dull reddish brown
cheek ; stalk an inch and a half long, cavity narrow,
irregular, often very small; calyx erect, slightly cut,
scarcely sunk, or on a scarcely perceptible conical taper
of the crown ; flesh buttery, melting, with a sweet, per-
fumed flavor, hardly first-rate. Shoots rather weak, joints
crooked. French.

Emerald. Medium in size, obovate, irregular, crown ribbed;
surface green, dotted with brown;- stalk an inch and a
half long, cavity narrow, irregular, often very small ;
calyx erect, slightly cut, scarcely sunk ; flesh half-break-
ing or melting, very juicy, sweet, good second-rate. Bel-
gian. New.

Flemish Bonchretien. (Syn. Bon Chretien Turc.J Size
medium ; obovate ; skin pale green, with a brown cheek;
flesh crisp, juicy, and stews very tender. A first-rate
culinary pear, keeping through winter.

Fondante du Bois. Size medium; obovate-turbinate, some-
what obconic; surface mottled with russet on greenish
yellow ; stalk three-fourths of an inch long, obliquely set
and slightly sunk ; basin moderate ; flesh buttery, juicy,
rather rich, slightly acid and astringent, with a Brown


Beurre flavor good second-rate, approaching first-rate.
Early-winter. New. Somwhat resembles Passe Colmar.

Haddington. Medium or rather large, obovate-pyriform,
greenish yellow, with small distinct russet dots. Some-
times a faint brown cheek ; stalk three-fourths to an inch
long, slender, cavity small ; calyx small, basin shallow ;
flesh yellowish, crisp, juicy, with a second-rate flavor
sometimes quite poor. Keeps through winter. Phila-

Leon le Clerc. Medium or rather large, obovate, crown
swollen, narrow towards the stalk ; skin yellow, russety
at ends ; stalk an inch and a fourth long, fleshy at in-
sertion ; calyx large, many-cut, little sunk ; flesh crisp,
firm, of second or third-rate quality.

This is totally distinct from the celebrated Van Mons Leon
le Clerc, a large, fine autumn pear already described.
The Leon le Clerc here described was raised by Van
Mons, and is hence sometimes called Van Mons' Leon le
Clerc ; the other variety, immeasurably superior, was
raised by Lon le Clerc, and named the Van Mons Leon
le Clerc. Confusion has arisen from this slight distinc- '

Locke. (Syn. Locke's Beurre.) Medium in size, round-
obovate, obscurely pyriform, regular ; surface yellowish
green, often a little russet ; stalk an inch long, scarcely
sunk ; calyx small, closed, basin shallow ; flesh greenish-
white, melting, juicy, second-rate. Late autumn and
early winter. Origin, West Cambridge, Mass.

McLaughlin. Medium in size, turbinate, remotely pyri-
form ; nearly the whole surface russeted, with a warm red
cheek ; stalk three-fourths of an inch long, fleshy at in-
sertion, cavity little or none ; basin rather abrupt, very
small and narrow; flesh buttery, rather sweet, or very
slightly acid, rich, perfumed. Early winter. Saco,

Moccas. Medium in size, obovate or irregular turbinate ,
surface pale green, or yellowish-green, with a brown
cheek, and russet dots and streaks ; stalk an inch and a


fourth long, curved, with no cavity ; calyx short, erect, set
shallow; flesh juicy, melting, with a rich, fine flavor.
Early winter. English. New.

PRINCE'S ST. GERMAIN. Size medium; obovate, obtuse;
surface much russeted on green, dull red to the sun ; stalk
an inch and a fourth long, cavity small ; calyx large, stiff,
slightly cut, basin smooth, shallow; flesh yellowish white,
juicy, melting, slightly vinous, with an agreeable and fine
flavor. Keeps well, ripening through winter. Origin,
Flushing, Long Island.

Virgouleuse. Size medium, or rather large ; obovate, round-
ed at both ends; smooth, yellowish-green, dots numerous ;
stalk an inch long, cavity little or none; calyx small,
basin wide, very shallow ; flesh buttery and melting, of
good flavor. Early winter. A very thin bearer. Origin,
Virgoule, a village of France.

This is totally distinct from the Virgalieu or White Doyenne,
already described, a greatly superior late autumn pear.

WINTER NELIS. (Syn. Nelis d'Hiver, Bonne de Ma-
lines. J Size medium ; roundish-obovate, often slightly
pyriform, with a neck small and short ; surface yellowish-
green, much russeted; stalk an inch and a quarter long,
bent ; cavity narrow ; calyx stiff, short, basin shallow ;
flesh yellowish white, fine-grained, buttery, very melting,
rich, sweet, or slightly vinous, perfumed, aromatic, with
an excellent flavor. Perhaps the highest flavored of all
winter pears. Early winter. Growth slender, often
flexuousand straggling; leaves narrow, recurved ; petioles
rather long. Origin, Mechlin, in Belgium.

Section III. Small.

Lewis. Size, below medium ; regular obovate, rarely ob-
scure-pyriform ; surface yellowish green, thickly dotted
with dull russet ; stalk an inch and a half long, slender,
scarcely sunk ; calyx widely reflexed, basin little or none;
flesh greenish-white, melting, juicy, of fine rich flavor.
Core large. Early winter. Growth vigorous, branches
becoming drooping. Profusely productive. Origin, Rox-
bury, Mass.




Fig. 179 Winter Nelis.

Fig. ISO Easter Beurre.


Section I. Large Pears.

Beurre Bronze. Rather large, roundish, surface rather
rough, a dull russet on green, red to the sun ; stalk an
inch and a quarter long, with no cavity ; flesh crisp, juicy,
about second-rate. Early winter. The Figue de Naples
is cultivated to some extent in New-England under this

Holland Bergamot. (Syn. Bergamotte d'Hollande.) Rather
large, roundish, green, much russeted; stalk an inch and
a half long, slender; cavity shallow, one-sided; calyx
small, slightly cut, basin large ; flesh crisp, flavor spright-
ly, about second or third-rate in quality. Keeps through
spring, and is a good culinary pear. Shoots diverging or
spreading, olive brown.

Gilogil. Large, oblate, approaching obovate, smooth and
regular, overspread with cinnamon russet, in dots, patches,
and nettings, often thickly russeted ; reddish to the sun ;
stalk an inch to an inch and a half long, cavity uneven,
sometimes deep arid round; calyx erect or closed; flesh
white, firm, breaking, moderately rich, nearly sweet,
with a third-rate flavor. Unproductive in this country
esteemed for preserving in France, its native country.
Early winter. Growth strong, upright.

Section II. Medium in size.

Bezi d'lJeri. (Syn. Wilding of Heri.) Size medium,
roundish, skin greenish yellow, with a reddish blush;
stalk an inch and a half long, slender ; calyx open, basin
shallow ; flesh tender, juicy, free from grit, with an anise-
like flavor. A fine winter culinary pear, worthless for
the dessert. Early winter. French.

Broom Park. Size medium ; roundish ; skin brown ; flesh
white, juicy, melting, of second-rate flavor. Early win-
ter. Shoots diverging or spreading, dark brown. English.


Cross. Medium in size, roundish ; surface yellow, often
with a red cheek, and some russet ; stalk three-fourths of
an inch long, very thick, set shallow ; calyx small, rather
deeply sunk; flesh melting, juicy, with a rich, high, fine
flavor of first-rate quality. Early winter. Shoots rather
slender, greyish yellow. Origin, Newburyport, Mass.

Franc Real d'Hiver. (Syn. Franc Real, Fin Or d'Hiver.)
Size medium ; roundish, yellow, sprinkled with russet
brown, and with a brownish cheek ; stalk an inch long,
cavity small ; calyx small, basin shallow ; flesh firm,
crisp, fine for stewing, becoming tender, and of a light
purple color. Keeps through winter. Very productive.
Growth upright, leaves wavy.

Winter Crassane. Size medium, flattish turbinate, taper-
ing to stalk, crown much flattened ; skin whitish-yellow,
more or less russeted, dots dark and numerous ; stalk two
inches or more long, curved, cavity none ; calyx large,
distinctly five-cut, basin large, wide, obtuse; flesh white,
rather dry, about third-rate.

Section III. Small.

Fortunee. Syn. Bergamotte Fortunee, Beurre Fortunee.) Ra-
ther small, or nearly medium; roundish, slightly necked,
somewhat irregular ; whole surface a rich cinnamon rus-
set, (like Fulton,) stalk an inch long, usually slightly en-
larged at ends ; calyx small, basin round, smooth ; flesh
yellowish white, rich, and perfumed when well ripened,
nearly first-rate sometimes the flesh is white, and of poor
flavor. Keeps through winter.

Ne Plus Meuris. Small, roundish, usually very irregular,
with swollen parts on the surface ; surface rough, dull
yellowish-brown, with some iron-colored russet ; stalk
short, cavity little or none ; flesh yellowish white, buttery,
melting, and juicy, good. A second or third-rate variety.
Keeps through winter. Belgian.



Fig. 181. Fig. 182. Fig. 183 Fig. 184.
Skinless. Manning's Ott. Pratt.


Fig. 185. Fig. 186.

English French

Jargonelle. Jargonelle.

Fig. 187.
Onondaga, or
Sloan's Orange.



Fig. 188 (2 outlines.)

Fig. 189.

Fig. 190.

Fig. 191. Fig. 19-2. Fig. 193. Fig. 194.

Petre. Belle Lucrative. Fonetenay Jalousie. Heathcot.

Fig. 195. Fig. 196.
Seckel. Henry IV.

Fig. 197.

Rovsselet de


Fig. 198.

Fig. 199.


Fig. 200.
Brmon Beurre.

Fig. 201.
Oswego Beurre.

Fig. 202.

Fig. 204.
Fig of Naples.

Fig. 205.

Fig. 206.
Duchesse d' Orleans-

Fig. 207.



Fig 211. Fig. 212.

Marie Louise. Duchesse


Fig. 210.



Fig. 213.
Beurre Diet.

Fig. 215.

Van Mons'

Leon It Clerc.



Fig. 217. Fig. 218. Fig. 219. Fig. 220.

Leu Canas. Passe Colmar. Beurre gris Leufis.

d'Hiver Nouveau.

Fig. 221.
Elack Worcester.

Fig. 223.




THE QUINCE, a small, irregularly growing tree of about
ten or twelve feet high, bears one of the best fruits for pre-
serves and jellies, and for giving additional flavor to apple
tarts. It is unfit for eating in a raw state. The young trees
are extensively used as stocks for the propagation of dwart
pear trees.

The quince is usually propagated by layers and by cut-
tings. When by cuttings, they are to be ' taken from the
tree in the spring, and buried in an upright position, in a
light, deep soil, and in a moist shaded place, not less than
ten inches or a foot deep, and leaving but a small portion
above ground. If the shaded place cannot be had, spread
over the surface of the ground, after they are planted, a
coat of moss, or partially decayed leaves. If the weather
becomes very dry, water them.

To propagate by layers, the young shoots are to be laid
down in the spring, and buried so as to leave only two or
three buds at the extremity above ground. When these
buds have well started, the best only should be left for
growing. A part of them will throw out roots by autumn,
and may be removed from the parent tree and set out in
rows ; the rest should remain a second year till rooted. If
the ground is rich, and they are kept well cultivated and
straightened by stakes, the cuttings and layers will produce
trees fit for removal as standards in two or three years.

The soil for the quince should be deep and rich, such as
will raise good corn and potatoes, and should be kept well
cultivated. A rather moist soil has been preferred by many,
but it is by no means essential, 1 * deep and enriching culti-
vation being of incalculably more importance. In connex-

* The hardiness of the quince enabling it to endure wetter soils, than other trees,
has led to, this opinion ; but better quinces have never been raised than on highly
enriched and well cultivated dry upland.


ion with the yearly application of good manure, a special
manuring of salt is eminently beneficial. The salt should be
spread early in spring beneath the trees just thick enough to
half conceal the surface of the ground. Common manure,
without salt, will not give the finest quinces, nor will an
unmanured or poor .soil endure heavy doses of salt.

The total neglect of the cultivation of the quince by many
who have planted out the trees, has resulted in their dwarfish
and stunted growth, and entire unproductiveness. To reno-
vate such trees, cut or saw out the thick profusion of suckers
which surround the stem, ("fig- 226,) deepen the soil with
the space as much as the roots will admit, and apply a large
barrow-load of compost to each tree, made by a thorough in-
termixtnre some weeks previously, of stable manure and

Fig. 225. Fig. 226.

black muck, and then spread a thin coating of salt upon the
surface. This should be done in the spring of the year.
The pruning may be such as to remove the suckers, and
reduce the number of stems to three or four, or the tree
may be trimmed to one clean stem, as shown in fig. 225.

The wide difference between the results of these two
modes of treatment, can be only appreciated by those who
have witnessed the experiment. By neglect, the crop will
at best be small, and the quinces diminutive and knotty ;
by enriched culture, a profusion of large golden fruit will
load the tree, which will at all times command a ready sale
even in a well supplied market.

In planting quince orchards, the distance asunder may be
about ten or twelve feet, which will be found near enough
for full-grown trees, on a deep, rich, and well-treated soil.
If the ground is previously subsoiled, and well manured by
trench-plowing, the young trees will come into bearing in


about three years, and continue productive, if well managed,
for forty years, or more.

Quince trees, when once in good condition, need but little
pruning. All that is necessary is to cut out, annually, old
or decayed wood, or any branches that make the head too
thick, or that prevent an evenly distributed and symmetrical

Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 20 of 31)