John Jacobs Thomas.

The American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States online

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Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 22 of 31)
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shoots are frequently thrown up from the larger branches,
the leaves become yellow, the whole tree assumes a sickly
appearance, and eventually perishes. No case is known
where a decidedly developed case of this disease has ever
been cured. When once attacked, to prevent a spread of
the disease, the tree should be immediately removed and
burned. No young trees should be planted on the same
spot, as the diseased roots still remain. Atones for seed-
lings should be procured from districts of the country where
it has not been introduced.

Peach trees, presenting a sickly appearance, have been
revived by the application of iron to the roots, in the form
of filings or turnings, or in the solution of the sulphate of
iron or copperas ; but these instances of decline do not ap-
pear to have been the contagious malady known as the yel-

A. J. Downing, whoso opinion is worthy of much atten-
tion, and who believes that the yellows is induced by ex-
haustion and neglected pruning, strongly relies on the effi-
cacy of shortening-in, as a means of prevention, in connex-
ion with the means already pointed out, and a thorough
renovation of the soil by alkaline applications.

Mildew. The growth of peach trees is often retarded by
mildew. It seizes the tender points of the shoots and young
leaves, and sometimes wholly stops their growth. It is con-
fined to glandless, cut-leaved varieties only ; such as the
Early White Nutmeg, the Early Anne, and some of the
earliest varieties of the red rareripe. Yellow-fleshed peaches
rarely or never suffer from it. It is not often a formidable
evil, although it seriously lessens the thrifty and handsome
appearance of some varieties while growing in the nursery.
It is a minute fungus, and may be destroyed or lessened
without injury to the tree, by syringing with soap-suds on its
first appearance. A mixture of lime-water with the soap-
suds is preferred by some cultivators, and a subsequent dust-
ing with sulphur has been recommended.



While the pear and apple are chiefly affected by the in-
fluence of soil, the variations in the quality of the peach
result mostly from the effects of climate. Fine American
varieties are pronounced worthless in England. In this
country, some, often delicious, are of little value in unfavor-
able seasons. Some which succeed finely as far south as
Philadelphia, lose much by removal to western New-York,
from the slightly diminished warmth of the summers.

A large number of seedlings of high quality have been
produced in this country, but as they vary but slightly and
do not excel other named and known sorts, it becomes de-
sirable not to extend the present list, unless by those deci-
dedly superior to existing first-rate varieties. The simi-
larity in quality, and the comparative shortness of the fruit
season, render a small selection sufficient for ordinary col-
lections. Hence, the main object of the following descrip-
tive list is to define the characters of described or well-
known sorts, and point out those most worthy of cultivation
in our climate.


The fruit of different varieties of the peach is marked
with but few distinctive characters. A similarity in outline,
texture, color and flavor, more nearly than exists in the ap-
ple, pear, and some other kinds, renders it necessary to resort
to other points of distinction. The peach presents facilities
for this purpose, not existing in other fruits.

1. The Divisions are founded on the adherence or sepa-
ration of the flesh from the stone, distinguishing clingstones
and free-stones ; or more properly, on the firm, or melting
texture of the flesh, indicated by the terms pavies and

2. The Divisions are sub-divided into Classes, embracing
pale, or light-colored flesh, and deep-ydlow flesh.




3. The Sections are founded on the glands of the leaves.
Section I, comprehends those whose leaves are deeply and
sharply serrate, Cor cut like saw-teeth,) and having no

glands (or gum-like mi-
nute knobs) at the base,
fig. 235. Section II,
contains those whose
leaves are crenate or
serrulate, (with shallow-
er and more rounded
teeth,) and having glo-
bose glands, fig. 236.
Section III, includes all
those whose leaves are
crenate or serrulate,
Fig. 236. Fig. 237. having reniform (or kid-
ney-shaped) glands, fig. 237. " The form of the glands,"
observes Lindley, " as well as their position is perfectly dis-
tinct ; they are fully developed in the month of May, and
they continue to the last permanent in their character, and
are not affected by cultivation. The globose glands are
situated, one, two, or more, on the foot stalks, and one, two,
or more, on the tips or points of the serratures of the leaves.
The reniform glands grow also on the footstalks of the
leaves, but those on the leaves are placed within the serra-
tures, connecting, as it were, the upper and lower teeth of
the serratures together ; their leaves, when taken from a
branch of a vigorous growth, have more glands than the
leaves of the globose varieties. It will, however, sometimes
happen that glands are not discernible on some of the
leaves, especially on those produced on weak branches ; in

this case, other branches
must be sought for which
do produce them."

4. The sections thus
formed are each divided
into two sub-sections ; the
first embracing those
Fig. 238. Fig. 239. which have large flow-

ers, as in fig. 238; and the second including such as bear
email flowers, fig. 239. The sub-sections are in most cases


distinctly marked ; but a few doubtful intermediate flowers
may immediately be referred to the one or the other by
the color of the petals, the smaller being reddish or pink,
and the larger nearly white, or with light margins.



Section I. Leaves serrated, without glands.

Sub-section I. Flowers large.

Double Mountain. (Syn. Double Montagne.) Medium in
size ; roundish, narrow at apex ; surface pale greenish
white, with a slight soft red cheek, marbled darker ; flesh
white to the stone, delicate ; stone ovate and rugged.
Ripens at the end of summer. French.

Early Anne. (Syn. Green Nutmeg.) Rather small, round ;
surface greenish white, becoming nearly white, some-
times faintly tinged with red to the sun; flesh white to
the stone, sweet, pleasant, with a faint mingling of a
vinous flavor. Stone light colored, small, uncommonly
smooth. Shoots with a light-green cast. Very early.
Tne tree at the north is very tender, and the young shoots
are often winter-killed, which, with its slow growth and
deficient productiveness, render it unprofitable for gene-
ral cultivation. Flowers white. English, old.

MAGDALEN OF COURSON. (Syn. Madeleine de Courson, Red
Magdalen, True Red Magdalen, French Magdalen, Made-
leine Rouge.J Medium size, or rather small, round,
slightly oblate, suture deep on one side ; surface nearly
white, with a lively red cheek ; flesh white, slightly red
at the stone ; juicy, rich, vinous. Rather early, or last
iwo weeks of summer. French, old. The genuine sort
is little known in this country.



MALTA. (Syn. Italian.) Rather large, roundish, slightly
flattened, suture broad, shallow, surface pale dull green,
blotched and spotted with dull purple next the sun; flesh
greenish, slightly red at the stone, very juicy, melting,
rich, with an excellent sub-acid, vinous flavor. Ripens end
of summer. A moderate bearer. Shoots slightly liable to
mildew. A spurious sort with globose glands, and of infe-
rior quality, has been generally desseminated in this

NOBLESSE. (Syn. Vanguard, Mellish's Favorite.) Large,
round-oblong or oval, slightly narrower at apex, and ter-
minated by a short acute point; skin pale green, clouded
and shaded with light dull red to the sun; flesh pale
greenish white to stone, very juicy, with a very rich high
flavor. Tree of rather slow growth and liable to mildew,
the only drawback on the value of this excellent peach.
Ripens end of summer and the beginning of autumn.

SERRATE EARLY YORK.* (Syn. True Early York, Early
York of Downing, Early Purple erroneously. Size medium,

roundish- oval, suture
slight ; dotted with red
on greenish-white in
the shade, dark red to
the sun ; flesh very ten-
der and full of juice,
rich, with a faint ming-
ling of acid. Quite
early, or middle of 8
mo., (Aug.) Growth
rather free for a ser-
rate-leaved peach.
Very productive, and
from its earliness, of
great value. Differs

Fig. 240. from the Large Early

York by its large flowers, cut-leaves, oval fruit, and earlier

* This name has been objected to as consisting of more than two words, but it is
much shorter than Crawford's Early Melocoton and White Blossomed Incomparable,
so commonly adopted. It is even as short as the single term Incomparable.


Sweetwater. (Syn. Early Sweetwater.) Size medium,
roundish, light green at maturity, flesh tender, melting,
rich, and juicy. It is a seedling from the Early Anne,
which it much resembles in growth and general charac-
ter, but is more than twice its size, superior in flavor, and
ripens nearly a week later. A moderate bearer. Like
the Early Anne it is too tender for the north, and does not
ripen before the Tillotson and Serrate Early York.

The Sweetwater of Downing'has globose glands and large
flowers, with a roundish, middle-sized, greenish-white
fruit ; the tree is more hardy than the preceding, but the
fruit ripens later, and is inferior in quality.

White Nutmeg. (Syn. Early White Nutmeg, Avant
Blanche, White Avant.) Very small, roundish oval, with
a deep suture on one side ; skin nearly white, rarely
touched with faint red ; flesh white to the stone, with a
mild, pleasant flavor. Ripens about mid-summer, or im-
mediately after wheat harvest, and is the earliest and
smallest peach cultivated. Its very slow growth, tender
shoots, and light crops, render it of little value.

Sub-section II. Flowers small.

Belle de Vitry. (Syn. Admirable Tardive.) Size medium,
approaching oblate ; apex depressed, suture deep ; skin
nearly white, tinged and mrrbled with bright and dull
red; flesh rathei firm, red at the stone, juicy and rich.
Quite late, or last of 9 mo. (Sept.) This is quite distinct
from the Late Admirable, which ripens two eeks earlier;
and from the Early Admirable, often known by the name
of Belle de Vitry, and which ripens six weeks earlier.
Both of the latter have crenate leaves with globose glands.

EARLY T.LLOTSON. Size medium; round or nearly globu-
lar ; thickly dotted with red on a nearly white ground in
the shade, dark deep red in the sun ; flesh whhish, red
at the stone, to which the flesh partially adheres, juicy,
rich, high-flavored, more of a nutmeg and less of a vinous
flavor than the Serrrate Early York, and ripening about
the sa:ne time or a few days earlier, or the early part
and middle of 8 mo. (Aug.) Its time of maturity is often
somewhat variable, even on the same tree. The young


trees are of slow growth, and the leaves liable to mildew,
from both of which it gradually recovers as the tree ad-
vances in size. Origin, Cayuga Co., N. Y.

Emperor of Russia. (Syn. Cut-leaved, Serrated, Unique.)
Fruit large, approaching oblate ; one half, more swollen;
surface rather downy, dull yellowish white, with a dark
red cheek ; flesh yellowish white, rather firm, rich, high-
flavored. End of. summer. Although the flavor is first-
rate, it is a poor grower and a poor bearer. Origin,
New- York.

Royal George. ((Syn. Early Royal George.) Rather large,
globular, broad and depressed, or inclining to oblate ; su-
ture deep at apex, passing two-thirds round the fruit ; skin
nearly white, thickly dotted with red, with a broad, deep,
rich red, slightly marbled cheek ; flesh whitish, very red
at the stone, juicy and rich. Ripens a week or two be-
fore the end of summer. A moderate bearer. Shoots
liable to mildew.

RED RARERIPE. (Syn. Early Red Rareripe, Large Red.)
Rather large, globular, broad and depressed ; suture broad
and deep, passing nearly round the fruit ; skin nearly
white, with red dots in the shade, and a rich dark red
cheek in the sun ; flesh, whitish red at the stone, juicy,
rich, and high-flavored. Ripens during the last two weeks
of summer. Resembles the Royal George, but superior
in quality. Both are subject to mildew of the leaves.

Royal Charlotte. Rather large ; approaching ovate ; base
slightly wider than apex ; suture moderate ; skin pale
greenish-white, with a deep red marbled cheek ; flesh
white, pale red at the stone; juicy, rich, fine. First of

Sub-section I. Flowers large.

Acton Scott. Size medium ; rather narrow and depressed
at apex, suture shallow ; skin rather wooly, nearly white,
with a marbled, bright-red cheek ; flesh pale to the stone,
with a rich, sometimes slightly bitter flavor. Early, mid


die of 8 mo., August. English ; a cross between Noblesse
and Red Nutmeg. Rare in this country.

Astoi: Large, slightly oblate, apex slightly depressed, su-
ture distinct ; surface nearly white, with a deep red cheek ;
stone small; flesh very juicy, sweet, good second-rate.
Ripens end of summer. Origin, New- York.

BARRINGTON. Large, roundish-ovate, apex rather pointed ;
suture on one side, moderate ; skin nearly white, with a
deep-red, marbled cheek ; flesh slightly red at the stone,
juicy, rich, and of high quality. Ripens early in autumn.
Does not attain its full flavor north of New- York city.

Clinton. Size medium, roundish, apex slightly depressed,
suture nearly obsolete; surface nearly white, with a
somewhat striped red cheek ; flesh juicy, faintly red at the
stone, of second-rate flavor. End of summer. American.

EARLY ADMIRABLE. (Syn: Admirable ; Belle de Vitry, er-
roneously.) Size medium ; nearly round ; skin nearly
white, with a red cheek; flesh red at the stone, juicy,
rich, sweet, fine. Quite early, ripening immediately after
Serrate Early York. French.

GROSSE MIGNONNE. Large, roundish, slightly oblate ;
apex depressed, with a deep suture ; skin tinged with
greenish yellow, mottled with red, and with a purplish
red cheek ; flesh reddened at the stone, juicy, with a very
rich, high, and somewhat vinous flavor ; stone small, very
rough. Early, the last two weeks of summer. Of
French origin. The peach usually cultivated in this coun-
try under this name, although a^ excellent variety, is not
the genuine Grosse Mignonne, but differs in its small

Sub-section If. Flowers small.

BELLEGARDE. (Syn. Galande, Smooth-leaved Royal George,
Violette Hative of some, Red Magdalen erroneously.'] Size
medium or large, round, regular ; suture shallow, deepest
at apex, with a slight projecting point ; skin nearly white,


with a faint tinge of green, and a rich red cheek, often
streaked darker ; flesh slightly red at the stone, a little
firm, melting, juicy, rich, and of fine flavor. Stone rather
large. End of summer. French.

COLE'S EARLY RED. Size medium, roundish, suture small;
skin mostly mottled with red, with dark red on the sunny
side ; flesh juicy, rich, with a pleasant and fine flavor,
hardly first-rate in quality. Valuable for its great pro-
ductiveness and early maturity, ripening nearly as early
as the Serrate Early York. American.

COOLEDGE'S FAVORITE. Rather large or medium; roundish,
rather largest on one side; suture distinct at apex; skin
nearly clear white, mottled with red dots in the shade,
and with a brilliant deep scarlet cheek in the sun ; flesh
very melting and juicy, with a rich, faintly acid flavor.
Ripens about the middle of 8 mo., Aug. Origin, Wa-
tertown, Mass.

DRUID HILL. Very large, roundish, cavity rather narrow ;
suture slight, with a distinct but scarcely prominent point
at apex; surface pale greenish white, clouded with red
towards the sun ; flesh greenish white, purple at the
stone, very juicy, with a very rich, high vinous flavor;
stone long and rather compressed, much furrowed. Ri-
pens quite late, or latter part of 9 mo., Sept. Growth
unusually vigorous. Origin, Baltimore.

Favorite. Large, oblong, or oval ; skin rather downy, much
covered with red, very dark towards the sun; flesh red
at the stone, a little firm, jnicy, with a good, vinous, but
not rich flavor. Hardy and very productive. Ripens me-
dium or rather late, or about the second week of au-
tumn. Glands of the leaves very small, obscure, or none.

Fox's Seedling. Round, slightly compressed, cavity nar-
row ; white with a red cheek ; juicy, sweet, good. " Sea-
son, medium or rather late. New-Jersey.

GEORGE THE FOURTH. Large, round, suture deep and
broad, one half slightly larger; skin nearly white in the
shade, dotted red, with a deep red cheek, flesh slightly


red at the stone, melting, juicy, rich, excellent. Ripens
at the end of summer. Branches rather more diverging
than usual ; leaves. pale green, often glandless. Crops
moderate, one cause of its excellence. Origin, New-

Green Catharine. Large, round, pale groen, with a red
cheek, flesh bright red at the stone, tender, juicy, rather
acid. Season, rather late, does not ripen richly as far
north as the 43d degree of latitude.

LARGE EARLY YORK. (Syn. Early York of New-
Jersey, Honest John.) Large, roundish, inclining to ob-
late in fully grown specimens, nearly white in the shade,
with red dots, and with a deep red cheek to the sun ;
flesh nearly white, fine-grained, very juicy, with mild,
rich, excellent flavor.

The NEW-YORK RARERIPE, (a name which has been
more or less applied to nearly all the early red peaches
sent to New- York market,} or Livingston's New- York
Rareripe, is usually regarded as identical with the large
Early York, but T. Hancock, of Burlington, considers
them distinct, the New-York Rareripe being rather su-
perior, and ripening three days later. Haines' Early
Red closely resembles, if it is not identical with Large
Early York.

LATE ADMIRABLE. (Syn. La Royale, Bourdine, Teton de
Venus, Judd's Melting, Motteuxs Late Purple incorrectly.)
Quite large, roundish, inclining to oval, with a deep su-
ture extending nearly round, and an acute swollen point
at the apex; surface pale yellowish-green, with a pale red
cheek, marbled -with darker red; flesh greenish white,
red at the stone, juicy, delicate, flavor excellent. Season
rather late. Of French origin.

LATE RED RARERIPE. Large, roundish-oval, apex marked
with a depressed suture and sunken point ; skin rather
downy, pale greyish yellow, spotted and thickly marbled,
deep dull red to the sun, and with fawn-colored specks ;
flesh white, deep red at the stone, juicy, with a very rich
and high flavor. The fruit is distinguished by its pe-



culiar greyish cast. Season, the first two weeks of au-
tumn. American

Morris* Red Rareripe. Large, roundish, apex slightly de-
pressed, suture moderate, distinct ; surface greenish-white,
with a bright rich red cheeck; flesh greenish-white, quite
red at the stone, juicy, sweet, rich. Season, end of sum-
mer. Origin, Philadelphia. Differs from George IV., in
its darker leaves, heavier crops, more even fruit, inferior
flavor, and in ripening a few days later.

Morrissania Pound. (Syn. Hoffman's Pound.) Very large,
nearly round ; surface dull greenish-white, with a brown-
ish red cheek; flesh pale yellowish, juicy, tolerably rich.
Late. Origin, New- York.

NIVETTE. Large, roundish, sometimes slightly oval, suture
slight, apex but little depressed ; surface light yellowish-
green, with a faint red cheek ; flesh pale green, varying
from pink to deep red at the stone, juicy and melting,
and with a very rich flavor. Season medium, immedi-
ately preceding or ripening nearly with Morris Whi:e,
and one of the best of its season for the north. Of French

OLDMIXON FREESTONE. Large, roundish, slightly
oval, one side swollen, suture visible only at apex ; cavity
shallow; surface a pale yellowish white, marbled with
red, with a deep red cheek when fully exposed ; flesh
deep red at the stone, tender, rich, excellent. Season
medium, or the first of autumn. Succeeds well in all
localities, and has few equals as a variety for the north,
to succeed the early peaches.

President. Large, roundish-oval, with little suture ; sk:n
very downy, yellowish-white, with a tinge of green, and
a dull red cheek ; flesh nearly white, deep red at the
stone, very juicy, and with a high flavor; stone rough, to
which the flesh partially adheres. Ripens a little later
than Morris White, or middle of 9 mo., (Sept.)

Scott's Early Red. Medium size, roundish, suture distinct,
moderate ; skin nearly white, mottled and covered with


red ; flesh very juicy, with a rich, fine flavor. Rather
early, or end of summer. New Jersey.

VAN ZANDT'S SUPERB. Size medium, roundish, one half
larger, suture slight ; skin nearly white, with a beautifully
dotted red cheek ; flesh whitish, tinted with red at the
stone, juicy, sweet, of fine pleasant flavor. First of au-
tumn. Origin, Flushing, Lting Island.

WALTER'S EARLY. Rather large, roundish ; surface nearly
white, with a rich red cheek ; flesh whitish, touched with
red at the stone, juicy, sweet, of fine flavor. Ripens the
last week of summer. A native of New-Jersey, and is a
valuable peach at the north.


WARD'S LATE FREE. Large, not quite of the largest size,
roundish, surface dull yellowish white, with a red cheek,
nearly the color of the Oldmixon Free, but not so clear
nor bright ; flesh nearly white, of excellent flavor. One
of the finest late peaches of the middle states. The Rey-
bolds, of Delaware, the most extensive peach raisers in
the United States, having reduced their list to about fif-
- teen sorts, have retained this as one of the best late
varieties. >< r

Washington. (Syn. Washington Red Freestone.) Large,
somewhat oblate, with a broad deep suture passing nearly
round ; skin thin, yellowish-white, with a deep crimson
cheek; flesh nearly white, tender, juicy, sweet, rich.
Stone small, to which the flesh slightly adheres. Rather
late. Origin, New-York.

WHITE IMPERIAL. Rather large, roundish, often slightly
oblate, depressed at apex ; suture moderate ; surface pale
yellowish white, often with a faint tinge of green; slight-
ly tinged and sometimes striped with light purple to the.
sun; flesh very juicy, delicate, sweet, excellent. A uni-
form moderate bearer, and a valuable peach at the north,
but worthless in Virginia. Ripens rather early, or latter
part of summer. Origin, Cayuga Co., N. Y.


Sub-section I. Flowers large.

EARLY PURPLE. (Syn. Pourpree Hative, Pourpree Hative
a Grand Fleurs.) Size medium, globular, depressed, a
deep suture across the apex ; skin light yellow, with a
mottled purplish red cheek ; flesh red at the stone, melt-
ing, juicy, with a high flavor; stone broad and rough;
season early, or middle or latter pait of 8 mo., (Aug.)
Rare in this country. The Serrate Early York has been
propagated under this name in portions of this country, and
the Grosse Mignonne in Europe ; from both of which it
differs in the glands of its leaves.

White Blossomed Incomparable. (Syn. White Blossom,
Willow Peach.) Large, oval ; skin wholly white ; flesh
white to the stone, juicy, pleasant, of tolerable flavor.
Ripens first 'of autumn. Flowers white, leaves light
green, shoots pale yellow. American.

Sub-section II. Flowers small.

BREVOORT. (Syn. Brevoort's Morris, Brevoort's Seed-
ling Melter.) Medium or large, round and slightly ob-
late, suture distinct, deep at apex ; skin nearly white or
with a faint dingy hue, with a bright red cheek ; flesh
rather firm, slightly red at stone, rich, sweet, and high-
flavored. First of autumn. Moderately and uniformly
productive. Origin, New-York.

Chancellor. (Syn. Late Chancellor, Noisette.) Large,
oval, suture distinct ; skin nearly white, with a dark
crimson cheek; flesh deep red at the stone, with a rich
vinous flavor ; stone oblong. Late. Of French origin.

EARLY NEW;NGTON FREESTONE. Size medium : roundish,
one half always larger, suture distinct ; surface nearly
white, dotted and streaked with red, the cheek a rich red ;
flesh white, red at the stone, at first wholly adhering, but
as it ripens, partially separating from it; juicy, rich, fine.
A valuable early variety, ripening immediately after the

Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 22 of 31)