John Jacobs Thomas.

The American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States online

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Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 23 of 31)
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Serrate Early York.


Kenrick's Heath. (Syn. Freestone Heath.) Very large,
oblong, suture slight, apex pointed ; surface pale green-
ish-white, with a purplish red cheek ; flesh deep red at
the stone, rather coarse, very juicy, sub-acid, second-rate,
sometimes third-rate ; when well grown on some locali-
ties, it proves a good sub-acid peach. Season, medium
or rather late. New-England.

La Grange. Large, oblong ; surface pale greenish-white,
rarely tinged with red by the sun ; flesh juicy, with a
rich, fine flavor. Quite late. Origin, Burlington, N. J.,
and does not attain a fine flavor much farther north.

MORRIS WHITE. (Syn. Morris' White Rareripe, White
Rareripe, Lady Ann Steward.) Rather large, roundish,
or roundish-oval, often obscurely obovate or a little larger
towards the apex, suture small ; surface rather downy, of
a pale creamy white at maturity, rarely tinged with pur-
ple to the sun; flesh slightly firm, wholly white, very free
from the drab stone, melting, juicy, with a good, rich fla-
vor ; hardly of the highest quality at *he north, better in
the middle states ; very popular everywhere. Season,
medium, or early in autumn.

COLE'S WHITE MELOCOTON, as usually cultivated, is a sy-
nonym ; but when genuine, is quite distinct, according
to T. Hancock, being larger, heavier, and rounder, and
ripening two weeks later.

Snow. Large, globular, suture distinct only at apex ; skin
thin, wholly white ; flesh white to the stone, juicy, sweet,
rich. First of autumn. Very variable ; sometimes worth-
less for the table ; always a fine peach for preserving.

Strawberry. (Syn. Rose.) Size medium, oval, cavity
deep, suture passing half round ; surface mostly i; arbled
with deep red ; flesh whitish, melting, rich, of fine flavor.



Section I. Leaves crenated, with globose glands.

Sub-section /. Flowers large.

Baltimore Beauty. Rather small, round-oval ; skin deep
orange, with a bright red cheek; flesh yellow, red at the
stone, sweet, good, mealy when over-ripe. Quite early.
Origin, Baltimore, where it-is good, but it proves of third-
rate quality at the north.

Sub-section II. Flowers small.

CEAFWORD'S EARLY. (Syn. Early Crawford, Crawford's
Early Melocoton.) Very large ; oblong-oval, sometimes
round-oval ; apex with a prominent point ; suture shal-
low ; surface yellow, with a red cheek; flesh very juicy,
rich, slightly sub-acid, of good but not the highest flavor.
End of summer and beginning of autumn. Productive.
Ranks very high in the northern, middle, and western
states, as a market variety. Origin, New-Jersey.

CRAWFORD'S LATE. (Syn. Crawford's Late Melocoton,
Crawford's Superb Melocoton.) Very large, roundish,
suture shallow, distinct ; surface yellow, with a broad,
dark red cheek ; flesh red at the stone, rich, juicy, vinous,
hardly first-rate. Quite late, or latter part of 9 mo. (Sept.)
Productive ; and ranks among the first as a late variety
for market. Origin, New- Jersey. The common Red
Cheek Melocoton is cultivated in some localities under
this name.

JAQTJES' RARERIPE. Very large, roundish, slightly oblate,
suture distinct, one side slightly larger, surface a little
uneven ; surface deep yellow, variously shaded with red ;
flesh deep yellow, red at the stone, of good but not of the
highest flavor. Shoots diverging. Ripens at the end of
summer. Origin, Mass.

Red- Cheek Melocoton.* Large, roundish-oval, with a point
at apex ; surface yellow, with a deep red cheek ; flesh

* Pronounced Mel-o-co-toon, and often written Malncatune and Melocotoon, with
other variations in orthography. It is the Spanish name for peach.


red at the stone, juicy, with a good, rich, vinous flavor,
not of first-rate quality. Ripens rather late, or during the
last half of 9 mo., (Sept.,) in the middle states about the
first of autumn. Extensively cultivated as a market

SCOTT'S NONPAREIL. Large, roundish, slightly oblong, sur-
face deep yellow with a red cheek, resembling Crawford's
Late, but sweeter. Origin, Burlington, N. J., where it
ripens about the 12th of 9 mo., (Sept.) New.

Yellow Alberge. (Syn. Purple Alberge, Yellow Rareripe,
erroneously.) Size medium; roundish, suture distinct,
passing half round ; skin yellow, with a deep purplish
red cheek ; flesh deep red at the stone, juicy, sweet,
pleasant, of second-rate flavor.

This is distinct from the Early Barnard or Alberge of
western New-York, a sub-variety superior to the original.

The Rosanna, another sub-variety, ten days later, and with
reniform glands, is cultivated in some localities under the
name of Yellow Alberge.

YELLOW RARERIPE. Large, roundish ; suture moderate,
passing half round ; apex with a small point ; surface
deep orange, somewhat dotted, with a rich red cheek,
shaded off in streaks; flesh red at the stone, juicy, rich,
fine ; of nearly first-rate quality ; stone small. End of
summer, and first of autumn. One of the best yellow
peaches. There are several spurious and inferior sub-

Sub-section 1. Flowers large.

Yellow Admirable. (Syn. Abricotee, Admirable Jaune,
Orange Peach, Apricot Peach.) Large, roundish-oval,
suture small, and on one side only ; surface wholly yel-
low, or faintly reddened next the sun ; flesh slightly red
at the stone, firm, and rather dry ; 'flavor sweet and agree-
able ; stone small ; season, very late. Of French origin.


Sub-section II. Flowers small.

BERGEN'S YELLOW. Very large, round, . slightly ob-
late ; suture distinct, passing more than half round ; sur-
face deep orange, with a broad deep red cheek; flesh
juicy, rich, excellent. Ripens the first of autumn. This
is perhaps the finest of all yellow-fleshed peaches. Origin,
Long Island, N. Y.

It differs from the Yellow Rareripe in its more oblate form,
darker color, superior flavor, and later maturity, and in
its reniform glands.

COLUMBIA. Large ; roundish-oblate ; suture distinct, pass-
ing half way round ; skin rough, rather thick, dull dingy
red, with spots of darker red; flesh yellow, rich, juicy,
of excellent flavor. Origin, .New Jersey. Ripens early
in autumn. Shoots dark reddish purple.



Section I. Leaves serrated, without glands.

Sub-section L Flowers large.

Old Newington. (Syn. Newington, Large Newington.)
Large, roundish, suture slight ; surface nearly white,
with a fine red cheek, somewhat streaked with darker red ;
flesh nearly white, deep red at the stone ; somewhat
melting, juicy, rich. Season, rather late, or middle of
9 mo. (Sept.)

A sub-variety, cultivated to a considerable extent in this
country, has globose glands.

Smith's Newington. (Syn. Early Newington.) Size, me-
dium ; roundish-oval, narrower at apex, one side slightly
enlarged; surface pale yellow, with a lively red cheek,
streaked with purple ; flesh bright red at the stone, juicy,
good. Ripens end of summer.

This is of English origin, and is quite distinct from the
Early Newington Freestone, a melting (not firm-fleshed)
peach, often adhering to the stone.


Sub-section I. Flowers email.

LARGE WHITE CLINGSTONE. Large, round, suture slight,
point at apex small ; skin white, dotted with red, or with
a light red cheek next the sun; flesh very juicy, sweet,
rich, and high-flavored. Season, early in autumn. Ori-
gin, New- York.

OLDMIXON CLINGSTONE. Large, round 'sh-oval, suture dis-
tinct only at apex, fruit slightly larger on one side ; sur-
face yellowish white, dotted with red, or with a red
cheek; flesh juicy, rich, with a high flavor. Ripens first
of autumn. This is one of the finest of clingstone peaches.

Sub-section I. Flowers small.

Catherine Cling. Large, roundish-oval, swollen most on
one side, with a small point at apex; surface pale yellowish-
green, thickly doited and with a cheek of red, with darker
streaks ; flesh firm, dark red at the stone, juicy, rich, fine.
Season, late. Of English origin. The fruit of this va-
riety, and of the Old Newington, and Oldmixon Cling,
considerably resemble each other, but all differ in the
glands of the leaves.

HEATH. (Syn. Heath Cling, White Heath.) Very large,
oblong-oval, the largest specimens nearly round, with a
large, conspicuous point at the apex ; suture distinct on
one side ; surface quite downy, pale yellowish white,
sometimes faintly tinged with red next the sun ; flesh ex-
ceedingly juicy, becoming melting, with a sweet, very
high, rich, and excellent flavor; leaves large, wavy, deep
green, slightly crenate. Season, very late, about mid-
autumn, and the fruit may be kept nearly till winter. At
the north, it matures fully in the warmest seasons only;
and never attains its full size, which is about three inches
in diameter, unless much thinned on the branches, to
effect which a thorough shortcning-in is by far the best
mode. Origin, Maryland. Tree quite hardy and vigo-
rous. In southern Virginia, the Heath is rather an un-


certain peach, but when perfect it ripens there the first
fortnight in autumn.

Incomparable. (Syn. Pavie Admirable.) Large, roundish,
one side enlarged ; skin nearly white, light red to the
sun ; flesh red at the stone, juicy, agreeable, second-rate.
Ripens late. Resembles the Catherine, but larger, later,
and of inferior quality.


Section I. Leaves serrate, without glands.

Sub-section /. Flowers small.

Orange Clingstone. Large, round, suture distinct, passing
nearly round, with no point at the apex ; surface deep
orange, with a dark red cheek ; flesh rather firm, rich,
juicy, vinous. Season, early in autumn.

Sub-section I. flowers small.

Lemon Clingstone. (Syn. Kennedy's Cling, Pine Apple
Cling, Yellow Pine Apple.) Large, oblong-oval, slightly
narrowed at 'apex, terminated by a large prominent point ;
surface deep yellow, with a dark brownish-red cheek;
flesh firm, slightly red at the stone, with a rich, vinous,
sub-acid flavor. Quality about second-rate. Rather late.
Tree productive, hardy. Origin, South Carolina.

Late Yellow Alberge. Syn. Algiers Winter, October Yel-
low.) Size medium; roundish-oval; suture small, dis-
tinct ; skin quite downy, green becoming yellow ; flesh
yellow to the stone, very firm, of second-rate quality.
Ripens very late, or about mid-autumn. French.

Tippecanoe. Large, nearly round, slightly compressed ;
surface yellow, with a red cheek; flesh yellow, juicy,
vinous, good. Quite late. A native of Philadelphia;
of little value much further north. New.

WASHINGTON CLINGSTONE. Size medium ; roundish ; sur-
face yellowish-green, with gray specks, and with a slight


tinge of red to the sun ; not handsome ; flesh very ten-
der, sweet, high-flavored. Quite late.

Section I. Glands reniform.

Bui-section I. Flowers small.

Blood Clingstone. (Sy?i. Claret Clingstone, Blood Cling.)
Large, often very large, roundish-oval, suture distinct ;
skin quite downy, dark, dull, clouded, purplish-red ; flesh
deep red throughout, firm, juicy, only valuable for culi-
nary purposes.

The French Blood Clingstone, the parent of the preceding,
only differs from it in its smaller size and large flowers.

The Blood Freestone is much smaller, and of no value.


The Nectarine being nothing more than the peach with a
glossy skin, the same rules for cultivation will apply equal-
ly to both, with the exception that its smooth surface ren-
ders it eminently liable, to the attacks of the curculio. For
the remedies, see the chapter on the Plum.

The nectarine is usually inferior, and has more of the
noyau flavor than the peach ; and the shoots are of smoother
and more compact growth.



Section I. Leaves with reniform glands.

Sub-section I. Flowers large.

NEW WHITE. Rather large, nearly round; skin white,
often a slight tinge of red ; flesh white, tender, juicy,
rich, vinous ; stone small. Season medium or first of
autumn. English.

The Old White resembles the preceding, but is less hardy
and productive.


Sub-section If. Mowers small.

DOWNTON. Medium in size, roundish-oval, pale green,
with a deep violet-red cheek ; flesh pale green, slightly
red at the stone ; melting, rich, excellent. Ripens end
"of summer. This is perhaps the best flavored of all the

Due de Telliers. Rather large, roundish-oblong, apex slight-
ly narrowed, base broad ; pale green, with a marbled
purple-red cheek; flesh pale red at the stone, juicy,
sweet, good. Rather early, or end of summer.

EARLY VIOLET. (Syn. Violet Hative, Aromatic, New Scar-
let, Large Scarlet, Early Brugnon, Violet Musk, Violette
Musquee.) Size medium ; roundish, apex slightly nar-
rowed, suture shallow ; skin with a dark purple red
cheek and brown dots, on pale yellowish-green ; flesh
whitish, much reddened at the stone; stone roundish,
moderately rough, reddish or reddish brown ; flesh melt-
ing, rich, high-flavored, and aromatic; of the finest quali-
ty. Season medium or end of summer. Distinguished
from Elruge by its redder flesh and stone, and darker

its larger size and rather inferior flavor.

ELRUGE. Medium in size, roundish-oval ; suture slight,
distinct at apex ; skin a dark red or deep violet on a
greenish-yellow ground, with minute brownish dots ; flesh
greenish-white, slightly, sometimes scarcely stained with
pale red at the stone; juicy, rich, high-flavored; stone
rough, pale. Season about medium, or first of autumn.
This is one of the best and most celebrated of nectarines.

HARDWICKE SEEDLING. Large, roundish, approaching oval,
resembling Elruge ; skin with a violet-red cheek on pale
green ; flesh greenish-white, slightly reddened at the
stone, juicy, rich, high-flavored. Season, medium, or
end of summer. English, new.

Murrey. Size medium, roundish-ovate, one side slightly
larger, skin with a dark red cheek on pale green ; flesh


greenish-white, sweet, good ; stone nearly smooth. Rather
early. Unproductive. English, old.

Peterborough. Rather small, roundish ; skin nearly green,
with a slightly dingy red cheek; flesh greenish- white to
the stone, flavor tolerable. Very late, or nearly mid-
autumn. Valueless. The sort usually propagated under
this name in this country, although a superior sort, is not


Section I. Leaves serrate, without glands.

Sub-section I. Flowers small.

HUNT'S TAWNY. Nearly medium size, roundish-ovate, nar-
rowed and pointed at apex, one side slightly enlarged ;
skin, a dark red cheek on pale orange, with numerous
russet specks ; flesh deep orange, rich, juicy, good. Eng-
lish. Valuable for its early maturity, ripening quite
early, or three weeks before the close of summer.

Sub-section I. Flowers small.

BOSTON. (Syn. Perkins, Lewis.) Large, handsome, round-
ish-oval; bright yellow, with a deep red cheek; flesh
yellow to the stone, with a good, pleasant, but not very
high flavor. Season, medium, or about the first of au-
tumn. A native of Boston.

FairchildSs. Small, round, slightly flattened at apex ; skin
a bright red cheek on yellowish green; flesh yellow to
the stone, rather dry, flavor poor. Quite early, its only

PITMASTON'S ORANGE. Large, roundish-ovate, base broad,
apex narrow and pointed ; surface with a dark reddish
cheek, slightly streaked at the margin, on rich orange ;
flesh deep yellow, red at the stone; juicy, rich, fine;
stone rather small. Rather early.




Section I. Leaves serrate without glande.

Sub-section I. Flowers large.

EARLY NEWINGTON. (Syn. Black, Early Black, Lucombe's
Seedling.) Large, roundish-ovate, one side slightly en-
larged, apex pointed ; skin pale green, nearly covered
with bright red and with darker marblings and dots ;
flesh greenish-white, deep red at the stone, juicy, with a
fine rich flavor. First of autumn.

Newington. (Syn. Scarlet Newington, Scarlet, Old New-
ington, Smith's Newington, Anderson's.) Rather large,
roundish ; nearly covered with red and darker marblings,
on pale greenish-yellow; flesh deep red at the stone,
juicy, rich, vinous. Rather late. Best when ripened to


Section II. Leaves with reniform glands.

Sub-section I. Flowers large.

Red Roman. (Sy?i. Roman, Old Roman, Brugnon Musquee.)
Large, roundish, a little flattened at apex ; skin greenish-
yellow, with a somewhat rough, dull reddish-brown cheek,
with brown russet specks ; flesh firm, greenish-yellow,
deep red at the stone, rich, vinous, high-flavored. Sea-
son medium or rather late.

Sub-section II. Flowers small.

Broomfield. Large, roundish ; skin with a dull red cheek
on dull yellow ; flesh yellowish ; flavor tolerable. Rather
late. Origin, Harvard, Mass.

Golden. (Syn. Orange, Fine Gold-Fleshed.) Medium in
size, roundish-ovate, handsome ; surface bright waxen yel-
low, with a small scarlet cheek ; flesh firm, of rather poor
flavor. Cultivated only for its beauty. Rather late.

Prince's Golden Nectarine resembles this, but is larger,
a week later, and has large flowers.



IT is remarkable that a fruit of such excellence as the
apricot, and ripening from one to two months before the best
early peaches, should be so little known. In its natural
character, it is more nearly allied to the plum than the peach,
resembling the former in its broad leaf, and in the smooth
stone of its fruit; but downy like the peach, and partaking
largely of its flavor and excellence.

The apricot is budded on seedling apricots, and on peach
and plum s:ocks. Plum stocks are preferred, and are more
especially adapted to heavy soils. On light soils, the hard-
shelled almond, and the wild plum, have proved excellent.

The soil should be deep and dry. Young trees have fre-
quently perished from a wet sub-soil, even where the sur-
face was not unusually moist. A mistaken notion prevails
as to the hardiness of the apricot. On suitable soils, it is
as hardy as most early peaches. This mistake has however
arisen from other causes. The tree has been commonly
planted in the warmest situations, as on the warm side of
buildings, or other sheltered site, facing the hot sun, where
they have blossomed early, and as a consequence, the crop
has not unfrequently been destroyed by vernal frosts. Hence,
a northern or more exposed aspect, would be far preferable.
If trained on a building, the eastern side should ~ be espe-
cially avoided, as a hot morning sun upon frosted buds
would be nearly certain destruction.

The liability to the attacks of the curculio, and the very
common destruction of the whole crop by this insect, has led
to the erroneous conclusion that the apricot is not suited to
our northern climate. Several cultivators, as far north as
forty-three degrees of latitude, by a systematic destruction
of this insect, obtain annually heavy crops of this delicious,
golden, mid-summer fruit. The mode of protection is fully
described in the chapter on the Plum.




Section I. Medium in size.

Orange. (Syn. Early Orange, Royal Orange, Royal George,
Persian, Royal Persian.) Size medium; roundish; su-
ture distinct, deep at base ; surface orange, often a ruddy
cheek ; flesh dark orange, half dry, partly adhering to the
stone dry and poor unless house-ripened. Stone small,
roundish. Culinary. Ripens at mid-su miner.

TURKEY. Size, medium ; round, not compressed; surface
deep yellow, with a mottled brownish orange cheek ; flesh
pale yellow, firm, juicy, with a fine mixture of sweet and
acid ; very free from stone. Rather late, or middle of 8
mo., Aug. Somewhat resembles Moorpark, but differs
in being rounder, paler, with an impervious stone, and
sweet kernel.

The Blotch-leaved, or Golden Blotched, is identical with
the preceding, with 'a yellow spot on the centre of each

Section II. Small.

BREDA. (Syn. Holland, Amande Aveline.) Rather small,

sometimes nearly medium, (an
inch and a half diameter,) round-
ish, obscurely four-sided, suture
distinct ; surface orange, with
a dark reddish orange cheek;
flesh deep orange, free from
the stone, rich and high-fla-
vored. Quite early, or a week
or two after mid-summer. Har-
dy for an apricot, and very pro-
Fig. 241. Breda. QUCtlve.

BLACK. (Syn. Purple Apricot, Noir, Violet.) Small or
medium ; round ; pale red where densely shaded, dull


deep purple or nearly black in the sun ; surface with a
thin down ; flesh red near the skin, yellowish at the stone ;
flesh somewhat fibrous, sweet, slightly astringent, with a
pleasant, good, second-rate flavor. Adheres to the stone.
Hardy as an apple tree, and very productive. A distinct
species (St. dasycarpa) from the other apricots. Ripens
with the Breda. Reproduces itself from the stone. Shoots
quite slender, greenish.

There is another quite different apricot, called Violet or
Red Angoumois; small, oblong, lighter red, 'free from the
stone. Rare.

Early Golden. (Syn. Dubois' Apricot.) Small, an inch and
a fourth in diameter ; round-oval, nearly smooth, suture
narro .v, distinct ; surface wholly pale orange ; flesh orange,
moderately juicy, sweet, good, free from the stone. Early,
or ten days before the Moorpark. Hardy, very productive,
profitable for market. Origin, Dutchess county, N. Y.

Wusch. (Syn. Musch-Musch.) Rather small, round, deep
yellow, with a slight orange red cheek; flesh yellow,
translucent, tender, sweet. Tree rather tender. Little
known in this country. Origin, Musch, in Asia Minor.

Section I. large.

HEMSKIRKE. Large, roundish, compressed; surface orange,
with a red cheek ; flesh bright orange, rich, juicy, spright-
ly. Stone rather small. Resembles Moorpark, but smaller,
a little earlier, and stone not perforate. English. Rare
in this country.

MOORPARK. (Syn. Anson's, Dunmore's Breda, Temple's.)
Large, (two inches in diameter,) nearly round, slightly
compressed ; surface orange, with a deep orange red
cheek, and with numerous darker dots ; flesh free from
the stone, bright yellowish orange, rather firm, quite
juicy, with a rich, high flavor. Stone perforate, or with
a hole lengthwise under one edge, so that a pin may be
thrust through. Season medium, or two weeks after
mid-summer. Requires the shortening-in pruning recom-
mended for the peach. English. Old.




PEACH. (Syn. Anson's Imperial, Peche, De Nancy.)
Very large, slightly larger than Moorpark ; yellowish
orange, with a brownish orange cheek, and mottled with
dark brown. to the sun ; flesh a rich yellow, juicy, with a
rich, high flavor. Stone perforate. Ripens about the
time of the Moorpark, which it closely resembles, but is
of larger size. Origin, Piedmont.

ROYAL. Rather large, round-oval, slightly compressed, su-
ture shallow; dull yellow, faintly reddened to the sun;
flesh pale orange, firm, juicy, sweet, high-flavored, slight-
ly sub-acid, free from the large, oval, nearly impervious
stone. Ripens a week before Moorpark, smaller than the
latter, and with a less bitter kernel. French. Rare in
this country

Shipley's. (Syn. Blenheim.) Large, oval, surface orange,
flesh deep yellow, juicy, rather rich ; stone roundish, not
perforate. Inferior to Moorpark, but rather earlier. Eng-
lish. New.

Section II. Medium in size.

Brussels. Size medium ; rather oval, compressed ; pale
yellow, dotted white in the shade, russety brown to the

sun ; suture deep at
base ; flesh yellow,
rather firm, moderate-
ly rich. Rather late.


Size medium; oblong,
compressed ; suture
deep ; slightly downy;
pale orange, with a
spotted bright orange
cheek,very handsome;
flesh free from the
stone, pale orange,
rich, juicy. Ripens
at or a little before
Fig. 242. Larg* Early. mid-summer. Origin,

south of France.


(Syn. Abricot Commun.) Medium in size, rather
oval, compressed, suture small or obscure ; surface pale
yellow, with a few red dots to the sun ; flesh very fine-
grained, half juicy, with a mild pleasant flavor. Worth-

Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 23 of 31)