John Jacobs Thomas.

The American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States online

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Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 27 of 31)
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and harden sufficiently to withstand its effects. A partial
remedy has been found in sheathing the trunks with straw.
The Mayduke and a few other of the sour* cherries, succeed
best. Grafting upon these hardy sorts, may prove useful.
A similar disaster is produced in many portions of the
"Western States, caused, perhaps, by severe frost in addition
to the other named influences. On the fertile western soils,
where the growth is very rapid, the outer and more horny
portion of the bark does not expand fast enough, and firmly


binds the trunk, until suddenly ruptured by the increasing
pressure. It usually bursts and cracks open on the south-
west side, where the new growth swells out, and repeatedly
bursting, the tree finally perishes. Slitting open the bark
with a knife was found to produce this sudden swelling and
increased growth at the precise lines where the slits were
made, but afforded no relief at other places. It was only
by shaving off evenly the whole surface of the hardened
bark, that the unnatural cracking and swelling out was pre-
vented.* Further experiments are needed in relation to
this subject; possibly a softening application to the hard
bark may be discovered ; and it may also be very necessary
where the outer portion is peeled or shaved off, to protect
by a coating of straw, the denuded surface.

* J. B. Turner, in Horticulturist. A similar result, but evenly distributed over
the surface, and accompanying healthy growth, occurs with all old and rough-barked
forest trees, the exterior coating becoming gradually and evenly furrowed




(Fruit inclining to sweet, tree vigorous and regular in growth.)


(Flesh tender or half-tender.)

Sub-Class I. Fruit Black, dark red, or crimson,

Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.

Sub- Class II. Fruit bright red, or lighter.

Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.



(Flesh firm or rather hard.)

Sub-Class I. Fruit black, dark red, or crimson.
Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.

Sub- Class II. Fruit bright red, or lighter.
Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.


(Fruit rather acid, tree of irregular growth.)


c Trees mostly upright, becoming partly spreading, fruit often approaching heart-

Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.


(Threes usually spreading, very irregular, shoots small, wiry, fruit nearly round.)

Section I. Fruit large.
Section II. Fruit medium.
Section III. Fruit small.

The two classes of the second division are not very dis-
tinctly separated ; the chief distinction being in the growth
of the tree. Most varieties of the first division are quite
distinct; a few, as the Madison Bigarreau, Downton, and
White Bigarreau, possess intermediate qualities.

SEASON OF RIPENING. Early, as Black Tartarian, and
American 'Heart ; medium, as Graffion or Bigarreau, and
Black Eagle ; late, as Elkhorn and Downer's Late. Quali-
fying terms sub-divide and extend these periods.





Sub-class I. Fruit Hack, dark-red, or crimson.

Section I. Fruit large.

BLACK EAGLE. Rather large, obtuse heart-shaped, round-
ish, nearly black ; stalk an inch and a half long, rather
slender, slightly sunk ; flesh dark, deep purplish crimson,

Fig 268.
May Bigarreau.

Fig. 269.
Knight's 'Early Black.

Fig. 270.
Early Purple Guigne.

Fig. 271.
Black Tartarian.

Fig. 272.
Black Eagle.

with a very rich, high, excellent flavor. Season me-
dium, (1st of 7 mo.) Shoots stout, diverging or spread-
ing. A cross of the Graffion and Mayduke. English.
Not always of the highest character.


BLACK TARTARIAN. (Syn. Frazer's Black Tartarian,
Black Circassian, Black Russian, Ronald's Large Black
Heart, Ronald's Heart.) Quite large, (often an inch in
diameter,) on crowded old trees only medium; heart-
shaped, often rather obtuse, surface slightly uneven, near-
ly or quite black ; stalk an inch and a half long, slightly
sunk ; flesh dark, half tender, with a peculiar liver-like
consistency, rich, nearly destitute of acid, of very fine, but
not of the highest flavor. Ripens early, or about the
middle of 6 mo., (June.) Shoots very erect. The vigo-
rous growth and great productiveness of the tree and the
large size and mild sweet flavor of the fruit, rer.-er this
variety a general favorite.

KNIGHT'S EARLY BLACK. Large, obtuse, heart-
shaped, surface slightly uneven, black ; stalk an inch and
a fourth or an inch and a half long, rather stout, cavity
deep, narrow; flesh dark purplish crimson, tender, juicy,
with a very rich, high, excellent flavor. Ripens quite
early, or a little before the Black Tartarian. Shoots di-
verging or spreading. Much resembles the Black Eagle,
but larger, earlier, more heart-shaped, and with a much
deeper cavity. English. In some localities, it appears to
need a rich soil and warm situation to develope its excel-

Oxheart (of the English. Large, obtuse, heart-shaped, dark
red, half tender, of second quality. Rare in this country.
The name Oxheart is erroneously applied here to the
White Pigarreau and to several large worthless sorts.

WATERLOO. Large, obtuse, heart-shaped, dark purple be-
coming black ; stalk long, slender, flesh purplish red ;
flavor rich, sweet, and excellent. Rather late. Tree
spreading, a moderate bearer. Spurious sorts are often
disseminated under this name. English.

Section II. Fruit medium in size.

Black Heart. Medium or rather large ; heart-shaped, slight-
ly irregular ; blackish crimson, becoming black ; stalk an
inch and a half long, moderately sunk, tender when ripe,


with a high, nearly first-rate flavor. Season medium or

rather early. Productive and hardy ; growth rather

Manning's Early Black Heart, resembles the preceding in

nearly all points, hut is a week earlier.
Davc?iport's Early, closely resembles Black Heart, but is a

few days earlier, and the leaves are larger and lighter


EARLY PURPLE GUIGNE. Size medium, round Heart-shaped,
distinctly dotted when ripening, dark red, becoming near-
ly black; flesh dark, tender, juicy, rich, sweet. Growth
Jess vigorous than most heart cherries, shoots dark brown,
spreading; leaves rather small, drooping on long petioles.
Very early, ripening with May Bigarreau.

Gascoine's Heart. (Syn. Bleeding Heart, of Lindley.) Size
medium, long heart-shaped, with a small, clear drop at
apex, dark red, half tender, second-rate in flavor. A poor
bearer. Season medium.

Section III. Fruit small.

Black Mazzard. (Syn. Mazzard, Wild English Cherry.)
Small, oval heart-shaped, sides a little compressed ; color,
black; stalk long, slender, slightly inserted, flesh soft,
bitter. Late. Valuable for stocks.

The White Mazzard, of Manning, nearly resembles the
preceding except in its light color.

Black Corone. Rather small, round heart-shaped, dull
black; stalk two inches long, slender, cavity narrow,
deep ; flesh dark crimson purple, tender when ripe, of
second or third quality. Late. This is merely an im-
proved Mazzard, intermediate between the common Maz-
zard and the Black Heart. The latter is sometimes cul-
tivated under the name of Corone.

May (Syn. Baumann's May of Downing, Bigar-
reau de Mai.) Rather small, oval heart-shaped, becom-
ing as it ripens nearly round ; color deep red, becoming
black ; stalk an inch and three-fourths long, rather stout
at the ends, cavity narrow; flesh dark crimson, juicy,


rather sweet, not high-flavored. Very early. Produc-
tive. Shoots spreading, brown, resembling in color those
of the Mayduke.

Sub-Class II. Fruit bright red, or lighter.

Section I. Fruit large.

DOWNTON. Large, round heart-shaped, apex quite ob-
tuse, or slightly indented ; light cream color, stained with
red ; stalk an inch and three-fourths or two inches long,
slender ; cavity wide ; flesh yellowish, tender, adhering
slightly to the stone, rich, delicious. Season medium or
rather late. Growth rather spreading.

Ohio Beauty. Very large, oblate-heart-shaped ; dark red
on a pale red ground, somewhat marbled, very handsome ;
stalk an inch and a half long, rather stout, cavity wide
and deep; flesh white, tender, juicy, with a fine flavor.
Early, or about ten days before Napoleon Bigarreau, which
it about equals in size. Origin, Cleveland, Ohio. New.

ROBERTS' RED HEART. Large, obtuse heart-shaped, bright
red, cavity rather wide, flesh red, flavor excellent. Ra-
ther late. Origin, Salem, Mass.

Section II. Fruit medium in size.

American Amber. (Syn. Bloodgood's Honey.) Size medi-
um, round heart-shaped, very regular, apex slightly sunk,
skin thin, smooth, glossy; color light amber, becoming
mottled and shaded with bright red; stalk two inches _
long, slender, slightly sunk ; flavor pleasant, usually sec-
ond-rate, sometimes very good, variable on the same tree.
Productive. Season medium. Origin, Flushing. N. Y.

COE'S TRANSPARENT. Size medium, nearly globular, very
regular ; skin thin, pale amber, reddened in the sun, with
peculiar pale spots, or blotches ; stalk nearly an inch and
a half long, moderately sunk, very tender, melting, sweet,
excellent. Early, just before Black Tartarian. Growth,
thrifty, upright. Origin, Middletown, Conn. New.

DOCTOR. Size medium, round heart-shaped ; color light
yellow and red, blended and mottled ; stalk an inch and




a half long; cavity round, regular; flesh white, tender,
juicy, sweet, fine. Very early. Resembles American
Heart, but two weeks earlier. Growth moderate, spread-
ing, leaves narrow. Origin, Cleveland, Ohio. New.

DOWNER'S LATE. (Syn. Downer, Downer's Late Red.)
Size medium, round heart-shaped, smooth, red, light am-
ber in the shade ; stalk an inch and a half long, slightly

Fig. 273.
Coe's Transparent,

Fig. 274.
Early White Heart.

Fig. 275.

Fig. 276. Fig. 277.

Doioner's Late. Sparhawlc' s Honey.

sunk ; fruit in clusters ; flesh tender, melting, rich, very
high-flavored -not good till fully ripe. Late. Growth
erect. Origin, Dorchester, Mass.

EARLY WHITE HEART. Medium, or rather small, heart-
shaped, slightly oblong, often a little one-sided, suture
distinct ; color dull whitish yellow, tinged and spotted
with pale red; stalk an inch and three-fourths long,


cavity wide, shallow; flesh rather firm, tender when
ripe, sweet, pleasant. Quite early. Growth erect.

Bowyer's Early Heart, Arden's Ea'rly Heart, and Rivers'
Early Amber, are either identical with the Early White
Heart, or differ in no essential point.

Elliott's Favorite. Size medium, round, regular, slightly
compressed ; color pale amber yellow, with a bright, mar-
bled, carmine-red cheek ; stalk an inch and a half long,
cavity even and regular ; flesh pale amber, translucent,
tender, delicate, juicy, with a sweet, fine flavor. Season
medium, ripening with Belle de Choisy. Shoots vigor-
ous, diverging. Origin, Cleveland, Ohio. New.

Hyde's Red Heart. Size medium, heart-shaped ; colof^be-
coming a lively red, tender, pleasant. Shoots strong.

Manning's Mottled. (Syn. Mottled Bigarreau.) Medium
or rather large, round-heart-shaped, suture distinct ; color
amber shaded and mottled with red ; semi-transparent,
glossy ; stalk slender, cavity shallow ; flesh yellow, ten-
der when ripe, sweet, with a good flavor, often only sec-
ond-rate. Stone rather large. Season, medium. Shoots
dark. Productive. Origin, Salem, Mass.

SPARHAWK'S HONEY. Medium in size, round-heart-shaped,
regular ; surface glossy, pale amber, becoming lively red ;
stalk an inch and a half long, rather slender, cavity
round, even; flesh juicy, delicate, sweet, of fine flavor.
Rather late. Very productive . Origin, Brighton, Mass.

Sweet Montmorency. Medium in size, round, slightly flat-
tened at base, with a depressed point at apex ; color pale
amber, mottled with light red ; stalk an inch and three-
fourths long, slender, cavity small, even; flesh yellowish,
tender, sweet, excellent. Season very late or past mid-
summer. Approaches somewhat in character the Morel-
lo. Origin, Salem, Mass.

White Tartarian. Size medium, or rather small ; obtuse
heart-shaped ; skin pale yellow or cream color, not red-
dened by the sun ; stalk an inch and a half long, slen-
der ; flesh somewhat pellucid, whitish yellow, half ten-
der, with a second-rate, slightly bitter flavor.


There are several sorts known in this country as White Tar-
tarian, differing from, and mostly superior to the genu-
ine, the best of which, considerably cultivated in Western
New- York, is of medium size or rather small, round-
heart-shaped, light pink in the shade, darker to the sun ;
flesh tender, with a sweet, excellent flavor; a profuse
bearer ; growth rather slender, nearly erect.

Section III. Fruit small.

Amber Gean. Small, obtuse heart-shaped., regular, pellu-
cid, pale yellow shaded with faint red, stalk long, slen-
der, flesh white, sweet, pleasant ; very productive ; late.

Honey. (Syn. Late Honey, Yellow Honey, Large Honey.)
Small,, roundish oval, yellowish marbled with red, becom-
ing deep amber red ; stalk long, slender, scarcely sunk ;
flesh tender, exceedingly sweet ; a second or third-rate
variety. Quite late. Very productive.

Transparent Guigne. (Syn. Transparent Gean.) Rather
small, ovate, slightly heart-shaped, regular; skin thin,
glossy, pellucid, yellowish white, delicately blotched with
pale red ; suture distinct ; stalk rather long, slender,
slightly sunk; flesh high-flavored and fine, slightly bitter
before ripe. Season rather late. Growth becoming
spreading, tree productive.

Sub-Class I. Fruit Hack, dark red, or crimson.
Section I. Fruit large.

Large Heart-shaped Bigarreau. (Syn. Bigarreau Gros
Coeuret, Bigarreau Gros Monstreux.) Large, heart-
shaped, suture often a raised line ; surface yellow, with
red streaks, becoming blackish shining red ; cavity shal-
low ; flesh firm, purplish, bitter, becoming fine and rich ;
stone rather large. Late. French. Rare.

Manning's Late Black. Large, roundish, skin deep purple
nearly black, flesh purplish, rather firm, moderately juicy
and sweet. Late. Origin, Salem, Mass.


Elkhorn. (Syn. Tradescant's Black-Heart, Large Black
Bigarreau.) Large, heart-shaped, surface slightly une-
ven, black, stalk rather short, or an inch and a fourth
long, cavky rather deep; flesh solid firm, not juicy, with
a high, fine flavor, bitter before fully ripe. Kather late.
Shoots dark gray.

Section II. Fruit medium in size.

Black Bigarreau. Size medium, heart-shaped, black, re-
sembling externally the Black Heart ; flesh firm, rather
dry, flavor poor. Rather late.

The Black Bigarreau of Savoy scarcely differs from this.

Gridley. (Syn. Apple Cherry.) Size medium, roundish,
black; stalk rather short, cavity shallow; flesh purplish,
firm, moderately juicy, rather high-flavored. Stone small.
Late. Profusely productive, but only second-rate. Ori
gin, Roxbury, Mass.

Wendell's Mottled Bigarreau. Medium or rather large, ob-
tuse heart-shaped, dark red becoming nearly black, mot-
tled with dark streaks or points ; suture a dark line on
one side ; stalk medium ; cavity round, regular ; flesh
firm, crisp, high-flavored ; stone small. Rather late
Growth upright. Albany, N. Y. New.

Sub- class II. Fruit bright red or lighter.

White Bigarreau of Mass.) Very large, often an inch in
diameter, obtuse heart-shaped, very smooth, regular, base
flattened ; surface clear, pale waxen yellow, with a hand-
some light red cheek to the sun ; stalk an inch and three-
fourths long, cavity very wide, shallow ; flesh firm, with a
fine, rich flavor. Season medium, or last of mo., (June.)
Shoots stout, diverging or spreading. This variety, al-
though not of the highest flavor, has become, from its great
size, beauty, and productiveness, a general favorite.

The Late Bigarreau, originated with Dr. Kirtland, of Cleve-
land, resembles this, but is slightly less in size, deeper
red, and ripens about ten days later.



CLEVELAND BIGARREAU. Very large, round-heart-shaped,
suture broad and deep half way round ; color, bright,
clear, delicate red, or amber yellow ; stalk an inch and a
half long, curved; flesh firm, juicy, sweet, very rich.
Season early, or with Black Tartarian, Resembles the
Graffion, but ten days earlier. Origin, Cleveland, O

ELTON. Large, pointed, heart-shaped, somewhat oblong,
pale yellow blotched and shaded with red ; stalk two
inches long, slender ; flesh firm, becoming rather tender,
rich, high-flavored, excellent. Season medium or rather
early. Growth spreading, rather bending, petioles red-
dish purple. A cross between the Graffion and White
Heart. One of the finest of cherries. English. Ra-
ther tender in very severe climates.

The Flesh-Colored Bigarreau, or the Large Heart-Shaped of Manning, the Bigarreau Couleur de Chair


of the French, very nearly resembles or is identical with
the Elton.

FLORENCE. (Syn. Knevett's Late.) Large, heart-shaped,
regular, smooth, amber yellow marbled with red, and
with a red cheek ; stalk an inch and a half long ; flesh
firm, juicy, sweet ; season, rather late. Resembles Graf-
fion, but hardly so large, and ten days later.

HOLLAND BIGARREAU. (Sy?i. Spotted Bigarreau.) Large,
rather oblong-heart-shaped, apex somewhat pointed ; sur-
face whitish in the shade, mottled and spotted red next
the sun; stalk an inch and a half long, slender, cavity
large and deep ; fruit in thick clusters ; flesh firm, sweet,
fine, but not of the highest flavor. Season a little before
medium. Leaves large and broad.

KIRTLAND'S MARY. Quite large, round heart-shaped, reg-
ular, base somewhat flattened ; color light and dark red,
deeply marbled, on a yellow ground ; stalk an inch and
a fourth to an inch and a half long ; flesh light yellow,
half tender, rich, juicy, sweet, high-flavored. Season
medium, or with the Elton. Origin, Cleveland, Ohio.

Large Red Bigarreau. Large, oblong-heart-shaped, surface
uneven, one side swollen, shoulders projecting, sutures
distinct ; stalk large, cavity large and deep ; skin yellow-
ish, dotted and streaked with red in the shade, dark red
in the sun ; flesh yellowish, red at the stone, firm, rich,
of fine flavor. Rather late. Growth very strong. French.

NAPOLEON BIGARREAU. Very large, regularly heart-shaped,
remotely oblong ; skin pale yellow and amber, spotted
and shaded with deep red ; stalk very short, an inch and
a fourth long ; flesh very firm, with a fine but hardly
first rate flavor. Rather late. Shoots with a light green-
ish cast. Growth rather erect, vigorous. Very produc-
tive, and good for market, but too firm and deficient in
flavor for the small garden.

ROCKPORT BIGARREAU. Quite large, round heart-
shaped ; color, when fully ripe, a beautiful clear red,
shaded with pale amber, with occasional spots ; stalk an



inch and a half long, cavity wide ; flesh firm, juicy,
sweet, rich, with an excellent flavor. Season rather

early. Tree upright, vi-
gorous. Origin, Cleve-
land, Ohio ; one of the
best of Dr. Kirtland's
new seedlings.

Large White Bigar-
reau, White Ox-Heart.)
Large, heart - shaped,
tapering to obtuse apex ;
suture distinct ; surface
slightly wavy, yellowish
white marbled with
red ; flesh moderately
firm, or half tender,
very rich and delicate.
Season medium. A
moderate bearer when
young, more productive
afterwards ; liable to crack after rain ; tree rather ten-
der ; growth spreading.

Section II. Fruit medium in size.

AMERICAN HEART. Medium, or rather large, rectangular
heart-shaped ; color, light red or pink, mixed with am-
ber ; stalk nearly two inches long, slender, cavity small
and shallow ; flesh half tender, adhering to the rather
tough skin, juicy, sweet, fine, hardly first rate. Very
productive. Early.

F. R. Elliot says that the Swedish resembles the American
Heart, but ripens with the Mayduke.

Burr's Seedling. Size medium, or rather large, distinct
heart-shaped, smooth, a fine deep clear red, often spotted
or marbled, stem an inch and a half long, cavity mode-
rate ; flesh half-tender, (about as firm as American Heart,
from which it probably originated,) sweet, rich, with a
fine flavor. Growth vigorous, very productive. Season,
medium. Origin, Perrinton, N. Y. New.

Fig. 278 Rockport

Fig. 279 Napoleon


Buttner's Yellow. Medium in size, roundish, somewhat ob-
tuse-cordate, base distinctly flattened ; surface clear pale
yellow, not reddened by the sun ; stalk short, flesh yel-
lowish, firm, crisp, sweet, good ; stone quite small. Late.
Growth vigorous. Origin, Halle, Germany.

China Bigarreau. Medium in size, oval-heart-shaped, some-
what roundish, suture distinct ; color, amber mottled with
red, becoming red ; stalk long, slender, cavity shallow ;
flesh half-tender when ripe, with a rather rich and pecu-
liar, second rate flavor. Season, rather late. Shoots spread-
ing. Origin, Flushing, L. I.

Downi?ig's Red Cheek. Size medium or rather large, ob-
tuse heart-shaped, regular, suture distinct ; color with a
broad crimson cheek-; stalk an inch and a half long, ca
vity of medium size ; flesh half tender, delicate, sweet,
rich, nearly first rate. Rather early. Origin, Newburgh,
N. Y.

Hildesheim. (Syn. Hildesheim Bigarreau, Bigarreau Tar-
dif de Hildesheim.) Size medium; heart-shaped; color,
yellow mottled and marbled with red ; flesh yellow, firm,
sweet, agreeable. Very late. German.

Lady Southampton's Yellow. Size medium, heart-shaped,
yellow with no tinge of red, flesh firm, not juicy, flavor
rather poor. Late.

Madison Bigarreau. Size medium, regular heart-shaped
amber yellow, dotted and marbled with red ; stalk rather
short, slender ; flesh half-tender, sweet, pleasant, of fine
flavor. Season medium or rather early. A good bearer.
Shoots spreading. Origin, Salem, Mass. Flesh almost
too tender to be included with the bigarreaus.

Section ffl. Fruit small.

Remington. (Syn. Remington White Heart.) Small, heart-
shaped, yellow, rarely a faint red-cheek, rather dry, bit-
ter, worthless. Ripens about the end of summer or early
in autumn, its lateness being its only recommendation.
Origin, Rhode Island.





Section I. Fruit large.

ARCH DUKE. (Syn. Portugal Duke, Late Arch Duke.) Very
large, round-heart-shaped, slightly flattened, dark shining
red, becoming nearly black ; stalk an inch and a half long,
slender, deep-sunk ; flesh light red, when matured rich,
sub-acid, slightly bitter till fully ripe, of fine flavor, hardly
equal in quality to Mayduke. Season very late, or just
before midsummer. One fourth larger than Mayduke,
and tree more spreading, and with thicker and darker
foliage. Rare.

BELLE MAGNIFIQUE. Quite large, roundish, inclining to

heart-shaped ; color a fine rich
red, portions of the surface of-
ten a lighter hue ; stalk slender,
nearly two inches long, cavity
large ; flavor rather mild for
this class, fine, but not of the
highest quality. One of the
best late varieties, ripening
about midsummer. Productive.
Growth resembles that of the
Mayduke in form. French.

BELLE DE CHOISY. Size medium,
round, very even, obscurely ob-
late ; skin thin, translucent,
showing the netted texture of
the flesh ; stalk rather short,
slender ; flesh pale amber, mot-
tled with yellowish red, becom-
ing in the sun, a fine cornelian
red ; flesh very tender, very
juicy and melting, with a fine
mild, sub-acid flavor, becoming
nearly sweet ; season rather
early. Moderately. productive ;
needs good cultivation. French.

Fig. 280. Belle
de C/ioisy.

Fig. 281. Belle



Late Duke. Large, obtuse roundish heart-shaped, slightly
oblate ; color light, mottled with bright red at first, be-
coming rich dark red when ripe ; stalk an inch and a
half long, rather slender, cavity shallow ; flesh pale am-

Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 27 of 31)