John Jacobs Thomas.

The American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States online

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Wood long jointed, leaf three-lobed. Origin, Carolina;
a supposed seedling from the Burgundy.

The Herbemont closely resembles the Lenoir, but is of less
vigorous growth, and darker colored wood ; its terminal
leaves are of a brownish cast, those of the Lenoir green.

Missouri. Bunches loose ; berries small, round ; skin thin,
nearly black ; tender, sweet, pleasant, with little pulp ;
moderately productive, growth slow, wood short-jointed ,
leaves deeply three-lobed.

Norton's Seedling. (Syn. Norton's Virginia.) Bunches
long, compact; berries small, round; skin thin, dark pur-


pie ; pulpy, vinous, somewhat harsh, rather pleasant and
rich. Shoots strong, hardy ; a hybrid between Bland and
Miller's Burgundy. Foliage light colored, five-lobed.

OHIO. (Syn. Longworth's Ohio, Segar-Box.) Punches
large, long, loose, tapering, shouldered ; berries small,
round ; skin thin, purple, bloom blue ; tender, melting,
sweet, excellent, with no pulp ; a good bearer. Shoots
long-jointed, strong; leaves large, three-lobed ; origin
unknown. As far south as Cincinnati, it succeeds well
and is a fine table grape, resembling the Elsinburgh, but
is rather tender at Cleveland, and fails as far north as
43 degrees lat.

Scuppernong. (Syn. Fox Grape or Bullet Grape, of the
South; American Muscadine.) This is a distinct southern
species the Vitis vulpina. Bunches very small, loose;
berries round, large; skin thick; pulpy, juicy, sweet,
strongly musky. The "White" is light green; the
"Black" dark red; the color of the tendrils correspond-
ing in each variety. Leaves quite small, glossy on both
sides. Very tender at the North.


As but few of these can he cult vated successfu'ly in open a'r, and extensive grape
houses cannot become very common, a few of the best only are described.]


BLACK CLUSTER. (Syu. Burgundy, Black Burgundy, True
Burgundy, Small Black Cluster, Early Black, Black Or-
leans. ) Bunches small, very compact, berries rather
small, roundish, black, sweet, good. Season, early mid-
autumn. Hardy in N. Y. Distinguished from Miller's
Burgundy by the absence of down on the leaf.

BLACK HAMBURGH. (Syn. Red Hamburgh, Purple
Hamburg, Brown Hamburgh, Frankendale, Hampton
Court Vine.) Bunches large, shouldered on both sides ;
berries very large, roundish, sometimes oval, deep brown-
ish purple, becoming black ; flavor sugary and rich. A
good bearer. Needs a grape house, rarely ripening well
in the open air.


Wilmot's New Black Hamburgh is similar, fruit larger,
bloom very thick, flesh firm, nearly or quite equal to the
common Hamburgh.

BLACK PRINCE. Bunches very long, not wide at base; ber-
ries large, thinly set, oval ; skin thick, black, with a thick
blue bloom ; flavor sweet and excellent. A good bearer.
Sometimes ripens in the open air.

Black St. Peters, Black Portugal, and Cambridge Black,
much resemble this variety.

Early Black July. (Syn. July, Madeleine.) Bunches small,
compact ; berries small, spherical, black, bloom blue, skin
thick; flavor acid, becoming rather sweet, not rich. Very
early, ripens in open air soon after mid-summer.


CHARLESWORTH TOKAY. Bunches long, compact; berries
large, oval, white, skin thick, with a rich, excellent, mus-
cat flavor. Hangs long, and is adapted to a forcing 01
late house. New. English.

EARLY WHITE MALVASIA. (Syn. Grove End Sweetwater,
Early Chasselas, White Mellier.) Bunches large, shoul-
dered ; berries round, yellowish white ; skin thin ; sweet,
juicy, agreeable. Early, good bearer, ripens in open air.

PITMASTON WHITE CLUSTER. Bunches small, compact,
shouldered ; berries small, round, amber colored, some-
times with a little faint russet when fully ripe ; skin thin,
flesh tender, juicy, rich, of fine flavor. Open air, cold or
forcing house. A seedling from Black Cluster, ripening
before Sweetwater.

ROYAL MUSCADINE. (Syn. Chasselas, Golden Chasse-
las, White Chasselas, Early White Teneriffe, Chasselas de
Fontainebleau, White Muscadine of some.) Bunches large,
long, sometimes shouldered ; berries rather large, round,

" greenish, becoming a golden amber; skin thin, flesh ten-
der, rich, delicious. Does not hang well cracks some
seasons. Distinguished from Sweetwater by its larger
berries, and stronger growth of shoots.



Chasselas de Bar Sur Aube, much resembles the Royal
Muscadine, but is earlier, and rather superior in flavor ;
the bunches, under good cultivation, are often ten or
twelve inches long, usually not shouldered ; very pro-
ductive. For forcing or cold house.

Syrian. Bunches enormously large have weighed 19 Ibs.,
being 22 inches long and 19 broad irregular, shoulder-
ed, berries large, oval, tawny yellow ; skin thick, flesh
firm, solid, moderately juicy and sweet, not rich. Late;
needs fire heat ; hangs well. Wood and foliage large.
Supposed to be the grape of Eschol, mentioned in the-
Sacred Scriptures.


ALEXANDRIA. (Syn. Jerusa-
lem Muscat, Malaga, Fron-
tignac of Alexandria, Passe
Musque.) Bunches very large,
9 to 12 inches long, loose, ir-
regular, do not set well; ber-
ries very large, oval, an inch
long, pale amber, skin thick;
flesh firm, crisp, rich, delicious,
perfumed often seedless. One
of the richest Muscat grapes
Downing says, " the most de-
licious of all grapes." Needs
a vinery, and best with fire
heat hangs long.

The Cannon-Hall Muscat, is a
seedling sub-variety, improved
in size, but hardly so rich in

The Tottenham Park Muscat,
also a sub-variety, is not quite
so rich as the original, but sets
better, and hangs well.

Fig. 302. White Muscat of Alexan
dria. Reduced to } diameter.


WHITE FRONTIGNAN. (Syn. White Frontignan, Muscat
Blanc, White Constantia.) Bunches medium in size or
long, sometimes shouldered, usually not, rather dense ;
berries medium or large, round, dull white or yellow,
when well ripened a beautiful amber, bloom thin, skin
thin ; tender, rich, perfumed, one of the best Muscat
grapes. Productive in a vinery, adapted to a cold, forc-
ing, or late house requires a dry situation ; on a wet soil,
not worth cultivating. Ten days later than Hamburgh.

WHITE NICE. Bunches very large have weighed eighteen
pounds shouldered, loose; berries medium or rathet
small, round ; greenish-white, approaching yellow, sweet
good, rich-flavored ; hangs well. Growth strong, leaves
very downy beneath. Needs fire heat.

WHITE SWEETWATER. (Syn. Early White Muscadine,
White Muscadine of Lind., Early Sweetwater.) Bunches
medium in size, loose, usually shouldered ; berries medi-
um size, round, yellowish green, skin thin ; crisp, watery,
sweet, moderately rich. Inferior to Royal Muscadine,
but two weeks earlier, ripening by the end of summer.
Ripens in open air ; shoots tender.

White Tokay. (Syn. Genuine Tokay.) Bunches medium
in size, compact ; berries round-oval, dull white ; skin
thin ; delicate, sweet, perfumed. Leaves deeply five-
lobed, lower surface with a silky down. Ripens in open


GRIZZLY FRONTIGNAN. (Syn. Red Constantia, Red Fron-
tignan, Gray Muscat.) Bunches rather long, narrow,
slightly shouldered ; berries medium in size, round, com-
pact ; reddish grey, bloom thick ; juicy, rich, musky,
high-flavored ; hangs well, ripens before Hamburgh, and
the other Frontignans. For forcing, cold or late house.



IN the body of this work, the type used for the names of
varieties, will enable the inexperienced cultivator to pre-
pare select lists of greater or less extent, a few of the most
valuable being in capitals, a larger number of less general
value in small capitals, and a still larger number in italics.
But as the same sort does not often succeed alike in all re-
gions, it becomes desirable to obtain lists of those "fruits best
adapted to particular localities. The following are given
for this purpose.

GROWERS, held in New-York city, in 1848, and adapted to
the more northern and eastern portions of the Union -
Apples Early Harvest, Bough, American Summer Pear-
main, Summer Rose, Early Strawberry, Gravenstein, Fall
Pippin, Rhode Island Greening, Baldwin, Roxbury Russet;
and for particular localities, Yellow Bellflower, Esopus
Spitzenburgh, Newtown Pippin 13.

Pears Madeleine, Dearborn's Seedling, Bloodgood,
Tyson, Golden Bilboa, Bartlett, Seckel, Flemish Beauty,
Beurre Bosc, Winter Nelis, Beurre d'Aremberg ; and for
particular localities, White Doyenne", Grey Doyenne 13.

Peaches Grosse Mignonne, George IV., Serrate Early
York, Large Early York, Morris White, Oldmixon Free,
Cooledge's Favorite, Bergen's Yellow, Crawford's Late;
and Jor particular localities, Heath Cling 10.

Plums Jefferson, Green Gage, Washington, Purple
Favorite, Bleecker's Gage, Coe's Golden Drop, Frost Gage,
Purple Gage ; and for particular localities, Imperial Gage
- 9.

Cherries Mayduke, Black Tartarian, Black Eagle,
Graffion or Bigarreau, Knight's Early Black, Downer's
Late, Elton, Downton 8.


SELECT LIST prepared for this work, by SAMUEL WALKER,

President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, at

in accordance with his own experience, and in the order Oj

their value, all things considered.

Apples Rhode Island Greening, .Gravenstein, Baldwin,
Early Harvest, Minister, Danver's Sweet, Bough, Roxbury
Russet, Dyer, White Seeknofurther, Summer Rose, Porter,
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Fameuse, Summer Pearmain, Fall
Harvey, Red Astrachan, Fall Pippin, River, William's Fa-
vorite 20.

Pears Vicar of Winkfield, (for its size, productiveness,
ong continuance, and many uses,) Bartlett, Beurre d'Arem-
berg, Seckel, Fondante d'Automne, Urbaniste, Bloodgood,
Louise Bonne of Jersey on quince, Winter Nelis, Dear-
born's Seedling, Flemish Beauty, Glout Morceau, Madeleine,
Beurre Bosc, Beurre Diel on quince, Rostiezer, Heaihcote
Passe Colmar, Andrews, Golden Bilboa, Tyson, Dix 22.

Cherries Black Tartarian, Black Eagle, Downer's Red,
jMayduke, Bigarreau, Knight's Early Black 6.

Peaches Grosse Mignonne, George IV., Oldmixon Free,
Cooledge's Favorite, Crawford's Late, Late Red Rare-
ripe 6.

Plums Green Gage, Jefferson, Purple Gage, Columbia,
Washington, Imperial Gage 6.

Apricots Moorpark, Breda, Royal.

Nectarines Elruge, Hunt's Tawny, New White, Early
Newington, Early Violet, Roman 6.

Native Grapes Isabella, Catawba.

LIST furnished by R. MANNING, Pomological Garden,* &z-
lem, Mass.

Three best pears, early, middle, and late Bartlett, Para-
dise d'Automne, Winter Nelis.

Three best summer pears Bloodgood, Rostiezer, Dear-
born's Seedling.

Three test autumn Bartlett, Paradise d'Automne, Urba-

Three best winter Winter Nelis, Beurre d'Aremberg,
Easter Beurre.

* Where nearly one thousand sorts are in bearing. T. Rivers, in England, has
selected out of nearly one thousand, only four for market, viz., Bartlett, Bevrr*
d'Amalis, Capiaumont, and Louise Bonne of Jersey. The second and third, how-
ever, prove no better than second quality, in thi country.


Three best orchard pears Bartlett, Fulton, Vicar of

Three best apples Summer Rose, Gravenstein, Baldwin.

SELECT LIST OF APPLES, by B. V. FRENCH, Braintree, Mass.

Three lest apples Porter, R. I. Greening, Baldwin.

Three best summer Early Harvest, Red Astrachan,
Williams' Favorite.

Three best autumn Porter, Fameuse, Gravenstein.

Three best winter Rhode Island Greening, White Seek-
nofurther, Baldwin.

For the six best for each season, add to the preceding,
American Summer Pearmain, Bough, Benoni ; St. Law-
rence, Lyscom, Hawthornden ; Yellow Bellflower, None-
such (or Red Canada,) Roxbury Russet. : .

delphia, the following standard sorts, well tested at that
place, are marked first quality:

Apples Early Harvest, Summer Rose, (best flavored
early,) Early Bough, Summer Pearmain, Fall Pippin, Bul-
lock's Pippin, Winter Pearmain.

Pears Madeleine, Tyson, Washington, Bartlett, Seckel,
Petre, Lodge, Fondante d'Automne, Louise Bonne of Jei-
sey, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Echassery. New pears. Ott,
Kingsessing, Brandywine, Chancellor, Jones.

Plums Green Gage, Washington, Coe's Golden Drop,
Lawrence's Favorite.

Cherries Mayduke and Graffion or Bigarreau.
Strawberries Early Scarlet, Hudson, Hovey's Seedling
Native Grapes Isabella, Catawba.

LIST BY T. HANCOCK, Burlington, New Jersey.

Peaches Crawford's Early, Crawford's Late, Large
Early York, La Grange, Heath Cling, Ward's Late Free,
New-York Rareripe, Scott's Nonpareil, Oldmixon Free,
Cole's White Melocoton.

Native Grapes Elsinburgh, Catawba, Isabella.

Foreign Grapes Black Hamburgh, (best and most pro-
fitable for a cold house,) White Muscat of Alexandria. Both
fine for a heated house.


Raspberries. White Antwerp, Red Antwerp, (tme,)Fas-
tolff, Franconia,

Apples Lady Apple, Autumn Pearmain, Bough, Cum-
berland Spice, Early Harvest, Fall Pippin, Wood's Green-
ing, Red Juneating, Jersey Greening, (or Ortley,) Maiden's
Blush, Newtown Pippin, Newark Pippin, Rhode Island
Greening, Roman Stem, Bullock's Pippin, Summer Rose,
Summer Pearmain, Wine apple, Winesap, Tewksbury
Blush, (for keeping.)

LIST by T. S. PLEASANTS, Petersburgh, Va.

Apples May Apple, Red June, July Branch, Fall Pip-
pin, Gloucester Cheese, Fall Cheese, Bellflower, Winter
Cheese, Carter's Pearmain, Winesap, Albemarle Pippin,
Pryor's Red, Old Town Crab, Limber Twig.

Peaches ripening in 7 mo., (July) Early Tillotson,
Troth's Early Red, Yellow Rareripe, Red Magdalen, Old-
mixon Free, Large Early York, Crawford's Early, Early
Newington Cling, Royal Kensington, Royal George. Ri-
pening in 8 mo. Belle de Vitry, Orange Freestone, Orange
Clingstone, Rodman's Cling, Oldmixon Cling, Crawford's
Late, Ward's Late Free, Pavie Admirable. In 9 mo.
Heath Cling, La Grange. The following new or local sorts:
Budd's Orange Clingstone, early in 9 mo.; Late Soft Heath,
(freestone,) nearly middle of 9 mo.; Bridgeforth's Orange,
(fine and very handsome,) after middle of 9th mo.; Late
Heath Cling, a month later than common Heath Cling;
Late White Freestone and October peaches, first to middle
of 10 mo.

Native Grapes Catawba, Isabella, Norton's, Herbemont's,
Lenoir, Halifax.

Figs The best kinds are the Brown, White, and Black
or Florida fig, the last superior to all others, the fruit large
and exceedingly rich, skin deep purple, almost black ; trees
very productive. The brown is nearly equal to it the
White is much less luscious, but very large.*


* The fig i? one of the most luscious of fruit?, and grows well in the open ground,
with very slight protection ; and on our large water courses, within the precincts of
to\vns, and even against any walls, having an eastern, southern, or western aspect,
without any immediate protection. When the plants are young, they should be en-
closed for one or two winters in barrels filled with litter or leaves; afterwards it is
sufficient to surround them with branches of evergreens." T. S. Pleasants.


LIST OF APPLES, ripening in succession, by A. H. ERNST,
President of Cincinnati Hort. Society.

Sweet Bough, Early Harvest, Summer Rose, Fall Pippin,
Golden Russet, (ox Bullock's Pippin,) Nevvtown Spitzen-
burgh, Yellow Bellefleur, Woolman's Long (or Ortley or
White Detroit,) White Pippin, Brodwell, Winesap, Yellow
Newtown Pippin, Rawle's Jannet 13. Add fur a larger
collection, Red Juncating, Summer Queen, Golden Sweet-
ing, Kaighn's Spitzenburgh, Rhode Island Greening, Rambo,
Pryor's Red, Vandevere, Doctor, Roxbury Russet 10.

Pears ripeni?ig in succession, proved excellent at Cincin-
nati Madeleine, Julienne, Bartlett, Washington, Gray
Doyenne, Seckel, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Beurr6 Diel,
Louise Bonne of Jersey.

Strawberries Neck Pine, earliest; Old Hudson, unri-
valled for the market gardener; Jenny's Seedling,* very
hardy, prolific ; Hovey's Seedling, its position not yet fully
established ; Taylor's Seedling,! promises to be valuable.

SELECT LIST by F. R. ELLIOTT, Cleveland, Ohio.

Apples Best single variety, for northern Ohio, Bel-
mont or Waxen.

Three best, summer, autumn, and winter; Summer
Rose, Fall Pippin, Red Canada or Nonesuch.

Three best summer Early Harvest, Summer Rose, Ameri-
can Summer Pearmain.

Three best autumn Gravenstein, Porter, Fall Pippin.

Three best winter Belmont, Swaar, Nonesuch.

For the six best, for each season, add to the preceding,
Red Astrachan, Williams' Favorite, Early Joe ; Fall Har-
vey, Ross Nonpareil, Rambo; Hubbardston Nonesuch, Cana-
da Reinette, Rhode Island Greening.

For the best forty, add to the preceding, Maiden's Blush,
Minister, Fameuse, Roxbury Russet, Westfield Seeknofur-
ther, Yellow Bellflower, Court of Wyck, Jonathan, Lady
Apple, Herefordshire Pearmain, American Golden Russet,
Esopus Spitzenburgh, Pryor's Red, Wood's Greening, Fort

* Fruit medium, uniform, very productive, sharp acid but fine flavor, firm, but fine
for market. Pistillate, late bloomer. Origin , Boston.

t Above medium, size uniform, long-conical, pointed, beautiful scarlet, productive,
hardy, strong, less acid than most scarlets.



Miami, Wine, Winesap, Brabant Bellefleur, and four sweet
apples, . viz : Bough, Jersey Sweeting, Golden Sweet-
ing, Ladies' Sweeting. If the soil be a rich clay loam, sub-
stitute Green and Yellow Newtown Pippin for Swaar and

Strawberries, in the order of productiveness Old Hud-
son and Willey, Dundee, Hovey's Seedling.

LISTS by A. J. DOWNING, chiefly copied from the Horticul-

Profitable Pears Bartlett, Buffum, Flemish Beauty,
Louise Bonne de Jersey on quince, Vicar of Winkfield,
Lawrence, Beurre d'Aremberg.

Most productive PLUMS on light soils Lombard, Cruger's
Scarlet, Smith's Orleans, White Damson.

Best PLUMS for heavy soils Early, Imperial Ottoman,
Yellow Gage; medium, Bleecker's Gage, Jefferson; late,
Coe's Golden Drop, Frost^Gage.

Three best PEACHES. Serrate Early York, George IV.
Oldmixon Free.

The following list of NEW FOREIGN PEARS, noi named
in the body of this work, with their size, season, and qua-
lity, so far as indicated by a short trial, has been furnished
by M. P. WILDER, of Boston. The three grades of quality
are indicated by the terms good, very good, and best, and
some of them may prove valuable.

Size. Season. Quality.


Bonne des Zees, 2

Benoist, 1

Beurre de Rhin, 1

Beurre Triguer, 3

Belle Excellente, 2

Bezi des Veterans, 2

Doyenne de Neckerman, 2

Delices de Jodigne, 2 Sept.,

Epine Dumas, 1 Oct.,

Inconnue Van Mons, . . . 2 Jan.,

St. Andre, 2 Sept.,

St. Michael Arehange,. . 2 Oct.,

Souvrain d'Ete, 2 Sept.,

" good," may be " very good."
promises well.
' very good."

' best," very rich and sweet.
1 very good."

very good" promises well,
very good, 5 ' handsome red


' very good," of good promise.
'very good."
1 very good," perhaps " best,"

hardy, good bearer.
" best," rich and perfumed.
" very good," promises well.
" best," delicious and rich.


Names of fruits, strictly. French, can be pronounced correctly by
those only who speak that language. But a considerable number
are becoming rapidly Anglicised, or passing to a sound between
French and English, and still differing materially from the spell-
ing, like the common words chevaux de frize, depot, apropos, belles
lettres, &c. A short vocabulary of these, and chiefly such as do not
well admit of English translation, may be of use to those who have no
knowledge of foreign pronunciation.

Belle de Choisy, bell d ? shwaw ze.

Belle de Vitry, bell-d'-ve-tree.

Belle Magnifique, bell mag-ne-feek.

Beurre, burry. This is often pronounced bury, rhyming with
fury, but to be correct, it should rhyme with hurry.

Beurre d'Amalis, burry dam-mal-lee.

Beurre d'Anjou, burry dan-zhoo.

Beurre d'Aremberg, burry dar-em burg.

Beurre de Capiaumont, burry d'cap-u-mone.

Beurre Diel, burry deel. (Diel, a German pomologist, hence the
pronunciation is not de-ell, French, as sometimes sounded.)

Beurre Gris, burry gree.

Bigarreau, be-gar-ro.

Bonchretien, bone-cre-shan. (French, bong-era- tyang.

Crassane, cras-sann.

Doyenne, doy-en-nay.

Fameuse, fam-uz.

Fenouillet Gris, f-nool-ya-grec.

Fortunee, for-tu-na.

Glout Morceau, gloo mor-so.

Gravenstein, grav-en-stinc, (German.)

Grosse Mignonne, groce meen-yonn.

Guigne, geen, (g hard.)

Louise Bonno, loo-eze bonn.

Madeleine, mad-lane.

Male Carle, mal-carl.

Marie Louise, mar-re loo-eze.

Nivette, ne-vett.

Nonpareil, non-par-ell. (French, nong-par-ale.)

Pavie, Pav-vy.

Quetsche, quetch-eh. (Gorman.)

Reine Claude, rane clode.

Reinette, ra-nett.

Sieulle, se-ull.

Sine Qua Non, si-ne qua non. (Latin.)

Virgouleusc, veer-goo-luz. Virgalieu, a different word, is pro-
nounced vur-ga-loo.

Vicompte de Spoclbereh, ve-konte d* spool-bairk.


Of the more common terms used in Fruit Culture.

Acute, sharp or angular.

Acuminate, drawn out to a point.

Alburnum, the sap-wood, as distinguished from the heart-wood.

Apex, point, the part of a fruit farthest from the foot-stalk.

Base, lower end, or that portion of a fruit, stalk, or part of a plant,
nearest the supporting part or rojt.

Basin, the hollow or depression at the apex or crown of a fruit, sur-
rounding the calyx.

Bezi, a wilding, or natural seedling.

Beurre, a buttery pear.

Border, artificial bed of enriched earth.

Callus, ring or swollen portion formed at the base of a cutting, by
the descending cambium.

Calville-shaped, much ribbed, as applied to apples.

Calyx, the outer or green leaves of a flower, which, remaining on the
apex of a pear or apple,are often denominated the eye.

Cambium, the soft, newly forming wood beneath the bark.

Canes, long, bearing shoots; applied to grapes and raspberries.

Clipping, trimming down to some definite shape.

Colmar -shaped, pyriform or pear-shaped, with a rather slender neck
and large body.

Conical, tapering regularly towards the apex.

Cordate, heart-shaped.

Coxcomb, applied to the form of strawberries when much compressed
at the sides.

Crenate, notched or cut like rounded or blunt saw teeth.

Crown, the part of a fruit farthest from the foot-stalk or base.

Curculio, the insect which stings young fruit.

Dwarfs, trees made diminutive by grafting or budding upon stocks
of small growth.

Espalier, a tree trained flat upon a trellis.

En quenouille, training to produce fruitfulness by tying the branches

Fibrous roots, the smaller, branching, or thread-like roots.

Forcing, the early ripening of fruits by artificial heat under glass.

Fore-right shoot, the terminal shoot of a branch.

Head back, to cut off" the limbs of a tree, part way down.

Head down, to cut off the entire limbs or branches of a tree, or to
cut down to an inserted bud.

Inflorescence, the manner in which the flowers are borne.

Lay-in, applied to selecting and fastening to a trellis or wall, new
branches or shoots.

Lay in. by the heels, to bury the roots of trees temporarily in a trench.

Leading shoot, the longest or main shoot of a limb or tree.

Lopping, cutting the branch down to the stem.

Maiden plant, a tree of one year's growth from the bud or graft.

Mulching, covering the ground about a tree with straw or litter to
prevent drying.


Oblate, flattened, so that the shortest diameter is between the base
and apex, like a flat turnip.

Obovate, reversed ovate, being largest from the foot-stalk or towards
the apex.

Obtuse, rounded or blunt.

Ovate, egg-shaped, being the largest towards the foot-stalk.

Pedicel, the subdivision of a flower or fruit-stalk.

Peduncle, the flower or fruit stalk.

Petals, flower-leaves, usually colored.

Petiole, leaf-stalk.

Pippin, an indefinite term applied to various apples, differing in size,
shape, color, and flavor, but more particularly used for the Newtown

Pomology, the science of fruits.

Pyramidal, like a pyramid, usually nearly similar to conical, but

Pyriform, pear-shaped, having more or less a drawn-out neck.

Ringing, the removal of a ring of bark round a branch, to impede the
descending sap.

Serrate, notched or cut like saw-teeth.

Online LibraryJohn Jacobs ThomasThe American fruit culturist, containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States → online text (page 30 of 31)