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IBZAN (tV3X. illustriotis ; Sept. '\fiaiffaiv\
the tenth ' jndge of Israel.' He was of Bethle-
hem, prohalily the Bethlehem of Zelmlun and not
of Jiidah. He governed seven years. Tiie pro-
sperity of Iltzan is marked by the great nnmlwr
of his children (thirty sons and thirty daughters),
ind his wealth, hy iJ.icir marriages — for they were
all married. Some have held, with little proiia-
bility, tiiat Ihzan wiis the same with Duaz : B.C.
U82(Judg. xii. 8).

I-CH.\BOD (inp ^N, ichere is the glorrj ;
Sept. 'Ax'Tcu^), son of Phinehas and grandson of
Eli. He isonlv known tVom the iiijhap])y circum-
stances of his hiith, which occasioned (his name to
he given to him. The pains of lahoin- came ii])on
iiis motlier when she iieard that tiie ark of Go<l
wan taken, that ti^r hnsband was slain in hatfle,
and that these tidings had ])roved fatal to his
father Kli. They weie death-pains to her; and
when those armuid sought to cheer her. saying,
' Fear not, for thou hast home a son,' siie only
answered hy giving him the name of I-chal)od. ad-
ding, 'The glory is dejjarted from Israel (I .Sam.
iv. 19-22J: b.c. 1141. The name again occurs
in I Sam. xiv. 3 [Ki.i].

ICONIUM (^XkSviov), a town, formerly the
capital of Lycaoriia, as it is now, l)y the name
vS Konieii, of Karamatiia, in Asia Minor. It is
situated in N. hit. 37° 51', E. long. 32° 4C', about
one hi\iidred and twenty miles inland from the
Mediterranean It was visite<l by St. Paul in
A.B. 4.3, when many Gentiles were converted;
hut some unbelieving Jews excited agair»st him
and Barnabas a perser\ition, which they escaped
with difficulty (Acts xiii. 51 ; xlv. I, &c.). He
nndertook a secotid journey to Iconium in a.d. .51.
The church planted at tliis ])!ace hy the ajiostle
c<tntinned to fluurish, until, by the persecutions
of tlie Saracens, aii<l afterwards of the Seljuklans,
who made it one of tlieir sultanies, it was nearly
extinguishe<l. B«it some Cliristians of the Greek
ami Armenian churclres, with a Gieek metro-
politan bishom are still found in tiie subiubs of
the city, not Wing permitte<l to reside within the

Konieli is si'uateil at the foot of Motml
Taurus, upon the Uirder of the lake Tvogitis,
in a fertile plain, rich in valuable prodtictions,
particularly apricots, wine, cotton, flax, and
yrain. The circumference of th«> town is tietween

VOL. II. 2


two and three miles, beyond whicli are subnttM

not much less populous than the town itself. The
walls, strong and lofty, and flanked with square
loweis. which, at the gales, are placetl close to
gefher [see cut, No. 317], were built by the Sel-
jukian Sultans of Iconium, who seem to have
taken considerable jialns to exhibit the Greek in-
scriptions, and the remains of architecture and
sculpture, belonging to the ancient Iconium^
which they ma<le use of in l)uilding the walls.
The town, subuibs, and gartlens, are plentifully
supplied with water from streams which flow
from some hills to the westward, and which, fa
the north-east, join the lake, which varies in
size wilii the -season of the j"ear. In the town
carjiets are maiuifactured, and Ijine and yellow
leathers aie tanned and dried. Cotton, wool,
hides, and a few of the other raw jiioductions
which enrich the superior industry and skill of
the manulacturers of Eurojje, are sent to Smyrna
by caravans.

The most remarkable building in Konieh is
the t<pmb of a ])riest highly revered throughout
Tuikey. called Hazreet Mevlana, the founder of
the Mevlevi Dervishes. The city, like all those
renowned for superior sanctity, abounds with
dervishes, who meet the jwssenger at every turn-
ing of (he streets and demand paras with the
greatest clamour and insolence. Tiie bazaars
and houses have little to recommend them to
notice (Kinnelr's Travels in Asia Minor ; Leakes
Gexigraphy of Asia, Minor ; Arundell's Tour
it I Asia Minor).

1. IDDO (y^V., seasonable ; Sept.*A55ci), a pro-
phet of Judah, who wrote the history of Reho-
boam and Abijah ; or rather peihaps, who, in
conjunction with Seraiah, kept the piiblic rolls
during their reigns. It seems from 2 Chron. xiii.
22 that he named his book l^^'^7D, Midrash, or
' Kxposition.' Jiise[)hus (^Autiq. viii. 0. 1} state*
that this Iddo was the ]iropliet who was sent to
■leroboam at Bethel, and consequently the same
that was slain by a lion for disoliedlence to his in-
structions (1 Kings xiii.); and many commen-
tators have l'ol!owe<l this statement.

2. IDDO, grandfather of the prophet Zecha-
riah (Zech. i. 1; Kzr. v. 1 ; vi. 14).

3. IDDO (i"lN), chief i.f the Jews of the caprt-
vitv estahlisheil at Casiphia. a )ilace 'tf which U
is diflicult to defermijie the jjositioii. It was to

QOOO^ r>


mm that Ezra sent a reqnisition for Le\!tes and
Nethiiilm, none ot wIiditj liiul yet joined his
caravan. Thirfy-ejgrlit Levites ai>d 250 Nethi-
uim responded to his cull (Ezra viii. 17-20),
B.C. 457. It would seem frnm tliis that Iddo
was a cliief person of tlie Nctliinim, descended
from those Gibeonires who were ciiarged with the
servile lal'Oiirs of the tabesnacle at»d temple.
Tliis is one of several circumstances wliich indi-
cate that the Jews in their several colonies under
the Exile were still ruled hy the heads of their
nation, and allowed the free exercise of their

4. IDDO (n\ lovely; Sept. "loSat), a chief of
the half trihe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan
(1 Chron. xxvii. 21).

IDLE. The ordinary uses of this word re-
quire no illustration. But the very serious pas-
PA^s in !Matt. xii. 36 may suitably L>e nuficcd in
this phue. In the Authorized Version it is trans-
lated, ' I siiy Tinto you, that every idle tcord that
men shall s^^eak, they shall give an account
thereof in the day "f judgment.' The original
ifi, 'Ort trdv 'priiJ.a dpyof, h ectv Xa'ATjcrcoffiv ol
avBpwvoi, v.Tro5wffovai irtpl ainov kSyov iv rifxepa
KplcTiws. The whole question depends upon
the meaning or rather force of the term firifxa
d.py6v, rendered ' idle word,' concerning wjiich
there lias been no little difl'erence of opinion.
Many understand it to mean ' wicked and in-
jurious words,' as if apy6v were the same as
rrovripSv. wliich is indeed found as a gloss in Cod.
\26. The sense is there taken to be as follows : —
' Believe me, that for every wicked and injurious
word men t>hall hereafter render an account.'
And our Lord is sujiposed to have intended in this
j-assage to repreheml tlie Pliarisees, who liad spoken
impiously ag-iinst Him, and to tlneaten them
with the sevei est ])unisliments ; inasmuch as every
one of their injurious and impious woids should
one day be judged. This interpretation of the
word dpySv is, however, leached Ijy a somewhat cir-
cuitous process of philological reasoning, wliich is
examined with much ni.-ety by J. A. H.Tittmann,
and shown to lie untenable. He adds: ' This in-
terpii'tation, moreover, would not be in accordance
with what piet^edes in verses 33-35, nor with what
follows in verse 37. For it is not any tcicked
discourse which is there represented; but the
feigned ])iely of the Pharisees, and their afl'ected
leal for the public welfare. In order to avoid a
ch;ir;.';e of levity and indifference, they had de-
manded " a sign," trrj^eToj' ; as if desirous that
botli they and others might know whether Jesus
wa« truly the Messiah. Against this dissimula-
tiun in tliose who uttered nothing sincerely and
from the lieait, Jesus had inveiglied in severe and
appropriate terns in verses 33-35, using the com-
|)arisc.n of a tree, which no one judges to be good
and useful unless it bears good t'riiit, and from
which, if it be bad, no one expects good fruit.
But if now the sense ot verse 36 is such as these
inter])reters would make it, there is added in
it a sentiment altogether foreign to wliat ))re-
cedes, and iipyiv becomes not only destitute of
efl'ect and fun-e, imt involves a sentiment incon-
gruous with that \\\ verse 37. For wliere oui
I..ord says that hereafter every one sliall be judged
according to his words. He cannot lie understood
lo mean that every one will be capable of prov-


irig his integrity and goodness merely hv Hi*
words alone — a sentiment sorely <\s far as possible
from the intention of our Divine Master. W*
must, therefore, necessarily understand a certain
kind of words or discourse, whicl u?»ler (h«
apj)earance of sincerity or ean-doi^r. r» orten th«
worst p3s,»ible,and /faTosSiWcf^s fhv avb^wiTOVj " con>"
demns a, mavv, ' becaase it is uttered with an evi»
])urp)se. If, then, we interpret apySv according
to establi»lied Greek usage, there arises a natural
and very appropriate sense, namely, apySy is the
same as iiff;7o>', otiosiis, vain, idle; then, void
of effect, v^itJiout result, followed by no eorrt'
sponding event. Therefore p^jua apyov is empty
or vain tcords or disconrse, i. e. void of truth,
and to which the event does not correspond. li»
short, it is the empty, in cotwi derate, insincere
language of one who says one thing and means
another ; and in tliis sense apy6s is very fre-
quently employed l)y the Greeks.' Tliis Tittmann
confirms by a number of citations ; and tlx!r»
deduces from the whole that the sense of the pas-
sage under review is: 'Believe me, he who uses
false and insincere language shall suH'e? gi jevoua
jmnishmein ; your words, il' uttered with sincerity
and ingenijousmess, shall be ajiproved ;. bat if
they are dissembletl, although they bear tha
strongest ajipearance of shieerify, they shall be
condemned' (See Tittmann, On the Principal
Causes of Forced Interpretations of the Neio
Testament, in Am. Bib. liepository for 1831,
pp. 48)-4S4).

IDOLATRY. In giving a summary view of
the forms of idolatry which are jnentionetl in the
Bible, it is exp'edient to exclude all notice of
those illegal images w'.ich were indeed designeil
to bear some symbolical reference to the worship
of the true God, but which partook of tlie nature
of iilolatry ; such, for e.xample, as the golden caH
of Aaron (cf. Neh. ix. IB); tlioae of Jenrboani j
the singular e])hods of Gideon and Micah (Judg.
viii. 27 ; xvii. .5_) ; and the Terapiiim.

Idilatiy was the most heinous olVeiice against
the Mosaic law, wliich is most jjarticular in de-
fining the acts which constitute the crime, and
severe in apportioning the j>niiit.hmeiit. Thus, it
is foil)iddeii to make any inia^'e oi a strange God ;
to pvostiate oneself betbrc such an ii"?,;?, or before
those natural objects which weie also worshipped
without images, as the sun ami moon (Deut. It.
19) ; to sull'cr the altars, images, or groves of ido.a
to stand (Exod. xxxiv. 13); or to keep the gold
and silver of which their images were made, £;id
to siiiler it to enter the house (Deut. vii. 25, 26);
to sacrifice to iilols, most especially to oflfer liurawin
sacrifices; to eat of the victims oll'eied to idols
by others ; to prophesy in the name ol a strange
god ; and to ailopf any of the rites used in idol-
atrous worship, and to transfer them to the wor-
ship of the Lord (Deut. xii. 30, 31). As for
punishment, the law orders that if an individua*
committed idolatry he should be stoned to death
(Deut. xvii. 2-5) ; that if a town was guilt)- oi
this sin, its inhabitants and cattle sliould be slain,
and its spoils buru*. together with the town itself
(Deut. xiii. 12 IS). To what degree also tiie
whole spirit of the Old Testament is abhorreEC
from idolatry, is evident (besides legal jirohibitions,
jiropheticdenunciations. and energetic appeals like
that in Isa. xliv. 9-20) f'nm the literal sense of tht
terms which are used as synonymes fcr idols •uaii

tfaeir worship. Tlius idub are called CP^pSn,
the inane (Lev. xix. 4) ; Dv^H, vanities — tlie ra
uciraia of Acts xiv. L'j — (Jer. ii. 5) ; J1X, nothing
(Isa. Ixvi. 3); D^VIpw*, abominati/jns (1 Kings
xi. 5); Dv1?3, stercora (E/.ek. vi. 4); and their
worship is called lolioredom^ which is expressed
by the derivatives oC nJT-

The early existence of idolatry is evinced by
Josh. xxiv. 2, where it is stated that Aliram and
sis immediate ancestors dweliiiig in Mesopotamia
' served other gods.' The terms in Gen. xxxi.
53, and particularly the plural form of the verb,
leem to show that souie niemhers of Terali's
family Iiad each diflereiit gods. From Josh. xxiv.
14, and Ezek. xx. 8, we learn that the Israelites,
during their sojourn in Egypt, were seduced to
worship the idols of that country : although we
possess no particular account of their transgression.
In Amos v. 25, and Acts vii. 42, it is stated tiiat
they committed idolatry in tiieir journey through
the wilderness ; and in fiJum. xxv. 1, sq., that
they worsliipjied the Moabife idol Baal-peor at
Shittim. After the Israelites had obtained pos-
session of the ])romised land, we find that they
were continually tempted to adopt the idolatries
of the Canaaiiite nations with which they came
in contact. The book of Judges enumerates
several successive relapses into this sin. The
gods which they served during this period were
B.ial and Ashtoreth, and their modifications ; and
Syiia, Sidon, Moab, Ammon, and Philistia, are
luuued ill Judg. x. 6, as the sources from which
they derived their idolatries. Then Samuel ap-
]!ears to have exercised a beneficial iiiHueuce in
weaning the people from this fully (1 Sam, vii.) ;
and the worship of the Lord acquired a gradually
increasing hold on the nation until the time of
Solomon, who was induced in his old age to per-
mit the establishment of idolatry at Jerusalem.
On the division of the nation, the kingdom of
Israel (besides adhering to the sin of Jeroboam to
the last) was specially de\oled lo the worship of
Baal, which Aliab had renewed and cariied to an
unprecedented lieight ; anil although the energetic
measures adopted by Jehu, and afterwards by tlie
priest Jehoiada, to suppress this idolatry, m;iy
have oeen the cause why there is no later express
mention of Baal, yet it is evident from 2 Kings
xiii. 6, and xvii. 10, that the worship of Aslierah
continued until the rleportation of tlie (en tribes.
Tliis event also introduced the p.eculiar idolatries
of the Assyrian colonists into Samaria. In the
kingdom of Judah, on the other hand, idolatry
continued during the two succeeding reigns; was
suppressed for' a time liy Asa (I Kings xv. 12);
was revived in consequ<'nce of Joram marrying
into the family of Ahab; was continued by Ahaz;
received a check from Hezekiah; broke out again
more violently under Manasseh ; until Josiah
made the most vigorous atteai[)t to suppress it.
But even Josiah's elToits to restore the worship of
the Lord were inefl'ectual ; for the later prophets,
Zephauiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, still continue
to utter reproofs against idolatry. Nor did the
capture of Jerusalem under Jehoiachim awaken
this peculiarly sensual people; for E*ekiel (viii.)
shows that those who were left in Jerusalem under
the government of Zedekiah liad given themselves
up to many kinds of idolatry ; and Jeremiah
(xlir. 6) charges those inhabitants of Judah who


had found an asylum in Egypt, with having
turned to serve the g(Kls of that countrv. On the
restoration of the .lews after the Babylon'an cap-
tivity, they appear, for the Hist time in their his-
tory, to have been ])erinanently impressed « i(h a
sense of the degree to which their former idolatries
had been an insult to God, and a degradation of
their own understanding — an advance in the cul-
ture ol' the natiin which may in [lart be ascribed
to the influence of the Persian alihorrence of
images, as well as to the effects of the exile as a
chastisement. In this state they continued until
Antiochus Epiphanes made the last and fruitless
attempt to establish the Greek idolatry in Pales-
tine (I Mace. i.).

The particular formg of i<lolatry into which
the Israelites fell are described under the names
of the dilferent gods which they worshij.ped [AsH-
TORETif, Baai,, &c.] : the general features ol their
idolatry require a brief notice iieie. According
to Movers {Die Phonizier, i. H^i), the religion of
all the idolatrous Syro-Arabian nations was a
deification of the powers and laws of nature, an
adoration of those objects in which these powers
are considered to abide, and liy which tliey act.
The deity is thus the invisible iio\\er in nature
itself, that power which manifests itself as (he
generator, sustainer, and destroyer of its works.
This view admits of two modifications: either the
sep:irate powers of nature are regarded as so many
dilferent gods, and the olijects by which these
powers are manifested — as the sun, moon, &c.^ —
are regarded as their images and supporters ; or
the power of nature is considered to l)e one and
indivisible, and only to diller as to the forms
under which it manifests itself. Both views co-
exist in almost all leligions. The most simple
and ancient notion, however, is that which con-
ceives the deity to be in human form, as male
and female, and which considers (he male sex tc
be the ty]ie of its active, generative, and de-
structive power ; while that passive power of na-
ture whose function is to conceive and bring
forth, is embodied under tlie female Ibrm. The
human J'orm and the diversity of sex lead natiip
rally to (lie different ages of life — to the old man
and tlie youth, the matron and (lie virgin — ac-
cording to the modifications of the conception;
and the myths which lejiiesent (he influences, the
clianges, the laws, and the relations of these na-
tural powers under the sacred histories of such
gods, constitute a harmonious development of
such a religious system.

Tliose who saw the deity manifested by, or
conceived iiim as resident in, any natural objects,
could not fail to regar<l (he sun aiul moon as the
])otent rulers of day and night, and tiie sources of
those influences on which all animateil nature
depends. Hence star-vvorship forms a prominent
feature in all the false religions mentioned in the
Bible. Of this character cliieily w eie the Egyptian,
(he Canaauite, the ChaldaMin, and the Persian re-
ligions. The Peisian foim of astrolatry, howevei,
deserves to be distinguished from the others; for
it allowed no images nor temples of the god, but
worshipped him in his purest symbol, fire. It is
understood that tliis form is alluded to in inost
of those ])assages which mention the worship of
the sun, moon, and heavenly host, by incense, on
heights (2 Kings xxiii. 5, 12 ; Jer. xix. 13) The
other iona. of astrolatry, in which the idea of the


Run, moon, and planets, is blended with flie wor-
ship of the god in the form of an idol, and with
the addition of a mytliolo^y (as may be seen in
the relations of Baal and his cognates to tlie sun),
easily degenerates into lasciviousness and cruel

The images of the gods, the standard terms for
which are HHVD, 3^*y, and D?^. were, as to
material, of stone, wood, silver, and gold. The

first two sorts are called 7D3, as being hewn or
cawed ; those of metal had a trunk or stock of
W(X)d, and were covered with plates of silver or
g."old f Jer. X. 4) ; or were cast (H^DD). The
general rites of idolatrous worship consist in
burning incense; in oil'ering bloodless sacriKces,
a» the dough-cakes (D^313) and lil)atii)ns in .Ter.
vii. 18, and the raisin-cikes (D^njj; '•JT^^^'N)
is. Kos. iii. 1 ; in sacrilicing victims (1 Kings
X^'.i. 26), and especially in human sacritices
[Moi.och]. Tiiese offerings were made on hig'i
places, hills, and roofs of houses, or in shiiily
groves and valleys. Some forms of idolatrous
vorship had lihidinons orgies [AshtokethI.
Divinations, oracles (2 Kings i. 2), and rabdo-
mancy (Hos. iv. 12) form a part of many of these
false religions. The priesthood was generally a
numerous body ; and where persons of both sexes
were attached to the service of any god (lii<e the
Q''&'\p and mti'lp of Ashtoretli), that service
WdS infamously immoral. It is remarkable tliat
tiie Pentateucli makes no mention of any temple
of idols; afterwards we read often of such. —

J. N.

IDUMv^A. 'iSov/xala is the Greek form of trie
Hebrew name Edom, or, according to Josephns
[Antiq. ii. 1. 1), it is only a more agreeable mode
of pronoimcing what would otherwise be 'ASaJ^tta
(comj). Jerome on Ezek. xxv. 12). In the Sep-
tuaijint we sometimes meet with 'Eidu, but more
generally with 'ISov^aaia (the people being called
*I5ou,ua?o(), which is the uniform ortho:^raphy in
the Apocrypha as well as in Mark iii. 8, the only
passage in the New Testament wliere it occurs.
Our Authorized Version has in three or four
places substituted for Edom ' Idumea,' which is
the name employed by the writers of fireece
and Rome, though it is to be noted that they,
as well as Joseplius, include under that name
the south of Palestine, and sometimes Pales-
tine itself, because a large portion of that coun-
try came into possession of the Edomites of later

The Hebrew DIX Edom, as the name of the
people is masculine (Num. xx. 22) ; as the name
of the country, feminine (Jer. xlix. 17). We
often meet wilh tjie phrase Eretz-Edom, 'the
Land of Edom,' and once with the poetic form
Sedeh-Edom, ' the Field of Edom ' (Judg. v. 4).
The inhabitiints are sometime? styled Beni-Edom,
*tbe Children of E lom,' and poetically Bnfh-
Edom, ' tlie Daughter of Edom' (Lam. iv. 21,
22). A single person was calli-il '•f^lK Adomi.
'an Eilomite" (Df-ut xxiii. 8), of wliich the femi-
nine plural n^DIX Adomith occurs in 1 Kings
xi. 1. The name was derived from Isaac's son
Edom, otherwise called Esau, t!ie elder twin-
brother of .Jacob [EsvuJ. It signifies red, and
seems first to have ()eeu sug,'este(i by his
Knce at his birth, when ■ ht came out all red'
't «. covered with red hair, Oen. xxv. 25'), and


was afterwards more formally and jiermanentl^
imposed on him on account of liis unwcnthy dit»
])03al of liis birfh-ri^ht for a mess of red Icutilea
(Gen. xxv. 30). The region which came to bear
his name, is the mountainous tract on the east
s'de of the great v.dleys El Glior and El Araba
exteudlng l;etween tlie Dead Sea a)iil the Elaniti^
Gulf of the Red Sea. Some have conjectured
that the latter sea was called ' Red, l»ecause ii
waslied the shore of ' Edom ;' but it ?iever bears in
Hebrew the name of Ya>n-Kdnm : if is uniformly
designated Yam-Suph, i. e. ' tlie Sea of iVladre-
f)ores.' Into this district Esau remo\ed during his
father's life-time, and his posterity gradually ob-
tained possession of it as the country whicii God
had assigned for their inheritance in the prophetic
blessing pronounced by liis father Isaac (Gen.
xxvii. 30, 40; xxxii. 3; Dent. ii. 5-12, 22).
Previously to their occupation of the country, it
was called T'yb' "IH, JSlount Seir, a designation
indeed which it never entirely lost. The word
seir means hairij (being thus synonymous with
Esau), and, wlien applied to a country, may sig-
nify rugged, mountainous, and so says Josephus
(Antiq. i. 20. 3) : ' Esau named the country
"Roughness" from his own hairy rouglmess.'
Hut in Gen. xxxvi. 20, we read of an individual
of tlie name of Seir, who had befoie this inhabited
tlie land, and from whom it may liave received
its first appellation. Part of the legion is still
called Esh-SAeraA, in which some find a trace ot
Seir, but the two words have no etymological
relation: the former wants they, a letter whicL
is never droppeil, and it signifies ' a tract, a jios
session,' and sometimes ' a mountain.'

The first mention made of Mount Seir in Scrip-
tnre is in Gen. xiv. 6, where Chedorlaomer and
his confederates are said to have smitten ' the
Horim in their Mount Seir.' Among tiie earliest
human habitations were caves, eitlier formed by
nature or easily excavated, and for the construc-
tion of these the mountains of Edom afforded
pecidiar facilities. Hence the designation given
to the .Vboriginal inhabitants — Horiiji, i. e. cave-
dwellers (from "in, a ' cave"), an epithet of similar

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