John Leland.

The itinerary of John Leland. Published from the original MS. in the Bodleian library, by Thomas Hearne (Volume 1) online

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William B. Vasels








The SECOND EDITION: Collated and Improved
from the Original MS. With the Addition alfb
of a General Index.

OXFORD: Printed at the THEATRE;

For JAMES FLETCHER, Bookfeller in the Tur/,
And JOSEPH POTE, Bookfeller at ETON.





T .


tf I SHAM,

Vice-Can. Ox ON,

Sept. 28.


Relating to this SECOND EDITION.

OX ON. Sept.$o th . I74J.

MR. THOMAS HEARNE in 1710. and the
following Years, publi/hed at the Prefs of
this Univerfity, One Hundred and Twenty
Copies of the Itinerary of Mr. John Leland, in Nine
fmall Volumes j This Number not being fufficient to
anfwer the Demand of the Curious, has conftantly occa-
(ioned them to be Sold at an exceeding great Price,
and indeed but rarely to be met with at any Rate.

It has been judged proper therefore to reprint this
Edition of Mr. H EARN E'S; and as Omiffions and Mi-
ftakes were known to have efcaped the firft Notice of
that induftrious Editor, the Original MS. has been
re-examined with the moft ftrid Care, and many
Places been fupplied and amended, which in this Edi-
tion will be found at the bottom of each Page, and
diftinguifhed by Numerals.

It is to be remark'd farther, that the firft Part of
Mr. H E A R N E'S Eighth Volume contain'd Supplements to
the firft Seven, and that at the End of the Ninth
Volume, He alfb added a Review of the whole Work,
whereby he rectified fome Miftakes, and fupplied many
Omiflions, which farther Opportunity and his well-
known Induftry furnifhed him with ; Thefe it has been
now judged proper to infert in their refpedive Places,
agreeable to Mr. H EARN E'S intentions, had they came
time enough to his hands, as he exprefTes it in the Preface
to the laft Volume.

In this prefent Edition alfo, are feveral Additions;
viz. An extract fupplied from Mr. Stowe, in the Third
Volume, pag. 119. Another from the fame, in the
Fourth Volume, pag. 1 26. An Account of the Infcrip-
tions ofMelburv &c. in the Eighth Volume, pag. 48.
And at the end of the Ninth Volume, will be found a

i See the Advertifemcn: and Dire&ioni at the beginning of the Eighth



fmall Fragment of the Itinerary from the Cotton Library,
which had efcaped Mr. H E A R N E'S knowledge. It
has alfo been judged proper to make One General
Index to the whole Work, believing it will be a pecu-
liar Advantage to this Edition, and a great Eafe and
Benefit to the Learned Reader. Thefe juft and ufeful
Improvements admitted, Mr. HEARNE'S Edition has
been faithfully followed, and as the Undertakers had
pofTeffion alfo of the Original Plates, they cannot but
perfwade Themfelves this prefent Publication will be
moft acceptable to the Curious.

AT. B. The Number of Copies now Printed, is only
Three Hundred and Fifty ; of which, Fifty are Printed
on a Superfine Royal Paper.

OXON. Sept. 30 th . 174?.

This Day is alfo reprinted and publiflied,

Hiftoria, Regum Angl'iA. E Codice MS. in Bibliotheca
Bodleiana defcripfit , Notifque & Indice adornavit
THO. HEARNIUS, A. M. Oxonienfis. Accedit
JOANNIS LELANDI Antiquani N&nia in Mortem
Henrici Duddelegi Equitis ; cui praefigitur Teftimo-
nium de LELANDO amplum & prxclarum hadienus
ineditum. E THEATRO SHELDONIANO ; Impenfisy^r.
Fletcher Oxonienfis, & Jof. Pote Etonenfis, Bibliopo-

N. B. In the Year 1716. Mr. HF.ARNE published
Sixty Copies only of this Author. The Number now
Printed is the fame as Leland, Three Hundred fmall,
and Fifty Royal Paper.




SIR John St. Aubyn, Bart.
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John Taylor, D.C.L. Chancellor of Lincoln.








Publifh'd from the Original MS. in the



To which is prefix'd

M r . L E L A N D'S New-Teafs Gift:

And at the end is fubjoyn'd
A Difcourfe concerning fome Antiquities lately found in




'rinted at the T H E A T E R for James Fletcher, Bookfeller
in the Turl ; and Jofeph Pote, Bookfeller at Eaton.

,:jE -P-ITS E

. <
De illuftribus Anglia fcriptoribus pag. 747.

fub an. MDLII. in vita


A N T I Q_U A R I I.

Quantum Rhenano debet Germanta dodo,

Tantum debebit terra Brit Anna mihi.
Ille fuse gentis ritus & nomina prifca,

Aftivo fecit lucidiora die.
Ipfe antiquarum rerum quoqae magnus amatoi^

Ornabo patris lumina clara meae.
Quae quum prodierint niveis infcripta tabellis,

Turn teftes noftras fedulitatis erunt.

The (aid Ver|es made either by himfelf, as the ftyle
/heweth (faith Pits) or elfe by fome other in his name,
were annex'd to Mr. L E L A N D'S Monument, in the
Church of Sr. Michael in le Querne, London, as Mr.
Wcever (Fun. Mon. p. dp 2.) had it by Tradition.



. I. "WF we give ourfehes the trouble ofinfpetting

and examining the federal Catalogues that Qur more ^
J have been made of the Works of our Bntith however induftriom in
"^ Writers, wejhattfnd that notwithjlanding recording the feveral
the great Variety which this Kingdom has in all Ages Tranfatiiont of this
froduc'd, yet very few, If any, took care to give ut 5iiiti7r B ^f. re f
particular Defcriptions of it. They we~e always fun- ^tf us tS.r
ttual tofet down in Books prepard for that purpofe Dtfcriptiom of it.
the feveral Tranfa&ions, both Ecclefiaftical and Ci-
vil , that pafe'd in this Kingdom, as well as in many other
Places ; but then as to a Survey of />, they contented them-
felves with general and loofe Accounts^ fueh as that -which
Jlands at the beginning of Bede's Ecclefiaftical Hiftory j a.
Defcription very flight and mean //' compar'd with the other
Excellent Performances of that Great Man : and yet as flight
and inconfiderable as it /V, it has been made life of by the
Compilers of the Saxon Chronicle, asieeU as by others ; and
I have feen it in fame MSS. by it felf^ -without the leaft
Notice taken that Bede -was the original, true Author of it.
The reafon perhaps -why the Monks -were deficient in this Task
was their Confinement to their refpeclive Societies ; by which
they were incapacitated for travelling and making fuch Obfer-
vations as -were abfolutely neceffary for a juit and faithful
Defcription of the Ifle. Had they been left at liberty , and been
indulged by fame Powerful Patrons, there is no doubt but they
would have p erf or md fuch a Work -with the utmofl exadt-
nefs. We have reafonto think thus of them front what appears
in the Monafticon, and in other Books, -with refpefl to the
Lands belonging to each Religious Houie ; in accounting for
which they us'd a more than ordinary exadlnefs, and were

never been made either by the Kings and Princes to whom at-
tributed^ or by any other Benefactors, for which reafon thofe
a z in


in Ingulfus, as well as fevcral others, have been catt'd into
qyeftion and judg'd to he fpurious. But however their Con-
cern and Regard for the Good and Benefit of their Societies,
and the hindering of Enemies from invading their Lands and
infringing their Privileges, might induce and ffur them on to
make Juch unto arr ant ahle Attempts, yet in other Points they
religioufly kcp t to the Rules of Juftice, and as they -were a-
Rainfl breaking in upon /^Territories of their Neighbours.
jo they were very careful to maintain their oven undoubted^
Titles, and for that end kept e\2& Regifters of the federal
Lands, Houfes, Tenements, and of every thing elfe that be-
long' d to each Society ; of which we have an admirable Ex-
ample in the large Book of this kind drawn up for the ufe of
Leycefter Abbey by William Charitee, and intitled by him
Rentale Novum Generale, the Original whereof is now prc-
Jerv'd in the Bodlejan Library^ in which Place I have likewise
feen a Copy of fame fart of it.

. i. It mujl however be acknowledged that Gyral-
what Gyrnidut C*m- dus Cambrenfis made a Defcription not only of Ire-
*?."%. f 1 .*!* of land, whither he was fent over by King Henry II. as
fu, n e d /:i a ,, 8r and Secretary to his Son John, but likewise of his Native
not to be rely'd on. Country <?/"Wales ? both which he had travettd over
He made a Mi/ of himfelf. Thefe Defcriptions derivd upon him great
irtUnd (and per- Honour aW'Reptitation, and the former was recited
Anting 'S the o" ( aCc ^'S * **>c number of the three Diftindions into
FORDM55. Mi/) of which divided] for three Days together before the
Scotland, at the End of Univerfity of OXFORD, with the higheft Applaufe :
a MS of Hardy's after which 'twas differs' d abroad^ and divers Copies
chronicle. v>fe ta j. en ^ t ^ at y e } n g the ufual way of publifking

Books in thofe Times, when none were permitted to be tran-
fcrib'd and exposed 'till they had receiv d, by fitch a publick
Recital, the Approbation of the belt Judges ; muck after the
fame manner that Herodotus'* Hiftory was read publickly at
the Great Olympic Games, where it was fo wellreceivd as to
be calFd by the names of the nine Mufes, not to mention other
Excellent Books that vndtrwent the fame Teft before they
were dijlributed about. But though Gyi aldus mufl be acknow-
ledgd to have done by thefe two Books very eminent Service,
yet his Accounts for the mo ft part are far from being accu-
rate or to be relfd upon. They are full of fabulous and in-
credible Relations, agreeable to the Humour of that Age ; and
to pleafe the Readers the better he took care to infert the
Pictures of the ftrange Animals and Cuftoms^e describes, be-
ing more foUicitous in that Affair, than in the other more ma-
terial and profitable one, the exact Dimenfion of the Coun-
tries and the ftate and ufeful Produces thereof. let even



thefe other Accounts had keen much better if they had been left
tedious, and if he had dwelt longer upon the other Part, and
endeavour d to have feparated Truth from Falfhood. But to
make fame amends for this^ it feems he made alfo a Map of
Ireland a. : and perhaps he might do the like for Wales j
which , iffff 9 was a piece of Service equal to the former. But
whether there be any Map in any of the Copys now exftant
done from his Survey, is to me altogether uncertain, hailing
not had <? convenient opportunity of consulting the feveral
MSS. We have two Copies in Bodley of his Account of Ire-
land, both upon Vellam, and in one of them (which is much
the more coniiderable Copy) written about the time of King
Jt hu in a fair, neat Hand, Figures 0/Animals and fame other
Things treated of occur here and there, drawn altogether agree-
able to the practice of that Age. A great many other Pictures
we*e once in the Book ; but they have been cut out by fome
unskilful Peribns, juft as feveral Curiofities of the fame na-
ture are known to have been taken out of other Books of like
Antiquity. Now though this MS. has fuch ornamental Fi-
gures, and has had many others , yet there is no Map in it, ncr
does it appear from any Token now remaining that it ever
had any. Nor indeed^ if we could find any Map in any of the
Copies 0/'Gyraldus ought we to exfpeff any exquifite Perform-
ance ; fince 'tis well known that in the time of Henry II.
the Mathematicks (which are requisite for exadt Draughts)
were at a very low Ebb in thefe Parts, and 'twas judg'd to be
the belt and moft accomplifh'd Part of Learning to be skilfd
in Sophilby and the Civil Law /3. So that if we could meet
with any Mapps done by Gyraldus, 'tis likely they would be
much fuch as that we fee of Scotland at the end cf a MS. of
John Hardyng'j Chronicle y in Mr. SeldenV Archives ; which
Map has but few ;Names, but to fet it out the better the Fi-
gures of fome of the chief Cities and Towns are represented in
a pretty large Pofture , which takes up a good part of the
Page. And the Diviftons of each Country are fomewhat
ftrange and difagreeable, muchworfe than thofe we fee in fame
of the moft early Wooden Cuts, which were however taken
immediately from MSS. as were the firft Specimens o/Prinr-
ing at Harlem that are now prefervd in fome choice Li-

tftft. & Antiq. Univ. Oxo*. fub an. MCLXXXI. Hi/.
& Antiq. Univ. Oxon. fub ann. MCL, MCLL &c. -y See
what I have faid of this Book in the Index to oir John Spel-
man's Life of JElfred the Great.

.. A little

iv T H E P R E F A C E.

. 3. A little before Gyraldus flourifi'd another

will; StephwldtS* eminently learned Perfon, William Stephanides or

Deration of undon Fitz,-Stephen, who -writ a fhort but excellent De-

Or a. dzjfcrtnt nature /*/ T * t

from the Travels of icnption of London, tn an elegant ityle considering
Gyraldus. No wonder the Age in which the Author liv'd. This has been
ihat Gyraldus Per- publjtS d in Latin and Englifh fa Mr. Stowe at the
&a. E E" d rf h " ^ey ./ London s to fa* /* quite
/fw/ Difcoveries did different nature /row Gyraldus s Books, -we cannot
not cfcape the fame foppofe that it had any influence upon Gyraldus, fo as
**** to induce him to undertake his Travels, and to tratif-

mit to Pofterity thofe Relations he drew i-p. They
were other Motives that were the happy occafion of this ;
and one would have thought that thefe Excellent Specimens
of his Induftry and Care tn accounting for his Travels and the
various Occurrences that befell him Jhould have wrought upon
ethers to attempt the like Works, and to improve and compleat
what he had begun. But they were fo far from this^ that the
Generality would fcarce vouchfafe to have Copies taken and
even thofe that were fo juft to his Memory as to get his Books
tranftrwd^ nevertheless negleffed to have the Map or Mapps,
which he had drawn up with fo much labour, committed to fuch
hands as Jhould give us faithful Copies thereof \ infomuck that
at prefent there are few tf any Copies at all remaining. "But
what need we wonder at this^ when we know very well that
what the Romans had done feveral Ages Before met with the
fame Fate ? Vegetius mentions * the Itinerary Tables or Mapps,
in which the feveral Stations of the Roman Souldiers were re-
frefented with as much Accuracy as could he dejir'd from Per-
fons ignorant in the Mathematicks. And yet of all thefe Tables
( the number whereof was large ) we have none now exflant^
but the Peutingerian Tables, publifh'd by Velfen:s, Ortelius
and Bertius. Velferus has obfervd that they are full of Er-
rors and Miftakes , which he refolv?s into the fame Caufe
that I juft now hinted at. Howev.r 'tis a valuable Monu-
ment, and of great ufe in explaining the Roman Antiquities,
and in tracing out their Journies, as well as discovering the
true Extent of the Empire. As for Antoninus'* Itinerary,
that is not done by way of Map, at leaft the Copies handed
down to us are not drawn up in fuch a Form. Nor indeed has
that excellent Work efcap'd the Iniquity of Time, and the

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Online LibraryJohn LelandThe itinerary of John Leland. Published from the original MS. in the Bodleian library, by Thomas Hearne (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 17)