John Lemprière.

Lempriere's universal biography; containing a critical and historical account of the lives, characters, and labours of eminent persons, in all ages and countries. Together with selections of foreign biography from Watkin's dictionary, recently published, and about eight hundred original articles of online

. (page 1 of 169)
Online LibraryJohn LemprièreLempriere's universal biography; containing a critical and historical account of the lives, characters, and labours of eminent persons, in all ages and countries. Together with selections of foreign biography from Watkin's dictionary, recently published, and about eight hundred original articles of → online text (page 1 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


3 3433 08254305 3










... i , , ..

)'->>. -,, -"

TOGETHER. WJfpK >o ' '

j '-, i.i . > > >


rmp.n nwiniWAT. ATJTir'T'Vi! ' ' '

DRED ORIGINAL AJV.J. i^p,r, ,,,.,,,

) O O > O ' ' " '









J. & J. Harper, Printers.



J)txt<n-t of New-York, as.

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the sixteenth day of October, in the tony-eighth year of
the Independence of the United States of America, R. LOCKWOOD, of the said district,
hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in

the words following, to wit

Lempriere's Universal Biography; containing a critical and historical account of the liv< >,
rh:tr;t' ' u'jd .labCriujs OfemineBt cpei&ons, in all ages and countries. Together with

selection's; of' 1 jbveisfr < Eiogmj''hy. < fro.-ji XVi -tkins's Dictionary, recently published, and about
eiht hundred- oriinal artie'ies'.of AnJeMcJm Biorah. B Eleazar Lord."

, * i ,

In conformity to* {he Aejt.cjfj thai pjongress of the United States, entitled " An Act for the
encouragement ff iLjjqrnjrf'r, ; fcy -securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Boolcs, to the
authors and proprietor ot such cpp'ies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to
an Act, entitled '"I An Act, ]sur)j\leuientary to an Act, entitled An Act for the encouragement
of Learning, 07 (seeurii'g thc c &pSes 'ol Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and
proprietors of such' copies', during' \lid times the

therein mentioned, and extending the benefit.-

thereof to the arts of designing, en<rraviusr, and etching historical and other prints."


Clerk of ffif Snufhi'rn District of New-York*


THE proposals for publishing an American Biographical
Dictionary, in connexion with the standard volumes of Lem-
priere, have led the public to expect a work formed upon the
model of that writer a work comprising the prominent facts
and events in the history of the individuals, whose names are
inserted, and which are proper to a Dictionary, in distinction
from a book of memoirs or lives.

The original articles, chiefly of American Biography, in this
publication, are marked by the signature; %.r ^To tbose^rfel^cjed
from Watkins's Biographical Dictionary] are' subjoined, the' let-
ters W. B.

i j j 3 o. J j a *

The publisher begs to express his acknowledgments to those
persons who have favoured him with commuiircatioiis for the
work ; while he regrets that he has been unable to obtain
materials for proper notices of a number of names which are
peculiarly worthy of commemoration.

A few articles are inserted out of course at the end of tlv
second volume.

c .



4*1*1 11.,


THE advantages which a biographical work offers to the reader
are so numerous and so important, that it is hoped every endeavour
to enlarge the knowledge of mankind, and impartially to develops
the character of those who have contributed to the happiness or to
the calamities of the world, will be received by the public with in-
dulgence and candour. More minute than history, biography regards
the person, the acquirements, and the conduct of the individual,
and cursorily passes over those more general details of public trans-
actions which are more properly the object of the historian's re-
search. While in the history of nations, and in the political changes
of states, the reader views the consequences of successful intrigue,
of diplomatic dexterity, or of military prowess, it is in the details of
private and of domestic life where he seeks for instruction, and for the
minute documents which may conduct his footsteps, and hold out
the lamp of experience to warn him against the dangers of ill-di-
rected passions, or of misguided ambition.

In the following work, every character, it may generally be said,
has been included which might have strong claim on the notice of
posterity, either from public notoriety, or from lasting celebrity.
Those who have benefited their fellow-creatures by their exertions
either in the walks of science and literature, or in the improvement
of the polite arts, in the extension of commerce, or in the useful
labours of industry ; or those who, in the field of honour, have
fought with superior valour for the glories and for the independence
of their parent state, all are strongly entitled to the gratitude of
mankind. Those likewise, whose vices and crimes have rendered
them too celebrated in the annals of time, have a claim to the notice
of the biographer ; and though to pass over the foibles as well as
the enormities of his fellow-creatures might be a pleasing omission,
yet the sacred character of truth requires that the irregular passions
of men should be curbed, by observing the fatal effects and the
everlasting disgrace which misapplied talents have produced, and
the many calamities which the indulgence of criminal desires in
public life, as well as in domestic society, has always entailed on the
world. To be useful, we must paint impartially the conduct of indi-
viduals, wnether laudable or reprehensible ; and those who have
caused the miseries of their fellow-men, are to be held up to public

tj l'Rl.l.\< I

notice, and to public deli-station, that, in their history, ii' we cannot
find consolation, we may at least discover those striking lessons of
instruction and of precaution \\hirh experience never fails to afford
to the sober and the contemplative mind.

While, however, the desire of gratifying curiosity has been fulh
permitted to prevail, it must he observed, on the other hand, that
great and remarkable characters only can be entitled to more minute
details. In this particular, the assistance of judgment, and the rules
of proportion, are, in a composition of this nature, materially essen-
tial. It is within the general observation, that voluminous works
have been written to develope the history, and to portray the cha-
racters of many who, as public men, have, by their intrigues, their
labours, or their virtues, commanded the general attention for a long
course of years ; and it is equally known, that even not a few of
those whose great merits have but shone upon the world, and, like
the momentary dazzling of a meteor, have rapidly disappeared, have
formed the subject of long and desultory literary investigation. To
examine, therefore, and to select the most prominent features, to
compress the materials copiously scattered around him, and to assign
to each, to the mighty conqueror, to the vigilant politician, to the
popular writer, to the persevering philosopher, and to the humble
but ingenious mechanic, his due proportion of attention and of re-
spect, forms not the least difficult of the labours of the biographer.
He may indeed be forgiven if he is more diffuse in painting the
struggles of virtue and of innocence against the inventive powers of
oppression and of persecution ; if he expresses with warmth his
detestation against successful vice, and prosperous profligacy ; and
if he is alive to all the keen sufferings which learning has often to
endure from the sneers of pride, and the clamours of ignorance and
prejudice. It is frequently not a little consolatory to the virtuous
and to the truly great, to reflect that their labours will not be in vain.
Posterity, though late, may replace in their native dignity and ho-
nour, with perpetuated fame, the merits and services which the
jealousy or the malice of contemporaries may have endeavoured to
blot out of the historic page. It is pleasing to contemplate the dif-
ferent destinies which accompany merit, and its attendant envy.
The man whose genius, whose industry, whose talents, or whose
honourable labours in the cause of science, of literature, and of
humanity, have been often exposed to ridicule and contempt ; who
has pined in the shade of indigence or ill-deserved obscurity, rises
gradually in the good opinion of the public, and ranks with the dig-
nified benefactors of mankind : while those who treated him with
supercilious indifference, who prided themselves in the transitory
advantages of rank, of birth, or of opulence, no longer occupy the
attention of the world, and in the course of a few years, sink into
merited, into everlasting oblivion.


iii the composition of his biographical work, the author acknow-
ledges himself indebted to those, at home and abroad, whose labours
have been directed to the same pursuits. He has freely drawn his
materials from the researches of former historians and biographers ;
and the accuracy and the impartiality of their statements, which
concurrent testimonies fully prove and corroborate, are entitled to
no small share of praise. From this mingled mass, and from va-
rious sources of information, he has endeavoured to form one gene-
ral whole, and to exhibit, with the judicious brevity which so nume-
rous a class of objects requires, rather " characteristic sketches, in
pleasing miniature, than a series of finished and full-sized portraits."
However anxious he may have been to notice every one who has
risen to temporary or to lasting eminence in the long lapse of so many
ages, he may, perhaps, in the opinion of some, have selected the
subjects of his biographical labours with too sparing a hand, while
by others he may be charged with tedious prolixity. He trusts,
however, that in whatever he has done, he has been actuated by the
purest motives of impartiality ; and in delineating the life, and in
enumerating the productions of men of various countries, he has
sacrificed nationality at the altar of truth. He trusts that he has
spoken of the Christian and the Pagan, of the Catholic and the
Protestant, of the Churchman and Sectary, with the bold language
of an unprejudiced narration, which would not condescend to flatter
the great and the powerful, when in the height of authority, at the
expense of historical veracity, and which disdains to insult their
memory after they have descended to the tomb.

With these sentiments he commits, to the judgment of the pub-
lic, his biographical labours, as a companion to the CLASSICAL DIC-
TIONARY, in anxious confidence, that they will not be deemed un-
worthy of the same flattering patronage, and of the same extensive
circulation, with which that work has so long and so liberally been

Min<r<lon, March 8th, 1808.





A A, Peter Vander, a bookseller of Ley-
den, who, under the title of Galerie du
Monde, published in 66 vols. fol. an atlas of
200 charts, as explanatory of the various
voyages made between the 13th and the
close of the 17th century. These, though
accompanied with prints to represent the
customs, edifices, and curiosities of differ-
ent nations, display rather the labour and
perseverance of the compiler, than either
his judgment or accuracy. Aa made a
continuation of Graevius's Thesaurus of
Italian writers, in six other volumes. He
was still living in 1729.

AAGARD, Nicholas and Christian, two
brothers, born at Wiburg, in Denmark, in
the beginning of the 17th century. The
eldest, who was distinguished for the acute-
ness of his philosophical writings,died 1657,
and the other, known for his poetical ta-
lents, died 1664.

AALAM, an astrologer of the ninth cen-
tury, at the court of Adado Daula.

AALST, Everard, a Dutch painter, born
at Delft, 1602. His talents were displayed
with peculiar success in the representation
of shields and military accoutrements, of
dead birds and inanimate subjects, and his
paintings, few in number, are now highly
valued for superiority of execution. He
died in 1658. His nephew, William, be-
came the rival of his uncle, and in his tra-
vels through France and Italy, he deserved
and obtained the friendship and patronage
of the great, and particularly of the duke
of Tuscany, who liberally rewarded his
merit. His fruit and flower pieces were
most admired. He died in Holland in
1679, aged 59, leaving several children by
his servant-maid, to whom he was married
after his return from Italy.

AARON, elder brother of Moses, son of
Amram, of the tribe of Levi, was born A.M.
2434. He was the friend and the assistant
VOL. f. >


of his brother, and as being more happily
gifted with the powers of eloquence, he at-
tended him in all his interviews with Pha-
raoh in Egypt, and in his conferences with
the people of Israel. Though he grievous-
ly offended God by making a calf of gold,
as the representative of the divinity, which
had conducted his nation safe through the
Red Sea from the perils of Egypt, he was
permitted to become the first high-priest.
This sacred office bestowed upon him ex-
cited discontent among the friends of Ko-
rah and his associates, but Aaron exercised
it with honour and fidelity, and after in-
vesting his son Eleazer as his successor,
he died in his 123d year, without being
permitted to enter the promised land.

AARON RASCHID, a caliph of the Abbas-
sides, distinguished by his conquests, and
the eccentricity of his character. Valiant in
battle, he showed himself inhuman and per-
fidious towards the conquered, and ever
made the sacred duties of the sovereign sub-
servient to caprice, intemperance, or re-
sentment. At once master of the finest pro-
vinces of Asia and Africa, his power extend-
ed from Spain to the banks of the Ganges,
and exacted a tribute from Nicephorus, the
Roman emperor of the East. He deserves
our admiration for the patronage which he'
afforded to literature and to the arts. He
was eight times victorious in battle, and
eight times paid his adoration at the tomb
of the prophet. Charlemagne respected
his character, and Aaron in token of friend-
ship presented to the European prince a
clock, the mechanism and construction of
which were regarded among the prodigies
of the age. He died A. D. S09, in the
23d year of his reign.

AARON SCHASCOU, a rabbi of Thessalo-
nica, celebrated for his writings.

AARON, a British saint, put to death with
his brother Julius, during Diocletian's per-



secution of the Christians, and lanied :ii

t :n rl< Oil, ill U ales.

AMION, :i presbyter and physician of \i-

vnulritt in the eighth centnr\. uho wrote
;'() hooks or pandects on mi dicine in the

s\ nac langiiag* . He is the first author who
makes mention of the small pox and oi the

measles, dise:ise> \\lnch \\ere introduced
into Fgypt by tin- ( om|iic-t o! ihc \ra!.ians,
about (i 10. 1 U \\ as particularly < xpiieit on
tin- symptoms and on the progress of t!ie-e

disorders , but as his compositions are lost,
and only scattered fragments are to hi s ( -en
in the collections of Mohammed Rhazis, the

moderns niu-t \cr remain in ignorance of
llie origin and probable causes of the-e
"Ircadt'iil scourges of tlie lininan race.

AARON, 1 lariseon, a Caraite rabbi, who
was known as a physic- inn at Constantino-
ple in 121.M, and who wrote a learned com-
mentary on the pentatctich, besides anno-
tations on some of the books of the Old
Testament, a Hebrew grammar, vc.

AARON, Hacharon, or Posterior, another
learned rabbi, whose writings are highly
esteemed by the Caraite Jews. He was
born in Nicomedia, 1346. He wrote on the
law of Moses, and particularly on the cus-
toms of his nation, in a treatise entitled
the Garden of Eden.

AARON, Isaac, an interpreter of languages
at the court of Constantinople under the
Comneni. He abused the confidence repo-
sed in him, and with unparalleled inhu-
manity recommended to Andronicus, the
usurper of his master's throne, to put out
the eyes and cut off the tongues of his ene-
mies, a punishment which was afterwards
inflicted on himself by Isaac Angelus, 1203.

AARON BEN-CHAIM, the chief of the Jew-
ish synagogues at Fez and Morocco in the
beginning of the 17th century. He wrote
commentaries on Joshua, the law, the pro-
phets, &c.

AARON BEN-ASF.R, a learned rabbi in the
fifth century, to whom the invention of the
Hebrew points and accents is attributed.
He wrote a Hebrew grammar, printed 151 ~>.

AARON, a Levite of Barcelona, \vho wrote
CIS precepts on Moses, printed at Venice,
1523. He died 1292.

AARSENS, Francis, a celebrated states-
man, son of the register of the United Pro-
vinces. He was early initiated in politics,
and at the court of France, where he was the
first honoured and recognised as the ambas-
sador of Holland, he enlarged his under-
standing, and acquired the knowledge and
the arts of negotiation under Henry IV. and
Iris ministers Villeroi, Rosni, Silleri, &c.
Flattered by the people, esteemed by the
monarch, and raised to the honours of nobi-
lity, he continued 15 years the representa-
tive of his nation, till either the popularity
or the jealousy of the court procured his re-
'all. He afterwards was employed in the

sal. !i\ at \enice, and in other (la

h m -tales, ;md lie was one of iho-c who HC-
: "Mated in Kn^laiid for the marriage of
\\illiam of Orange nith the daughter of.
I'harles |. \ pi r-ua-i\e eloquence and
tlie ai I- of di'-iiiiulati<Mi and intrigue \\ere
united in \arsens- with an imposing ap-
pearance .if blnntiiess ami ru-tie simplicity,
and rendered him at once dangerous anil
successful, so that I'.ii lichen, who knew
and employed his abilities, acl;no\\ ledged
that he shared with Oxenstiern of Sweden,
and \ ix-ardi of Montse-rat, tin honour of
b( ing the must consummate politician of
his age. He died in an advanced a^e, ami
his son had the singular reputation of being
the most opulent citizen of Holland. He
left behind him an account of all the em-
bassies in which he was engaged, and from
the accuracy, the judgment, and the exact-
ness in which his papers are drawn up and
arranged, we derive a further proof of his
genius and his perseverance. Memoirs of
him were published by Du Maurier.

AARSENS or AERTSEN, Peter, surnamed
Longo, from his tallness, was born at Am-
sterdam, 1510, where he also died in his
66th year. Though brought up like his
father to the profession of a stocking-ma-
ker, he was at last permitted, by the en-
treaties of his mother, to follow the bent
of his genius, and at 18 he began to study
painting, architecture, and perspective. At
Antwerp, where he married, and where he
was admitted a member of the academy of
painters, he gave proofs of his superior ta-
lents, and in his first pieces particularly
excelled in representing the utensils of a
kitchen. A painting of the death of the
Virgin for an altar-piece at Amsterdam,
was highly esteemed, and another equally
deserved the warmest admiration, in which
he represented the crucifixion with the
executioner in the act of breaking with an
iron bar the legs of the two thieves. This
last was torn to pieces in a public insur-
rection, 1566, and so unguarded was thr.
painter in his complaints and reproaches
on the occasion, that N the ferocious popu-
lace were with difficulty prevented from
murdering him. He left 3 sons, who also
engaged in his profession.

AARTGEN or AERTGEN, the son of a
wool-comber at Leyden, who, after fol-
lowing his father's occupation, turned his
thoughts to painting, in the prosecution of
which he acquired reputation and conse-
quence. Regardless of the conveniences
of life, he was visited by Floris of Ant-
werp, and rejected the patronage and so-
ciety of this amiable and disinterested
friend, declaring he found greater gratifi-
cation in his mean cottage, than in the
enjoyment of opulence. He w^as habitu-
ally intemperate, and as he never touched
his pencil on Mondays, he devoted those



days with his pupils to festivity and drun-
kenness. He was drowned in the canals
of the city in the night, as he amused him-
self according to his usual custom in play-
ing through the streets on the german llute.

ABA, brother-in-law to Stephen, the first
Christian king of Hungary, defeated Peter,
who had succeeded his uncle on the throne,
and after he had banished him to Bavaria,
he usurped the crown, 1041 or 1042. He
disgraced himself by his cruelties, and after
being conquered in a battle by the emperor
Henry III. he was sacrificed to the resent-
ment of his offended subjects, 1044.

ABAFFI, Michael, son of a magistrate of
Hermanstad, rose by his abilities and in-
trigues, to the sovereignty of Transylvania,
in 1661. He bravely assisted the Turks,
and became formidable to the emperor of

ABACA or ABAKA, a king of Tartary,
whose ambassadors were introduced in
1274 to the ecclesiastical synod of Lyons.
He conquered Persia, and proved a power-
ful and formidable neighbour to the Chris-
tians who had settled at Jerusalem. He
died 1282.


ABARIS, a Scythian philosopher, the his-
tory of whose adventures, as mentioned by
Herodotus and others, appears more fabu-
lous than authentic.

ABAS, Schah, was seventh king of Persia,
of the race of the Sophis. He was brave and
active, and enlarged the boundaries of his
dominions. He took, conjointly with the
English forces, 1622, the island of Ormus,
which had been in the possession of the
Portuguese 122 years. He died 1629, in the
44th year of his reign, and obtained from
his grateful and admiring subjects the sur-
name of great, and of restorer of Persia.
He had made Ispahan his capital.

ABAS, Schah, the great grandson of the
preceding, succeeded his father in 1642 in
his 13th year. He took Candahar from the
Moguls, and valiantly resisted the attacks of
300,000 besiegers. Blessed with an enlar-
ged understandingjhe patronized the Chris-
tians, and promised by deeds of benevolence
and liberality to rival the greatest heroes of
antiquity, when he was cut oft" by the lues
venereain his 37th year, Sept. 25, 1666.

ABASSA, an officer who revolted against
Mustapha I. emperor of the Turks, and af-
terwards was employed against the Poles,
1634, at the head of 60,000 men. The cow-
ardice of his troops robbed him of a victory
which his courage, his abilities, and his am-
bition seemed to promise, and he was
strangled by order of the Sultan.

ABASSA, a sister of Aaron Raschid,
whose hand was bestowed by her brother
on Giafar, on condition that she abstained
from the marriage rights. The promise was
forgotten : the birth of a *on Hint was se-

cretly sent to Mecca to be brought up, in-
censed the emperor, and the husband's life
was sacrificed by the tyrant, and Abassa
reduced to poverty. There are still extant
some Arabic verses which beautifully cele-
brate her love and her misfortunes.

AEASSON, an impostor, who, under the
character of the grandson of Abas the great,
obtained the patronage of the court of
France and of the grand seignor, by whose
orders he was at last beheaded.

ABATS, Andrew, a painter, born at Na-
ples, and engaged in the service of the Spa-
nish king. He died 1732. His fruit pieces
and landscapes were admired.

ABAUZIT, Firmin, born at Uzes, llth No-
vember, 1679, fled from the persecution
which attended his parents on account of
their profession of Protestantism, and reti-
red to Geneva, where he found protection
and peace. As he had early lost his father,
his education was promoted by the care of
his mother, who had the happiness to dis-
cover that the small remains of her scat-
tered fortune were amply compensated by
the improvement of her son. Geneva was
the seat of literature as well as of freedom,
and Abauzit was soon distinguished for his
superior progress in every branch of polite
learning, but particularly mathematics and
natural history. In Holland he became the
friend of Bayle, of Jurieu, and Basnage ; in
England he was honoured with the friend-
ship of St. Evremond, and of the corres-
pondence of Newton ; and William HI. in-
vited him, by offers of liberal patronage, to
settle in his dominions ; but the remem-
brance of Geneva, the asylum of his infant
years, made him decline the generosity of
the monarch. The fruits of his literary la-
bours were few : unambitious to appear
before the public, he chose rather to assist
his friends than solicit fame in his own per-
son. He, however, applied himself to anti-

Online LibraryJohn LemprièreLempriere's universal biography; containing a critical and historical account of the lives, characters, and labours of eminent persons, in all ages and countries. Together with selections of foreign biography from Watkin's dictionary, recently published, and about eight hundred original articles of → online text (page 1 of 169)