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THE



MEN OF THE TIME



OR



SKETCHES OF LIVING NOTABLES



AUTHORS

ARCHITECTS

ARTISTS

COMPOSERS

DEMAGOGUES

DIVINES

DRAMATISTS



ENGINEERS

JOURNALISTS

MINISTERS

MONARCHS

NOVELISTS

PHILANTHROPISTS

POETS



POLITICIANS

PREACHERS

SAVANS

STATESMEN

TRAVELLERS

VOYAGERS

WARRIORS




RE D F I E L D,

CLINTON HALL, NEW YORK.
1852.



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,
BY J. S. REDFIELD,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the South-
ern District of New York.




PREFACE.



THE following series of the " Men of the Time" is the
fullest, and, it is believed, the most valuable collection of
Contemporary Biographies yet made in this country. Its
preparation has been a labor of care and responsibility, and
every available facility, at home and abroad, has been dili-
gently brought to bear upon the undertaking.

It is not easy to estimate the difficulties in the preparation
of such a work, of so general a character, embracing so
great a variety of interests, where no single standard of selec-
tion can be adopted, and where, when the choice is made,
the treatment varies with the opportunities of information,
and numerous inequalities must necessarily result. That
every obstacle to the perfection of such a work has been
successfully overcome, in so comprehensive a plan embracing
notices of the prominent men, in active and intellectual life,
of the whole world, can hardly be expected ; but that more
than ordinary exertions have been made, to the due comple-
tion of the task, is confidently claimed.

Among the chief foreign sources of information have been,
for England and the Continent, the valuable contemporary
articles of biography of the latest volumes, and the new



4 PREFACE.

editions of the various German Conversations-Lexikons i \v'hich
may be said to contain a fair account of well-nigh every
European reputation. All accessible French and Span-
ish sources have been put into requisition ; and the work
bearing a similar title (" The Men of the Time") published
in London has been used, where available, as a basis, but in
almost every instance with corrections or amendments. Other
and important information has been supplied to a consider-
able extent from original sources, extending through the
various departments of the work. Of the articles furnished
in this way, conveying new information, we may refer gen-
erally to many of the Spanish and South American names,
and to such separate titles as those of Rothschild, Simpson,
and others.

The plan pursued with the American biographies has
been to verify, in every practicable case, the statements of
fact from the most authentic sources. A mass of valuable
matter, in this large portion of the volume, is now for the
first time submitted to the public. The interest taken in the
work by those whose relations to public affairs have enabled
them to aid in the completeness of the collection, has ex-
ceeded the expectation of the Publisher, who takes this op-
portunity to return a general acknowledgment to the different
persons throughout the country to whom he is indebted
for important contributions. Information has been frankly
sought and freely rendered. In some cases, from the ab-
sence of parties, or an occasional reluctance to the publicity,
names which it has been desirable to present have been
omitted ; but these cases are few.









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PREFACE. 5

The usefulness of this work as an Index of the World's
Active Talent, in every department of exertion and every
position of paramount importance, must speak for itself.
Like the special icily directories, and American and other
almanacs, the utility of which is obvious, the general scope
and interest of the present volume are conveyed in its title
" THE MEN OF THE TIME." It is thus a companion and
book of reference to the widest class of publications known
the universal newspapers and may be said to be of par-
ticular value to every reader or talker as a means of enlight-
ened and liberal information not to know which, * argufes
yourself unknown."

In this respect, we may be allowed to quote the highest
authority which can be adduced for the plan of the book.
In a note to the Publisher, the President of the United
States, surrounded by every resource of information per-
sonal and literary, remarks of the special need of this par-
ticular work :

" I am happy to learn that you are publishing this work.
It is precisely that kind of information that every public and
intelligent man desires to see, especially in reference to the
distinguished men of Europe, but which I have found it
extremely difficult to obtain."



YORK, August, 1852.



.

For the Evening Mirror.
Men of the Time.

Mr. RedGeld's compiler geoms to have taken news-
paper notoriety as the basis of his selection; and yet
we do not find any mention of old Doctor Townsend,
or Doctor Brandreth. Certain offices have been taken
as sufficient to, make the incumbent a " man of the ;
time" at any rate. The compiler will probably say
to his critics "we could not insert every body."
But this is a poor excuse for a careless and even ludi-
crous selection. Let us make two short colums, one
of the great inserted, and the other of the everybody
class, who could not have room allowed them on board
this craft. The reader will please to notice the pair
of names in each case, and consider well the left-hand
and the right.

INSERTED. OMITTED.

Rev. B. F. Teftt. Theodore D. Woolsey, Pres.

Y. C.

James Hall. Prof. Joseph Henry.

Gto. H.Boker. Horace Binuey.

Robert M. Bird. Alexander D. Bachc.

Rev. Sylvester Judd. John Todd, D. D.

Geo. M. Totten. Jeremiah Day, D. D.

Rt. Rev. Alfred Lee. Prof. Addlson Alexander.

Zadoc Pratt. Theodore Freli:,ghuysen.

Rutus W. Griswold. Gardiner Spring, D. D.

E. G. Squier. James D. Dana.

John Williams, D. D. Leonard Woods, D. D.

H. T. Tuckerman. Prof. Benjamin Pierce.

Nicholas Longworth. George Evans.

Kev. O. C. Baker. Prof E. A. Park.

Calvin 'Jolton. Jaines Harper.

Herman Melville. Sears C. Walker.

Horatio Southgate, D.D. Jonas King, D. D.

Francis P. Blair, Robert Walsh.

The columns might be- much longer; but this is
enough to show the "nater o' the creetur." C.



MEN OF THE TIME



ABBAS PACHA, viceroy of Egypt, only son of Toussoun Pacha, and
grandson of the late Mehemet All, was born at Jedda, in the Hedjas,
in the month of Siffu, 1229 (A. D. 1813). At the age of eighteen
months he was brought to Egypt; six months after which he lost his
father, who died at Cairo, of plague, during the sadly-memorable
visitation of 1815. Until he had attained his seventh year, the child
was brought up and acquired the rudiments of an ordinary education
in the harem of his mother, when, in consideration of the character and
services of his father, he was made a pacha of two tails, by order of the
Sultan Mahmoud. At eight years of age, he was sent to the college
of Aboo-Zabel, and subsequently to that of Kaukah, where he received
a liberal instruction in the Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages (with
all of which he is critically familiar), and also in mathematics and
military engineering. At the age of fifteen he was removed from
collegiate studies, and appointed by Mehemet Ali to the confidential
office of provincial inspector, which post he usefully occupied for a period
of three years. At this time the expedition had been sent against Syria,
and Abbas was named to the command of the cavalry division of the
Egyptian army, under Ahmed Pacha Manickli. His services and
activity there were honorably mentioned on three or four occasions in
the published gazette. The fatigues of incessant exposure and unhealthy
bivouacs brought on an attack of intermittent fever, which necessitated
his return to Alexandria. On his arrival Mehemet Ali refused to
permit him to join the army, as he required the services at home of con-
fidential men ; and Abbas Pacha received the appointment of governor
of the Gharbiah district. After two years he was named inspector-
general of the provinces ; and during the year in which the great fir.e
occurred at Cairo, he succeeded to the important and responsible offices
of khahir, or chief minister, and president of the council at Cairo.
During his occupation of these posts, for a period of more than eight
years, he acquired general respect, both with the natives and European
consuls. On the accession of his uncle, Ibrahim Pacha, Abbas lost favor,
in consequence of his vindication of certain of the members of Mehemet
Ali's family ; and he determined on a pilgrimage to the Hedjas, whither
he proceeded on the 16th Zilcade, 1267. He had been there only thirty-



8 ABBAS PACHA.

eight days, when intelligence of his uncle's death reached him, and he
was enjoined to return to Egypt -without delay, to assume the succession.
He was duly recognised by the foreign consuls as the legitimate successor,
under the hereditary settlement of the year, 1841; and proceeded soon
after to Constantinople, where he was well received by the sultan, and
duly invested with viceregal authority in Egypt. On his return (20th
November, 1848) he set about the adoption of a novel line of policy.
He eschewed the old system of his pre'decessors, of frittering away the
labor and resources of the country in useless armaments, costly and
unprofitable public works, and a weak attempt to maintain European
manufacturing establishments. He directed the attention of his people
toward agricultural industry, released them from the pressure of severe
taxation, and removed, as far as possible, all restrictions on free internal
trade. The effect of these measures is now beginning to manifest
itself in the increased wealth of the country, the increasing productions,
and in the existence of a spirit of enterprise, unknown before. The
removal of the odious poll-tax reduced the people's burdens, and the
pacha's income by the large annual sum of 82,500,000; yet, we
believe, in spite of this, from a better system of administration, the
public revenue of the country has now increased to almost its former
amount. To carry out his plans he had serious difficulties to encounter.
He found in office a cabal of men hostile to all departure from a system
of things that enabled them to enrich themselves by means of peculation
and corruption. But, bringing a thorough practical knowledge of the
popular wants to bear on the government of the people, he" determined
at once to grapple with the difficulty, and he dismissed all those among
the public employes in whose fidelity he could not place the necessary
confidence, and replaced them by tried, and certainly, as events have
since proved, more trustworthy and respectable men. While he thus
benefited his country, he had the misfortune to raise up against him at
Constantinople, whither all those men repaired, a powerful and hostile
party, by which he has been since grievously harassed. They have had
influence enough to seduce several members of his family from their
duty and allegiance to him ; and their familiarity with the resources
of Egypt has lately been taken advantage of by the vizier of Turkey to
concoct a system of judicial and administrative reform, which, under
the most specious pretexts for the improvement of the local government,
is designed to subvert the authority and independence of the pacha,
promote disorder among the people, and so enable its rapacious projectors
to aim a blow at the existing dynasty, and supply a long-envied field
of patronage to the cupidity of Constantinople adventurers and courtiers.
He has spent 8350,000 in making a carriage-road across the desert to
Suez ; he has expended large sums in improving the Nile navigation ;
and he has now undertaken the construction of a railroad from Alexandria
to Cairo. In private life the pacha is distinguished for his generous
remembrance of services rendered during his comparative adversity, and
by many other good qualities of heart; but he is by no means free from
weakness of character. Contact with the world has greatly contributed
to expand the resources of his intellect, and improve the better qualities
of his mind. He has recently placed his sons under the tuition of an
English gentleman engaged for the purpose, and is generally encouraging
the study of that language about his court.



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ABD-EL-KADER ABD-UL-MEDJID. 9

ABD-EL-K ADER is entitled to recognition as one of the m?n of the
time, in consequence of the long and gallant struggle he maintained
against the whole' power of France, in Africa. During fifteen years
(from 1832 to 1847) he kept the French in more or less constant warfare;
at times successful, and then apparently beaten, yet ever starting up
again when least expected; harassing the troops on the Algerian frontier,
and compelling the commander of the Gallic colony to call out large
forces, and to continue a long, galling, unsatisfactory, and often fruitless
campaign, with an enemy, that, like a will-o'-the-wisp, flitted about,
apparently only to lead all pursuers into ambushes and dangers on
the hot sands and in the sickly deserts of Africa. So often was he
thought to be crushed, and so often declared to be slain or captured,
that the frequency and the constant falsehood of the rumors on the
subject passed into a common jest in Paris. At last, indeed, people
scarcely believed in the reality of Abd-el-Kader at all : his final down-
fall was only secured with the assistance of the emperor of Morocco.
With the view of obtaining a redress of grievances, the French had sent
a fleet to attack that potentate's dominions, and the operations that
ensued led to a treaty between France and Morocco, in which the latter
bound itself to restrain Abd-el-Kader from any aggression on the
French. Accordingly, the emperor sent an army under Muley Abderr-
haman, and another of his sons, to hem in Abd-el-Kader, which they
succeeded in doing ; and soon afterward the Parisian official paper, the
"Moniteur," published despatches from the Due d'Aumale, at that time
governor-general of Algeria, and from General Lamoriciere, giving
details of the surrender of Abd-el-Kader to the French, and of the
events which immediately preceded it. "The illustrious emir was
overpowered, not beat6n," said the Paris letter of "The Times;" "his
last was, perhaps, the most brilliant of all his achievements. With a
handful of faithful and devoted adherents, he in the night of the llth
and 12th December, 1847, attacked the Moorish camps, and routed the
immense army they contained; but, overpowered by numbers, and
hemmed in on all sides bv hourlv increasing masses of Moors, he was

/ /

gradually pushed back on the frontier of Algeria. The weather had
been frightful, which impeded military operations. On December 21st,
the fords of the Moulouia became practicable, and the baggage and the
families of his brave companions proceeded toward the plain of Triffa,
the resolve of Abd-el-Kader having been to see them in safetv in the

n "

French territory, and then cut through the Moors, with such of his
adherents as should dare to follow him." "He threw himself into the
country of the Beni-Snassur," says the Due d'Aumale, "and sought to
again take the road to the south, which the emperor of Morocco had
left free ; but, surrounded on that side by our cavalry, he trusted to the
generosity of France, and surrendered, on condition of being sent to St.
Jean d'Acre or Alexandria." The emir arrived, soon afterward, in a
French steamer, at Toulon. The government of Louis-Philippe hesitated
to carry into effect the agreement of General Lamoriciere, ratified by
the Due d'Aumale ; and finally determined to break faith with the emir,
who to this hour has been held captive in France.

ABD-UL-MEDJID, sultan of Turkey, was born on the 20th of April,
1823, and was but sixteen years of age when called to succeed his
father, whose death was announced on the 1st of July, 1839, though it

1*



10 A'BECKETT ABERDEEN.

is supposed that it occurred srrhe davs before. The ceremony of instal-
lation was performed on the Ijfth, t Ceil he was girded with the sword
of Osman, with all the ancient Toriiialitips. Abdu-1-Medjid has conducted
the administration of Turkey upon the., policy of his eminent father. In
his reiirn the army has been entirely reorganized upon the best European
model, taxes have been equalized, and the general prosperity of the
country so much advanced, that its population is annually increased
by immigrations of the subjects of neighboring states, drawn to Turkey
by the comforts of an enlightened government. In carrying out the
new system, Tanzimat as it is called, the present sultan has encountered
formidable obstacles; but hitherto, with the occasional aid of France
and England, he has succeeded in overcoming them all.

A'BECKETT, GILBERT ABBOTT, a popular writer, who, after
many years' service with the pen, has been fortunate enough to obtain
that which governments do not often bestow on public writers an
honorable and profitable post in the public service. Mr. A'Beckett, in
his early literary days, was the chief writer of a comic paper called
"Figaro in London," the forerunner of an existing satirical publication
of much wider celebrity. But Mr. A'Beckett has always been something
more than a wit and punster. He was called to the bar by the
Honorable Society of Gray's Inn, January 27, 1841 ; but, though the son
of an attorney, briefs were not over-abundant; and he employed a
portion of his leisure in writing political and other "leaders" for the
daily press. He has wjitten for both "The Times" and the "Daily
News." Having been employed for a while as an assistant-commissioner
under the poor-law board, he produced a report which showed him to
be possessed of talent for investigation, and general aptitude for official
duty. Tliis, and, it is said, the friendship of that kindly politician, the
late Charles Buller, secured for Mr. A'Beckett an appointment as one
of the metropolitan police magistrates. He now fulfils such duties as
Fielding once performed; and, like the great novelist, employs the
leisure afforded by the not-too-heavy duties of his post in the exercise
of his literary abilities. He is understood still to be a contributor to
"Punch;" and, as the public well know, indulges them with comic
versions of histories and treatises in which no fun was ever before
believed to reside. He is the author, among other works, of the
"Comic History of England," " Comic Blackstone," and " Comic History
of Rome."

ABERDEEN, GEORGE GORDON, Earl of, a conservative statesman,
descended of an ancient Scottish house, was born in 1784, and educated
at St. John's college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. in
1804. In that year, having resided some time in Greece, he founded
the Athenian Society, of which no one might be a member who had
not visited Athens. In 1813, he was sent to Vienna, as embassador
of England, and concluded at Toplitz, October 3d, 1813, the preliminary
negotiations by which Austria was detached from the French alliance,
anl united with England, against Napoleon. He subsequently brought
about the alliance of Murat, king of Naples, with Austria; but in 1815
excrtcil himself vainly to pivvent the rupture which took place between
the courts of Naples and Vienna, and resulted in the restoration of the
Bourbons to the throne of the former state. Elected in 1814 a Scottish
representative peer, he uniformly approved himself a decided tory. In



OBITUARY.

[From the London Daily News, September 3.1

GILBERT A'BECKKTT. The death of a very gifted
man which we have recorded carrot be passed by
in silence. Mr. A'BeckeU, t u > aoi.' of a solicitor in
extensive practice, was educuted : t Westminster
School, and was launched at a remarkably early age
into the excitement of that profession of which ha
became a conspicuous ornament. Gifted with a won-
drous and peculiar humor, even as a bjy, be started
coiaic periodicals with his schoolfellow, Mr. Henry
Majhew, and was dealing with public reputations at
an age when most youths confine their ambition to
tbe celicacies of knuckling down, or the diplomacy
of peg-in-tbe-ring. Before he had reached man's es-
tate, he bad seen many periodicals rise and fail under
the auspices of himself and his literary partaor ; sums
bavmg obtained a temporary success, others having
failed at once. But undoubtedly the great success of
the two boys was Figaro the journal which, it, may
be fairly said, prepared the public imnd for the ap-
pearance of our prosperous friend Punch; upon
which they were destined to found a lasting reputa-
tion.

The foi tunes of Punoh are patent to the world :
and with them the name of Mr. A'Beckett is insepar-
ably associated. The jovial spirit in which Mr. Dun-
up has borae his adverse fortunes ; the fua found in
B ackstoce ; the showers of jeux-de-mots in the
"Comic History of Eogland;" the weekly comments
of exquisite humor on passing events, iu which the
touch is unmisiakcable and then the genial, simple
spirit of the wr;ter these are among the claims by
which the narre of A'Beckett will be remembered in
the literary history of the century. As ona of the
originators of that wise fun wh ch has distinguished
the periodical literature of 'the present time, he must
hold a conspicuous place; while thousands who re-
member sly hits and droll turns of thought, and ex-
quisite plays upon words, that bear his name as au-
thor, will also remember, as a charm, that none of
them were ur/just, and none of them telling by their
ill-nature. He was before all a just man, who never
allowed his moral sense to be distorted by his wU,
and who never slaughtered a name With his irresist-
ible ridicule while he believed that name to be hon-
orable.

Few men could have held the two opposite posi-
tions he occupied as metropolitan magistrate and
Punch contributor without incurring cbarges of in-
competency on the one hand, or snobism on the
other. Mr. A'Beckett was a wise magistrate aud a
conscientious contributor. He buckled bravely to his
magisterial duties, while he cherished an affection far
the periodical in which he had won his way. It was
his delight to have at least a few lines in every num-
ber of Pvnch.

Mr. A'Beckett must not be judged, however, simply
KS a contributor to Punch, and therefore as a man
who never devoted himself to solid and serious work.
It should be widely known that for some time his
light and vigorous pen was in the service of the Timis
newspaper, and that he contributed to the leading
columns cf that journal some of the msre remark-
able articles ii~itas_put forth. Indeed, on one day,



the whole of the leading columns of the Times
were the production of the gentleman whose death
we now deplore. Entrusted by the late Charles
Buller with an inquiry into the iniquities prac-
tised at the Andover Union, Mr. A'Beckett fram-
ed masterly a report that he was at once re-
cognised as a man of clear and sound judgment, who
combined with this valuable qualification the power
ot explaining bis views in language at once brilli -mt
aod vigorous. His Andover leaders in the Times are
articles to which reference is still constantly made.
The genius with which the Andover question was
treated gave Mr. A'Beckett strong claims upon the
gratitude of the country, and secured for him the me-
tropolitan magistracy, which he has held with honor
and dignity during the last seven years.

An earnest, a wise, a hearty and* a kindly man has
passed from among us, and we note his loss with sor-
row. It is son.etb.ing to say that a man so largely
gifted with the power to wound leaves no scar be-
hind him, and that all men of letters no w living unite
in acknowledging the ability of the writer, while his
personal intimates bear witness to his goodness as a
iriend, and to his devotion to his domestic circle. He
hag Jett a widow, whose gifts as a musician are not
unknown to the world, to deplore his sudden death,
and children to bear a name upon which he has gath-
ered many honors, against which there is not a vrord
of reproach.



ACHILLI. 11

1828 he became minister of foreign affairs under "Wellington. In this
position he departed widely from the system of Canning, inasmuch as he



Online LibraryJohn LemprièreThe Men of the time; or, Sketches of living notables .. → online text (page 1 of 83)