John Lemprière.

Universal biography : containing a copious account, critical and historical, of the life and character, labors and actions of eminent persons, in all ages and countries, conditions and professions, arranged in alphabetical order : abridged from the larger work online

. (page 1 of 199)
Online LibraryJohn LemprièreUniversal biography : containing a copious account, critical and historical, of the life and character, labors and actions of eminent persons, in all ages and countries, conditions and professions, arranged in alphabetical order : abridged from the larger work → online text (page 1 of 199)
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^THHE advantages which a biographical work offers to the reader, are fo
-*- numerous and fo important, that it is hoped every endeavour to
enlarge the knowledge of mankind, and impartially to develope the character
of thofe who have contributed to the happinefs or to the calamities of the
world, will be received by the public with indulgence and candor. More
minute than hiftory, biography regan& the jperfon, the acquirements, and
the conduct of the individual, and curforily paffes over thofe more general
details of public tranfactions which are more properly the object of the
hiftorian's refearch. While in the hiftorj of nations, and in the political
changes of ftates, the reader views the confequences of fuccefsful intrigue, of
diplomatic dexterity, or of military prowefs, it is in the details of private
and of domeftic life where he feeks for inftruction, and for the minute docu-
ments which may conduct his footfleps, and hold out the lamp of experience
to warn him againil the dangers of ill-directed paffions, or of mifguided

In the following work, every character, it may generally be faid, has been
included which might have ftrong claim on the notice of pofterity, either
from public notoriety, or from lafting celebrity. Thofe who have benefited
their fellow creatures by their exertions, either in the walks of fcience and
literature, or in the improvement of the polite arts, in the extenfion of
commerce, or in the ufeful labors of induftry ; or thofe who, in the field of
honor, have fought with fuperior valor for the glories and for the inde-
pendence of their parent Hate, all are ftrongly intitled to the gratitude of



With thefe fentiments he commits, to the judgment of the pubjic, his
biographical labors, as a companion to the Classical Dictionary, in
anxious confidence, that they will not be deemed unworthy of the fame
flattering patronage, and of the fame extenlive circulation, with which that
work has fo long and fo liberally been honored.

March 8th, i8c8.

IN offering to the public this octavo edition of his Universal Bio-
graphy, the author thinks it neceffary to fay, that he has attempted to
comprefs his fubject into a more compendious form, without however lofing
any part of what is moft interefting and important in the account of the
life of each individual mentioned. A few of thofe characters among foreign
nations, whofe labors and actions appeared not of fufficient confequence, or
of flriking notoriety, to engage and to fix the particular attention of a native
of England, have occafionally been paffed over ; and the omiffion, it is
hoped, will not be regarded as depreciating the general utility, or the real
value of the work. The names alfo that occur in the ancient claffics have
not been all inferted in this edition, as the author has in the Clafiical Diction-
ary given a more copious and more fatisfa&ory account of them, than could
have been with propriety introduced into the following pages in their
prefent epitomized form.

5th September, 1808.




&C. &C* &C.


A A, Peter Fandrr, a bookleller of Ley
den, who, under the title of Galerie du
Monde, publiihed, in 66 vols. foL an atlas of
aoo charts, as explanatory of the various voy-
ages made between the 13th and the clofe of
the 17th century. He was ftiH living in

Aagard, Nicholas and Chrrjlian, two bro-
thers, born at Wiburg in Denmark, in the be-
ginning of the 1 8th century. The eldeit,
diHinguifhed for the acutenels of his philofo-
phical writings, died 1657, and the other,
known for his poetical talents, died 1664., an aftrologer of the ninth century
at the court of Adado Daub.

Aalst, Everard, a Dutch painter, born at
Delft 1602. His talents were diiplayed with
peculiar fuccefs in the reprefentation of ihields
and military accoutrements, of dead birds, &c.
He died in 1658. His nephew William
hecarrie his rival, and in his travels through
France and Italy he obtained the patronage of
the great, and pr.rticnl.1rly of the grand duke of
Tufcany. His fruit and flower pieces are moft
admired. He died in Holland in 1679, a 5 ec *


Aaron, elder brother of Mofes, (on of
Amram, of the tribe of Levi, was born A. M
2434. He was the friend and the affiftant of
his brother, and as being more happily gifted
with the powers of eloquence, he attended him
in all his interviews with Pharaoh in Egypt,
and in his conferences with the people of lira el.
Though he offended God by making a calf of
gold, as the reprefentative of the divinity, he
was permitted to become the firft high prieft.
He died in his 123d year, without being per-
mitted to enter the promiled land.

Aaron Raschiq, a caliph of the Abaf-
fides, diftinguifhed by his conquefts, and the
eccentricity of his character. Valiant in bat-
tle, he mowed himfelf inhuman and perfidious
towards the conquered. He deferves our ad-
miration for the patronage which he afforded
to literature and to the arts. He was eight


times victorious in battle, and eight times
paid his adoration at the tomb of the prophet.
Charlemagne refpected his charadter, and
Aaron in token of friendfhip prefented to the
European prince a clock, the mechanifm and
conftriiction of which were regarded among the
prodigies of the age. He died A. D. 809, ia
the 23d year of his reign.

Aaron Schascou, a rabbi of ThefTalonica,
celebrated for his writings.

Aaron, a Britim faint, put to death with
his brother Julius, during Dioclefian's perfec-
tion, and buried at Caerleon m Wales.

Aaron, a prefbyter and phyfician of Alex-
andria in the eifchthcentury, whowrote30 books
or pande&s on medicine in the Syriac language.
He is the firft author whomakes mention of the
fmall-pox, and of the mealies, difeafes which
were introduced into Egypt by the conquefts of
the Arabians about 640.

Aaron, Ha-nfcon, a Caraite rabbi who
was known as a phyfician at Conftantinople in
1224, and who wrote a learned commentary
on the pentateuch, befides annotations on the
Old Teftament,a Hebrew grammar, Sec.

Aaron, Hacharon or Poflerior, a learned
rabbi, born in Nicodemia in 1346. He wrote
on the law of Mofes, and on the cuftoms of his

Aaron, Ifaac, an interpreter of languages
at the court of Conftantinople under the Com-
meni. He abufed the confidence repofed in
him, and recommended to Andronicus, the
ufurper of his mailer's throne, to put cut the
eyes and cut off the tongue of, bis enemies, a
puniihment afterwards infli&ed on hknfelf by
Ifaac Angelus 1203.

Aaron-Bf.n-Chaxm, the chief of the
Jewilh fynagogues at fez and Morocco in the
beginning of the 17th century, wrote commen-
taries on Jofhua, the la-", the prophets, &c.
Aaron Ben-aser, a rabbi in the fifth
century, to whom the invention of the He-
brew points r>nd accents is attributed. He
wrote a Hebrew grammar.

S Aaron,



Aaron, a levite of Barcelona, who wrote
613 precepts on Moles, printed Venice 1523.
He died 129 i.

Aarsens, Francis, a celebrated ftatefman,
f-n of the regillcr of the United Provinces.
He was early initiated in politics ; and at the
court of France, where he was nmbaffidor of
Holland, he acquired the knowledge and the
arts of negotiation under Henry IV. and his
minifters Villeroi, Roihi, Silleri, &c. He after-
wards was employed in the fame capacity at
Venice, and in other Italian ftates,and he was
one of thofe who negotiated in England for
the marriage of William of Orange with the
daughter of Cha les I. A perfuaflve eloquence
and the arts of diffimulation were united in
Aarlens with an impofing appearance of blunt-
nels, and rendered him at once dangerous and
fuccefsful, fo that Richelieu, who knew and
employed his abilities, acknowledged that he
fharrd with Oxeniiiern of Sweden, and Vifcar-
di of Montferat the honor of being the mod
confumtnate politician of his age. He died in an
advanced age, and left behind him an account
of all the embaffies in which he was engaged.

Aarsens or Aertsen, Peter, furnamed
Longo from his tallncfs, was born at Amfttr-.
dam 1519, where he alfo died in his 66th year.
Though brought up like his father to the pro-
fefiion of a ftocking-maker, he was at laft per-
mitted, by the entreaties of his mother, to
full w the bent of his genius, and at 18 he be-

?;an to ftudy painting, architecture, and per-
pe&ive. He excelled in reprefenting the
utenfils of a kitchen, and his painting of the
Virgin for an altar piece at Amfterdam was
highly elteemed, and alfo another in which he
represented the crucifixion with the executioner
in the aft of breaking with an iron bar the legs
of the two thieves. This laft was torn to
pieces in 3 public infurreciion 1566, and the
ferock>us populace were with difficulty prevent-
ed from murdering the artiit. He left 3 fons
who alfo engaged in his profeflion.

Aartgen or Aeriokn, the fon of a
wookomber at Leyden, who, after following
his father's occupation, turned his thoughts to
painting, in the profecution of which he ac-
quired reputation. He was habitually intem-
perate, and as he never touched his pencil on
Mondays, he devoted rhofe days^o feftivity
and drunkennefs. He was drowned in the
canals of the city iu the night as he amuled
himfelf in playing through the ftrects on the
jeiman flute.

Aba, brother in-law to Stephen, the firft
cbriftian king of Hungry, defeated Peter who
had fucieedcd his uncle on the throne, and
after he had banifhed him to Bavaria, he
! the crown 1041 or 104a. He dii'-
graccd himfelf ny b and was fncri-

ficed to the refenuneiit of his offended fub-
jecls 1044-

ABAFfi, M;ch*tl, toa uf a majiftte of

H'rmanftnd, rofe by his abilities to the fove-
reignty of Tranlylvania, in 1661. He affifted
the Turks, and became formidable to the em-
peror of Geimany.

Abaoa or Abaka, a king of Tartary
whole ambafiadors were introduced in 1724
to the ccelefiaftical fynod of Lyons. He con-
quered Perfia, and proved a formidable neigh-
bour to the Chriftians who had fettled at Jeru-
falem. He died 1282.
Abano, -vid. Apono.
Abas, Schab, feventh king of Perfia, of the
race of the Sophis, was brave and active, and
enlarged the boundaries of his dominions. He
took conjointly with the Englifh forces 1622
the ifland of Ormus, which had been in the
porTeflion of the Portuguefe 122 years. He
died 1629 in the 44th year of his reign.

Abas, Scbab,the great grandlbn of the pre-
ceding, fucceeded his father in 1642m hifi-uh
year. He took Candahar from the Moguls,
and refilled the attacks of 300,000 befiegers.
He was cut off by the lues venerea in his 37th
year, Sep. 2j>, 1666. *

Abassa, an officer who revolted againft
Muftapha I. emperor of tlie Turks, and after-
wards was employed againft the Poles 1634 a!
the head of 60,000 men. The cowardice of
his troops robbed him of the victory, and he
was ftrangled by order of the Sultan.

Abassa, a lifter of Aaron Rafchid, whofe
hand was bellowed by her brother on Giafar,
on 'condition that flie abftained from the mar-
riage rights. The promife was forgotten, and
the hulband's life was facrificed by the tyrant,
and AbalTa reduced to poverty. There are ftill
extant fome Arabic verfes which beautifully
celebrate her love and her misfortunes.

Abasson, an 'impoftor, who, under the
character of the grandlbn of Abbas the great,
obtained the patronage of the court of France
and of the grand feignior by whofe orders he
was at laft beheaded.

Abate, Andtetv, a painter of Naples,
engaged in the fervice of the Spanifh king. He
died 1732. His fruit pieces and landfcapes
were admired.'

Abauzit, Firmin, born at Uzes 1679,
fled from the persecution which attended hi*
parents on account of their profelfion of pro-
tcflantilm, and retired to Geneva. As he had
early loft his father, his education was promo-
ted by the care of his mother, who had the
happinefs to difcover that the fmall remains of
her (nattered fortune were amply compenfated
by the improvement of her fon. Abauzit^ dif-
fmguilhed for his fuperior progrels in every
branch of polite learning, but particularly ma-
thematics and natural hiftory, became the
frici d of Bayle, of Jurieu, and Bafnage, and
was honored with the friendlhip of St. Evre-
mond ar.d the corre-lpondence of Newton ;
and invited by William 111. by offers of liberal
patreoage to fettle in Engknd,but the t




brance of Geneva, the afylum of his Infant
years, made him decline the generofity of the
monarch. Though he chofe rather to' aflift
his friends than folicit fame in his own per-
fon, he republifhed Spon's hiftory of his fa-
vorite city, which he enriched with two differ-
tations, and other valuable explanations. As he
grew in years, he continued to encreafe in fame,
and he was flattered by Voltaire and RoufTeau.
He was an Arian in religion, and died 1767.

Abbadie, James., D.D. a celebrated pro-
teftant minifter born at Nay in Berne 1654,01-
according toothers 58. After improving him*
felf in France and Holland, he fettled at Ber-
lin, at the folicitation of the elector, where
he enforced the duties of religion and morality,
and gained by perfuafive eloquence the favor of
the prince and people. After his patron's
death, he was patyronifed by king William,
whofe caufe he fupported by his pen, and was
made minifter of the Savoy, and afterwards
advanced to the deanry of Killaloe in Ireland.
He died in London 1727. Well informed as
a writer, and eloquent as a preacher, he was
"univerlally refpedted. His writings were
moftly on divinity. Befides his treatile on the
Chriftian religion, he puhlifhed a defence of
the revolution, and an account of the late con-
fpiracy in England, compiled from the mate-
rials furnifhed by the earl of Portland, and by

Abbas, Halli, a phyfician, and one of the
Perfian magi, who followed the doctrines of
Zoroafter. He wrote A. D. 980, a book cal-
led Royal Work at the requeft of the caliph's
fon, to whom it was dedicated. It was tran-
slated into Latin by Stephen of Antioch,

Abbas, the uncle of Mahomet, oppofed the
ambitious views of the impoftor, but when de-
feated in the battle of Bedr, he was not only
reconciled to his nephew but he warmly em-
traced his religion, and thanked heaven for
the profperity and the grace which he enjoyed
as a mufTulman. He i'erved the caufe of Ma-
homet at the battle of Honain by recalling his
difmayed troops to the charge, and inciting
them boldly to rally round their prophet who
was near expiring under the fcymetars of the
Thakefites. His fon, of the fame name, bc-
came ftill more celebrated by his knowledge of
the koran. Abbas was regarded with fuch ve-
neration that the caliphs Omar and Othman
never appeared before him without difmount-
ing from their horfes. He died in the jid
year of the hegira ; and 100 years ^fter, Abu-
Iabbas Saffah his grandfon, inverting himfelf
with fovereign power, laid the foundation of
the dynafty of the Abbafides, which continued
to be transmitted ih his family from father to
fon 524 years, during a fuccefiion of 37 ca-
liphs, till they were difpoflefTed by the Tartars.
Abbas' Abdallah, the grandfon of Abbas the un-
cle of the prophet, fn alio diftinguifhed as a

teacher of the facred book ; as, before he was
10 years of age, he was faid to have received
infpiration from the angel Gabriel.

Abbassa, via". Abassa.

Abbategio, Marian d\ an ecclefiaftic of
the 14th century, made governor of Aquila.

Abbatissa, Paul, a famous Sicilian poet,
born at Meffina, 1570. He tralfeated into
Italian verfe Homer's Iliad and Odyiley, and
Ovid's Metamorphofes.

Abbiati, Philip, an hiftorical painter of
Milan, who died 1715, aged 75.

Abb on, a monk of St. Germain des Pres,
who was prefent at the firge cf Paris by the
Normans at the clofe of the 9th century. He
wrote an account of this event in izoo verfes
in execrable Latin, but, however, valuable
for its fidelity and impartial minutenefs.

Abbon, dc Fleury, an ecclefiaftic of Or-
leans, who became abbot of Fleury, and fup-
ported with energy the rights of the monaftic
order againft the intrufions of the biihops. He
was employed by king Robert to appeale Gre-
gory V. who wifhed to place the kingdom of
France under an interdict. He was killed in *
quarrel between theFrench and Gafcons, 1004,
whilit he endeavoured to introduce a reform
in the abbey of Reole in Gafcony. Befidea
canons explaining the duty of kings and Sub-
jects, there is a volume of his letters extant,
printed 1687, folio.

Abbot, George, archbiihop of Canterbury ,
fon of a clothworker, was born at Guildford
in Surrey 1562. After receiving his educa-
tion at the grammar fchool in his native town
he became a member and fellow of Baliol col-
lege in Oxford, where he foon diftinguifhed
himfelf as a preacher. He was chofen mafter
of Univerfity college in 1599, inftalled dean of
Winchester, and after ferving three times with
dignity and moderation the office of vice chan-
cellor, he was confecrated bifhop of Lichfield
and Coventry 1609. He was the fe<cond of
the Oxford divines whom king James appoint-
ed to tranflate the new teftament, except the
epiftles ; and he was employed to eftabliih and
cement an union beween the churches of Eng-
land and Scotland. After a rapid translation
to the fee of London he was, on the death of
Bancroft 1610, raifed to the primacy, and in
this high fituation he maintained a noblacbarac-
ter. The evening of his life was darkened by
a melancholy event, which his enemies wilihed
to convert to his degradations. As he amuled
himfelf with a crofcbow in the grounds of lord
ZouchinHampfhire, where he retired for re-
creation every fummer, he accidentally killed
the park keeper by an arrow which he aimed at
a deer. This homicide was attended w ith a
fettled melancholy in the archbiihop, who as
an atonement for the accident granted an an-
nuity of 2Cl. to the widow, and ever after once
a month obferved the fatal day, Tuefday, in
penitence and player. His conduct however
B a was



was mil'reprefented, and though James remar-
ked that " .ui angel might have milcarried in
this fort, " a commiftion wt* directed to en-
quire whether he was incapacitated from per-
forming the duties of his office. He was ho-
norably reftored to his functions, the king pal-
led .t pardon and a dUpenfatton by which he wai
cleared t'ro|i all fcandal, irregularity, or infa-
tuation. From infirmity he was unable to attend
the council, though he wasprefent atthe laft ill-
nefs of the king, and he afiifted at the coronation
of Charles I. By the intrigues of Buckingham he
was difgracefully difmilfed from the powers of
primate, and ordered to withdraw to Canterbu-
ry, while the epifcopal authority was exercifed
by eommiffion by rive prelates. He was how-
ever foon after reftored to his full prerogative ;
but neither the threats of his enemies, nor
the enmity of Laud and Buckingham, could
prevail againft his determinate zeal in fupport
of the rights of the fubjeel, and the liberty of
confeience. He did not long prtderve the
royal favor, he died at Croydon on the fifth
of Augufti633, in his 71ft. year, and was
buried in the church of Holy Trinity at
Guildford, where a ftately monument was
erected over his grave by his brother Maurice.
Fn his general character Abbot was moderate
and inoftenfive \ though a rigid calvinift, he re-
commended to his clergy rather to gain the
public efteem by morality than 'claim it as
due to their office. He was benevolent and
humane, and among other ads of charity he
endowed with an income of 30CI. a year, a
holpital at Guildford. His publication! were
chiefly divinity, befides treatifes occasioned by
the fituation of the times.

Abbot, Maurice, youngefl brother of the
arehbilhop, was employed in the direction of
the Kaft India company's concerns refpedt-
ihg the Molucca Iflands, which were in the
hands of the Dutch. He was employed in
1624 in eftablilhing the fettlemcnt of Virgi-
nia, and he was the firft perfoo on whom
Charles I. conferred the honor of knighthood.
He vvas elected reprefentat've for London,
and in 1638 vvas mayor of she city. He died
J 640. His fon George was of Merton college,
where he took the degree of LLB. i6,;o, and
duiing the civil wars he defended Caldecote
Hall, in Warwickshire, againft the attacks of
pi ince Maurice and Rupert. He died 1648,
aged 44. He publilhed a paraphafe on Job,
1640, Vindiciap Sabbati 1641^ brief notes
I fahns 1051.
Abbot, Robert, DD. eldeft brother of the preceding was born at Guildford, and edu-
cated at' Baliol college. He was elect c:l tnaf-
tcr of his college lr'.co, and he enforced obe-
dience, regularity, and temperance in his fo-
ciety. His eloquence as a preacher recom-
mended him to further patronage ; he was
ted -chaplain .to the king, and regius
r of divinity at Oxford. Laud was one

ofthofe who felt the fevcrity of his oratory,
and in a dil'courfe in which the preacher in-
veighed againft the arts of the puritans and the
friends of the Romim church, the eyes of
the audience were fixed upon the future arch-
biihop, and created confufiwn and fhame. On
the vacancy of Salifbury 1615, the king no-
minated Abbot to the fee, and he was confer
crated by his brother at Lambeth. 1 he in-
firmities of a fedentary life however checked
the intended improvements and reformation
of the new prelate. He died March ad, 161 7,
in his 58th year, and was one of the five bilhops
who in fix fu cceffive years were inftalled at
Salifbury. He was buried in his cathedral.
His writings were principally controverfial, and
fome of his MSS. were prefented to the Bod-
leian by Dr. Corbet, who married one of his
daughters, and was rector of Hai'eley, Oxford-

Abet, Thomas, the German translator of
Salluft, and the admired author of a treatife
u on merit, " and of another " of dying for
one's country, " was born at Ulrn and died at
Buckeberg 1766, aged 28.

Abdalcader, a Perffan, who greatly
revered for his learning, his piety, and the
fandtity of his manners. His prayers breath-
ed the fpirit of Chriftianity ; "Almighty God,
laid he, in his devotions, I never forget thy
bounty ; my adoration is perpetually directed
to thee, deign therefore fometimes to remem-
ber and pity my infirmities."

Abdaliah, father of Mahomet, vvas a
flave and a driver of camels, who however poi-
lelfed fuch merit that his hand was folicited in
marriage by the faireft and the moil virtuous
of the women of his tribe. He was then in
his 75th or 85th year, but fo univerfally ad-
mired that on the night of his nuptials ico
young females expired in deipair. His wife,
though long barren, at laft became mother of

Ahdai.lah, fon of Zohair, vvas proclaim-
ed caliph of Mecca and Medina, after the ex-
pulfion of Yefid. He was befieged in Mecca
by the fucceflbr of Yefid in Syria, and put to
death 733.

Abdaliah, a fon of Yefid, celebrated
as a mulTulman lawyer in the 7th century.

Abd Allah, fon of Abbas, endeavoured to
raife his family on the ruins of the Ommiades.
He was defeated by his rivals, and afterwards
perfidiouily murdered 754.

Abdai.mai.ek, fon of Marvan, was 5th
caliph of the Ommiades, and began to reign,
685. He furpalTed his predecelTors in mili-

Online LibraryJohn LemprièreUniversal biography : containing a copious account, critical and historical, of the life and character, labors and actions of eminent persons, in all ages and countries, conditions and professions, arranged in alphabetical order : abridged from the larger work → online text (page 1 of 199)