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" the communicants orderly sitting about the table," &c.
and no more mention of any posture : which the commissioners
of Scotland consented to, only desired, that they might im-
part so much to their General Assembly : and promised to
do it with all reverence and respect to this Assembly. This
thing took well for the general, only Mr. Ley spake some-
thing against it, as tying too strictly to sitting. Dr. Gouge
moved to know, whether we should sit at the time of prayer
and thanksgiving. Mr. Calamy answered, that the minister
is left at indifferency. Mr. Henderson told their prac-
tice. The table is full, the minister comes, reads the
words of institution, and prays standing: and the peo-
ple either sit or kneel at prayer-time indifferently, but are
sure to sit in the acfof receiving. At last, the thing was
put to the question, and voted to pass : only Mr. Ley gave
his negative.

Here we were ready to rise, and were consulting what to
fall next upon. 1 moved urgently, that we might fall upon
baptism, for the clearing of ourselves of Anabaptism, which
so much increaseth : which was accordingly concluded to
be done.

Thursday, July 11.] — Our work this morning was, first,
Mr. Ley published a testimonial for a minister which was
not very well liked of; and so it cost a little time, and yet
more than was fitting in our great employments : and it
could not be concluded upon but by a vote, that this man
should be examined.

Then began we the work of the day, about the Directory
for baptism, in these particulars : —

" Baptism is not to be administered, in any case, by
private persons, but by a minister." This was ordered with-
out gainsaying ; only there was discourse about the wording
of it. Among others, Mr. Seaman excepted at the phrase
'• in any case ;" because, in times of persecution, ministers

July 11, 1644.] ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 297

may be utterly all gone. But this was not approved of to
take it out.

Mr. Henderson moved. That instead of " a minister" of
Jesus Christ, it might be expressed by " the minister:" but
that was not liked, as tying it too strictly to the minister of
the congregation where the child is born.

2. " Nor is it to be administered in private places or pri-
vately," &c.

This was spoken against as too restrictive ; for that the
child maybe in danger to die before he comes to the congre-
gation: 2. For that some children may be born at too great
a distance from the church. 3. Baptism admits into the
church ; ergo, not to be tied so strictly to the church; and,
2. They were baptized, and then added to the church. This
was Mr. Ca/amt/'s argument: which Mr. Rutherford re-
torted thus : It is admission to the church ; ergo, it must be
in the face of the church.

Mr. Wilson: To propound the case of sickness, is to go
too near the tenet of the absolute necessity.

Mr. Seaman : If the church go to the child, when the
child cannot go to the church, this is not to be thought pri-
vate baptism.

Mr. Gillespie pleaded against private baptism : — 1. Phi-
lip's baptism of the eunuch, and others in the New Testa-
ment, were extraordinary. 2. Circumcision in private houses,
is hard to prove: for however John Baptist's mother gave
the name of the child, and she could not be in the syna-
gogue, yet the dispute about the name of the child might be
before they went to the synagogue : and, again, circum-
cision and baptism differ, because of the wound and plas-
tering it.

Here began we to enter into the ocean of many vast dis-
putes, which was desired by some to have been stopped, for
the husbanding of time : but it was thought fit, by others,
to debate the business of the proposition before us.

Mr. Palmer: Among all the examples we find no such
baptisms as import baptizing in a congregation, except
Acts ii. ; for Acts xvi. 14, 15, 33, and Acts ix. is baptism in
private houses; and Acts ix. " what doth hinder me to be
baptized," &c. not want of a congregation, but "if thou be-
lievest," Acts x.

2. Circumcision, in Luke vii. 59, could not be in the sy-

298 JOURNAL OF THE [July 12, 1644.

nagogue : for they came to circumcise, and his mother an-

3. God commands to baptize a man that believes ; now
when? when it may be done ; with limitation to number of
persons present, and places.

I also answered Mr. Gillespie: l.That 1 Cor. i, t/BaTrrto-a
Tov "SiTetltava oIkov was in " ecclesia constituta," and the
phrase importeth, that it was not in synagogue.

2. For circumcision, that it was generally private: 1.
Otherwise, in great towns, every day sometimes would have
been as a sabbath ; for every day would some child come to
be eight days' old. 2. Moses's wife ; 3. Judah at Chezib,
circumcised children distant from any congregation. 4. All
the nation was baptized, when they were to come out of
Egypt; but this could not be done in the congregation.
5. The Jews' pandect tells us, that a proselyte was to be cir-
cumcised at home, as a servant by his master; but if either
servant or master refuse, then should he be brought before
the congregation.

Mr. Rutherford hereupon inferred, that all our arguments
tend to this, — to shew private baptism to be chiefly lawful,
and public to be but occasional, or less convenient. This
was answered to him to the full.

Then were other arguments used against any private bap-
tism at all: but I was called out to speak without, and lost
the discourse for the present.

When 1 was in again, Mr. Whittacre tendered this qualifi-
cation, — " And it is to be administered in the place of public
worship :" but it was not liked on.

Mr. Palmer : That which Christ hath commanded, must
be done, unless he hath somewhere forbidden : but Christ
hath nowhere forbidden private baptizing, yet he hath com-
manded to baptize : ergo. This Mr. Seaman went about to an-
swer; when Mr. Marshal, desiring to cut off" long debates,
offered another modification, by inverting the order of the
two propositions thus, — " Baptism is to be administered in
the public, &.c, and in no wise by a private person :" which
was liked by the most : but Mr. Palmer spoke against it;
and so did I, as redounding to the very sense of that which
we had refused. Howsoever, it was put to the question,
and voted affirmatively ; but I gave my negative.

Friday/, July 12.] — The first business to-day was, about

Aug. 7, 1644.] ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 299

a testimonial for a minister; which some desired to stop.
This took up no small time.

Then fell we upon the work of the day, forward upon the
Directory for baptism. And the first thing done was, that
some reasons why baptism should be administered in public,
were, upon vote, waved in this place.

Mr. Calamy moved. That we should express something
that baptism should be as near as possible on the sabbath
or lecture-days. This was well liked of, and cost a large
debate for the framing of it up : and here I went out of the
Assembly to go to Munden.

Monday, July 15.] — This day and this week I was absent
from the Assembly ; because that Thursday was the day of
thanksgiving for the routing of Prince Rupert at York. The
work of the Assembly was, that they went on in the Directory
for baptism.

Monday, July 22.] — -This day I was come to town again ;
and when I came, I found that the Assembly had met this
morning, and adjourned themselves till Wednesday fortnight;
having now sitten a twelvemonth, and never adjourned of all
the time.

Wednesday , Aug. 7.] — This morning we met again ; and
the first thing done was, a debate about some ministers to be
examined, and about some that, having passed the Assembly,
prove Anabaptists, and Antinomians ; and divers stories were
told about the behaviour of some Antinomian preachers :
whereupon a committee was chosen to draw up a petition to
represent this to the Houses.

Then fell we upon the work of the day ; which was, about
baptizing " of the child, whether to dip him or sprinkle."
And this proposition, " It is lawful and sufiicient to be-
sprinkle the child," had been canvassed before our adjourn-
ing, and was ready now to vote : but I spake against it, as
being very unfit to vote, that it is lawful to sprinkle, when
every one grants it. Whereupon, it was fallen upon, sprink-
ling being granted, whether dipping should be tolerated with
it. And here fell we upon a large and long discourse, whe-
ther dipping were essential or used in the first institution,
or in the Jews' custom. Mr. Coleman went about, in a large
discourse, to prove n^'ZiID to be dipping over-head. Which
I answered at large : — as, 1. Aben Ezra, on Gen. xxxv. says,
the Sichemites were admitted to Jacob's house by n^>210 :

300 JOURNAL OF THE [Aug, 8,1044.

and yet there was no water there, but only Jacob's well :
2. H. Sol. on Exod. xxiv. saith that Israel was entered into
covenant with sprinkling of blood and n^OID : which Paul,
Heb. ix. expounds of sprinkling of water. 3. That John the
Baptist sometimes preached and baptized in places, where he
could not possibly dip the parties baptized. This was back-
ed by divers ; and it cost a long discourse to prove it : and,
in conclusion, I proposed this to the Assembly, — to find in
all the Old Testament where " baptizare," when it is used
" de sacris," and in " actu transeunte," is not used of sprink-
ling. It is said, indeed, that the priests washed their bodies,
and the unclean washed himself in water, but this was not
" actio transiens."

After a long dispute, it was at last put to the question,
whether the Directory should run thus, — " The minister shall
take water, and sprinkle or pour it with his hand upon the
face or forehead of the child :" and it was voted so indiffer-
ently, that we were glad to count names twice : for so many
were unwilling to have dipping excluded, that the votes
came to an equality within one ; for the one side was twenty-
four, — the other, twenty-five : the twenty-four for the re-
serving of dipping, and the twenty-five against it: and there
grew a great heat upon it: and when we had done all, we
concluded upon nothing in it; but the business was recom-

Then were produced some letters, sent us out of Holland ;
first, from Mr. Strickland, and then IVom a synod at Hague :
these being read, we adjourned.

Thursday, Aug. 8.] — Our first work to-day was, that Dr.
Hoyle reported the names of three that had been examined
for fellowship in Cambridge.

Then fell we upon our work about dipping in baptism :
and first it was proposed by Dr. Burgess, that our question
proposed yesterday might be proposed again. And this cost
some time before we could get off this business : at last it
was put to the question, Whether the question put yester-
day should be more debated before determined ; and it was
voted affirmatively.

And so we fell upon the business : and I first proposed,
that those that stand for dipping, should shew some probable
reason, why they hold it. Dr. Temple backed me in the
thing : and Mr. Marshal hegQ.ii; and he said, that he doubted

Aug. 8, 1644.] ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 301

not that all the Assembly concluded that dipping was law-
ful. I flatly answered, that I hold it unlawful, but an WeXo-
S-prjo-Kfia; and therefore desired, that it might be proved.
But it was first thought fit to go to the business by degrees;
and so it was first put to the vote, and voted thus affirma-
tively, — " that pouring on of water, or sprinkling of it in the
administration of baptism, is lawful and sufficient." But I
excepted at the word " lawful" as too poor, for that it was as
if we should put this query, — Whether it be lawful to admi-
nister the Lord's supper in bread and wine ? and I moved,
that it might be expressed thus, — " It is not only lawful, but
also sufficient ;" and it was done so accordingly. But as
for the dispute itself about dipping, it was thought fit and
most safe to let it alone, and to express it thus in our Direc-
tory, — " He is to baptize the child with water, which for the
manner of doing is not only lawful, but also sufficient, and
most expedient to be by pouring or sprinkling water on the
face of the child, without any other ceremony." But this cost
a great deal of time about the wording it.

When we had done this, Mr. Palmer reported upon a
business recommended to a committee to consider of, sent
to us by my Lord Admiral, concerning a preacher in the Isle
of Guernsey, against which there were articles exhibited : —

1. That he did abjure the church discipline there esta-

2. Saying it was worse than sodomy.

3. He refuseth to administer the sacrament of the Lord's
supper, and baptism, &,c.

4. That in 1655 there shall be a perfect reformation, and
men shall do miracles : and that we shall live hereafter in
communion of good : and that they that believed not this,
were cursed, &c.

Whereupon it was ordered, that this should be presently
recommended to the Houses. The preacher himself, one
Mr. Thomas Picot, is sent hither prisoner by my Lord Ad-

After this we went on in the Directory, which was a
prayer after the baptizing of the child.

Mr. Coleman moved. That the number of the sprinklings
might be fixed ; but that was not hearkened to.

The prayer or thanksgiving after baptism cost some de-
bate ; but, at last, was passed.

SOS JOURNAL OF THE [Aug. 14, 1644.

Friday, Aug. 9.] — The first thing done to-day was, that
Mr. Ley reported concerning Picot, mentioned yesterday,
how the committee, chosen for that purpose, had been with
the committee of plundered ministers, and desired that he
should not be dismissed : which was granted accordingly.

Dr. Burgess moved. That we might move to the Houses
for one fasting-day, in behalf of my Lord General and the

Whereupon Mr. Caryll read a letter, sent him out of the
west, concerning the state of the army there.

Then was the motion for the fast carried on with the more
importunity : and so was there a committee chosen and sent
to the Houses.

Then did Mr. ilforsAa/ report from the committee chosen
to study a remedy against Anabaptists, Brownists, &,c. par-
ticularly he mentioned one Knowle, an Anabaptist, and Pen-
rose, Randall, Simson, Tandey, Cornhill, Blackwood, Cursor,
&c. This business was also ordered to be sent to the

Then did Mr, Marshal report a Directory for thanksgiving-
days; which being read, it was begun to be debated.

The title was this, and thus passed, — •' For days of public
thanksgiving : convenient warning is to be given of the day
to be set apart." This expression I excepted against, " to
be set apart ;" as if the setting it apart belonged to the con-
gregation : whereupon it was changed.

Mr. Seaman urged against the voting any thing to-day,
because newly brought in. However, it was proceeded
into debate : and we fell upon this point, by the inter-
posing of Mr. Rutherford, — Whether public thanks should
last a whole day : — but it was not concluded upon; but the
time called for adjourning, and so we laid it by till the next

Before we adjourned, those that had gone to the Houses
about a fast, &c. returned with relation of their condescen-
sion to it : and thereupon we adjourned till Wednesday, be-
cause the fast was to be on Tuesday.

Wednesday , Aug. 14.] — The first thing done was, that
Mr. hey reported concerning one Humphries, that came to
be examined for admission to a sequestration, who is accused
to be a swearer, and to have run away with a man's wife : and
of another, who is also to be examined, who is an An-

Aug. 14, 1644.] ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 303

tinomian. He desired the Assembly's advice which to
answer : which done, Mr. Ash delivered a letter to the As-
sembly, from my Lord of Manchester, wherein he desired
earnestly that ordination may be hastened, and Mr. Vines
coming; to Cambrido;e. There was also an order of the
House of Commons read for the quelling of Antinomians
and Anabaptists ; and accordingly there was much discourse
about evidence to be got against some of their preachers ;
which took up a long time. Then was there some debate
concerning answering my Lord of Mancheste7''s letter. Mr.
Vines shewed still his great reluctancy against taking his
mastership in Cambridge ; which cost some debate, and that
very large. In the interim of which debate my Lord Mait-
land and my Lord Warriston came in, and brought letters
from the General Assembly of Scotland : which being read,
my Lord Warriston spake ; and among other things the re-
lation of Antrim's invasion of Scotland ; and the king's com-
mission for it : and of the general desire of all the nation of
Scotland for the hastening of the work in hand.

Dr. Bnrgess, after he had done, made an answer of gra-
tulation, and urged the hastening of our work.

Mr. Henderson also spake to the same purpose, of forward-
ing and hastening our work. Whereupon it was ordered,
that the grand committee should meet to-morrow.

It was also ordered, that both the letter from my Lord
of Mancliester and from the General Assembly, should be
sent to the Houses, to shew to them how we are called

Then was also some debate about sitting in the after-
noons, — but nothing determined.

Then fell we upon the w^ork of the day, which was, about
the Directory for the days of public thanksgiving. But at
the very first entry, Mr. Seaman moved, that the ordinary
things in the Directory, — as marriage and burial, be consi-
dered, — and let the extraordinary things alone. And so our
debate fell upon this ; and it grew to a very serious agitation :
at last it was determined by a vote, that we should lay aside
the Directory for thanksgiving for the present.

Then was there a motion about * supervising that of the
Directory that is finished, and that it might be referred to the
three committees, to review and consider of it :' and this
cost a large debate : at last, it was put to the question, * Whe-

304 JOURNAL OF THE [Aug. 15, 1644.

ther the Directory for reading, preaching, and prayer, shall be
referred to the three committees to consider of it, both for
matter and words ;' — and it was voted negatively.

Thursday, Aug. 15.] — The first thing done to-day was,
about the two that came to be examined ; one Humphries, who
was accused for a swearer, and to have run away with an-
other man's wife : he had been in high commission for it,
and produced his discharge from thence : so we concluded to
have nothing to do with him.

The other was one Emerson, a suspected Antinomian : it
was resolved that he should preach against Antinomianism,
and give us his sermon in writing.

Then fell we upon the work of the day, which was, the
Directory for public thanksgiving ; for it was resolved, be-
fore we parted yesterday, to resume that, though we had
voted to lay it by.

The subjects we treated and debated were, —

1. To lay by a piece of it; which was controvertible, viz.
that the day be kept wholly from manual labour. This had
cost a great deal of debate, and was like to do, and so we
laid it by.

2. After family preparation, they are to address them-
selves to the church : some excepted at this, because it was
not to our work to speak of private worship ; but it was put
to the question, and voted to pass.

3. The minister, after a word of exhortation, &c. prayer,
&c. is to, &c.

Here it was excepted at these circumstantial points of
order, &c. which cost some long debate. I propounded,
that it might be expressed " the minister may," instead of
" is to," &-C. but before any thing was resolved upon this,
there was a debate about expressing the care the magistrate
ought to have about divulging intelligence of the occasion :
but this at last was waved.

Mr. Rows, of the House of Commons, was now come in,
and brought in the business of the ordination, resolved upon
by the House. Which being read, Mr. Vines desired to
know, whether this form be only for London, or for the
whole power of the parliament. Mr. Rows answered : ' It is
only for London for the present, but in time will be thought
a pattern for the rest of the kingdom.' The parliament would
have twenty-three ministers named by us, who should be the

Aug. 20, 1644.] ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES. 305

ordainers : this we referred to fall upon to-morrow : and it
was read over again, that we might have it fresh in thought
against to-morrow.

Dr. Burgess then reported, how the Houses took the two
letters we sent up to them yesterday, viz. from the general
Assembly in Scotland, and my Lord of Manchester ; viz.
that the House will consider concerning them on Friday
mornino;. And withal he mentioned somethins: in ao;itation
in the House concerning Mr. Vines : which took up a great
deal of time in discoursing of, even our whole time this day.

Friday, Aug. 16.] — This morning there was some begin-
ning upon the business of ordination ; but upon considera-
tion, it was laid by till the next week, and the Directory
of thanksgiving was fallen upon, and gone through, and

Mondaij, Aug. 19.] — This day I was at Munden. The
work of the day was upon ordination, and something of it
finished and passed.

Tuesday, Aug. 20.] — This morning there was a business
again about Mr. Humphries, whose case was before us before:
he now brought us another certificate and testimonial, which
cost some debate. The conclusion was, to have nothing to
do with him.

"Then fell we upon the work before us. And, first, Mr.
Palmer reported from the grand committee, desiring this : —

1. "That the Assembly appoint a committee to draw up
the Directory ;'' which is already done.

2. " A committee to join with the commissioners of Scot-
land, to draw up a confession of faith.

3. "The committee for the summary hasten their report
about church-government.

4. "The Assembly to return to the government.

5. " Then to handle excommunication."

Hereupon we fell to choose a committee for the first,
and three were chosen for that purpose. For the second,
there was some debate about the matter, because we have
no order yet to enable us to such a thing : and, at last, when
it was resolved, there was some debate about the number :
and, at last, nine were fixed by vote.

Then did we return to our work about ordination. And,
first, the preface, which was this, — " Presbyter and episco-
pus, in Scripture, are one and the same," &c.


306 JOURNAL OF THE [Aug. 21, 1644.'

This Mr. Henderson excepted against, as giving too much
to episcopacy ; for that it follows, that " the bishop took more
upon him than was fit." He also questioned whether the As-
sembly should own this preface, seeing it is not ours, but
the House of Commons' work. And this last business held
a long debate. I mightily opposed it, and queried, how,
since the Houses owned us in the ordinance that convened
us, that they called us for our advice, can we doubt that
they will own us in the work? But it was mightily urged,
that such a request should be sent up to the Houses : and
at last it was called, that such a thing should be ordered ;
which I challenged should not be, but put to the vote, that
I might give my negative : which was done accordingly, and
no negative given but one or two more.

Then fell we upon the bishop's appropriating to himself
" more than meet," which was in the preface : which the
Scotch commissioners did " conceive to include that some-
thing was meet for him :" which held a very long debate :
at last it concluded in this, that it should be humbly
desired of the Houses that it might be expressed, " and
that ascribed to him and assumed to him which was not
meet." Then Mr. Henderson desired that some humble mo-
tion should be made, that some other preamble might be
made than this : but this was not very well consented to.
Howbeit, it cost a large discussion : but left as it is : and
so the whole preface humbly consented unto. And so we
went on upon the Directory itself; which was that that we
had sent in ; and this went down with us, though the House of
Commons had made some alteration, — till we came to this
clause in the second article, — " If he shall be designed to a
particular place :" and this bred a debate very large, for that
the Assembly had sent in " that every one ordained should
be designed to a particular place :" and it was moved, that
that supposal or condition in the draught of the House of
Commons should be left out, "If he be designed," &,c.;
and so it was ordered, humbly to present so much to the

Then went we on in divers articles of the Directory with-

Online LibraryJohn LightfootThe whole works of the Rev. John Lightfoot, master of Catharine Hall, Cambridge (Volume 13) → online text (page 28 of 43)