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Clarence, on the throne : but all his plans were defeated
by the activity of the Lancastrians, who seized the oppor-
tunity to unfurl the standard of Henry in the marches of
Scotland, under sir Humphrey Neville *. The conduct of
the earl proved that the suspicions previously entertained
of his acting in concert with the partisans of that mon-
arch were groundless. He summoned all the lieges of
Edward to oppose the rebels : but the summons was (fis-
regarded, and men refused to fight in defence of a prince
of whose fate they were ignorant. He therefore found it
necessary to exhibit the king in public at York, having
first obtained from him a grant of the office of justiciary
of south Wales, and of all the other dignities held by the^„g,
late earl of Pembroke. From York he marched into the 17.
north, defeated the Lancastrians, and conducted their
leader to Edward, by whom he was condemned to lose his
head on a scaffold. By what arguments or promises the

has been scornfully rejected. Hume says it is contradicted by records. Carte
and Henry pronounce it incredible and romantic. But, if it were, they should
hare accounted for what in that case were more inconceivable, the mention
which is made of it by almost every writer of the sige, whether foreign or na-
tive ; even by Commines (iii. 4), who says that he received the principal in-
cidents of Edward's history ft'om £he mouth of Edward himself, and by the
annalist of Croyland (551), who was high in the confidence of that monarch.
Hume's arguments are, 1 ® . That the records in Rymer allow of no interval
for the Imprisonment of Edward in 1470 ; and, 2 ^ . That it is not mentioned,
as, if it had happened, it must have been, in the proclamation of Edward
against Clarence and Warwick of the same year. But, in the first place, he
has mistaken the date of the imprisonment, which was not in 1470, but in
1469 (ea setate quae contingebat anno nono regis, qui erat annift domini
1469. Cont. Croyl. 651) ; and, in the second, the proclamation ought not to
have named it ■, because it confines itself to the enumeration of those offences
only which had been committed after the pardon granted to tliem at Christ-
mas 1469 (Bot. Pari. vi. 233). But there is a record, which places the ex-
istence of the imprisonment beyond a doubt, — the attainder of Clarence, in
which the king enumerates it among his offences : " as in jupartyng the
" king's royall estate, persone and life in straite warde, putting him there-
"by from all his libertie, aftre procurying grete commocions." Bot. ParL
vL 193. I may add, that in the records in Bymer for 1469 there is a suf*
flcient interval of three months, from the 12th of May to the 17th of August,
the very time assigned to the insurrection and imprisonment.

* Sir Humphrey had fled from the defeat at Hexham in 1464, and con-
oealed himself durhig five years in a cave, opening into the liver Derwent.
Tear book, Ter Pasoh. 4 Ed. FV. 20.



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196



SDTTARD ly.



[co&p, m



king procured his liberty we know not*. A private
treaty was signed : he repaired to the ca|atal, aocoQipanied
bj several lords of the party ; and his return waa hiuled
NoY. by his own friends as little short of a miracle. A counoil
6. of peers was now summoned, in whioh, after wany negoti-
a^ons, Clarenoe and his &thOT-in law condescended to jus-
tify their conduct. Edwaxd with apparent cheerfulness
accepted their apology, and a general pardon was issued
in fikvour of aU persons who had borne arms against the
king, from the first rising in Toi^shire under Robin of
Redesdale, to the time when they were dismissed by the
earl of Warwick at Olney f.

5. Elizabeth had not yet borne her husband a son, and
though the eldest daughter was but four years old, E<Iward
in this assembly asked the advice of ^e lords, how he
should dispose of the young princess in marriage. For his
own part, he wished to give her to George, the son of the
earl of Northumberland, and presumptive heir to all the
three Nevilles. His choice was unanimously approved ;
and the young nobleman, that his rank might approach
nearer to that of his intended bride, was created duke of
Bedford. This extraordinary measure has been explained
on two suppositions : either that the king, alarmed at the
marriage betwe^i his brother and the daughter of War-
vnck, sought to raise up a new and opposite interest in
the family, or that, as the price of his Uberation, he had

* By foyre spache and promyBe the kynge scaped oute of the Bisshoppe'a
hands. Warkworth, p. 7.

* The aoooant of Edward's escape, which is generally ^ven is, that the
archbishop alloKsd him to hunt, aod that one day. while he was employed
in that ewercise. he was carried off by his friends (Hall,203). That which
I have given depends on the superior authority of the historian of Croy-
land, who, while hu considers the kLig's liberation almost mirHculous, yet
asserts that it had the express consent of Warwick. Pr»ter omuem spem
pene miraculose non tarn evasit, quam de espresso ipsiuscomitis cousensu
dimissus est, p. 551. Slow mentious Edward's promises, and that he re-
mained at York till after the execution of sir Humphrey Neville, p. 421.
In Fenn there is a letter without date, wiiich I beli>«ve refers to this
period. It relates the king's return from York to Lon ion in company
K^ith the archbisliop. who, however, was not permitted to enter the capi-
Ul with him, but ordered to remain at the Moor, his seat in Hertf<mislwre.
The earl of Oxford, a Lancastrian, was treated in the same manner. —
" The klug.'* adds the writer, " hath himself good language of the lords of
•* Clarence and Warwick, and of my lords of York and Oxford saying
" thev be his best friends; but his* household men have other language,
" ao that what shall hastily fall, I cannot say." Fenn. i. 294.



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JU D. 1470.] RUFTURB AlVD SBOONCILIATION. 197

piottuBed to pye his dau^ter to this yonng nobleman,
the son of a brother who had never offended him, and the
nephew of the two brothers who kept him in confinement.

6. To those who were not in "the confidence of the par-
ties their reconciliation appeared sincere. For greater se^
curity, a pardon for all offences conmutted before the feast
of Christmas was granted to Clarence and Warwick ; and
in consequence of the restoration of peace within the realm,
proposals were made to invade France in concert with the a. d
king's brother-in-law, the duke of Burgundy. The French 1470
ambassadors^ who came over probably to learn the state

of the different parties, were so much deceived, that Louis
XI., in consequence of their representations, published an
order to all his subjects to meet in arms on the first of
May, that they mi^t be in readiness to repel the threat-
ened invasion *. Yet under this outward appearance of
harmony, distrust and resentment festered in their breasta;
and a fflngular occurrence proved how little faith was to
be given to the protestations uttered on either side. Th&
archbishop, had invited the king to meet Garence and
Warwick at an entertainment, which he designed to give
at his seat at the Moor in Hertfordshire. As Edward was
wadiing his hands before supper, John Ratcliffe, afterward^
lord Fitz-walter, whi^ered in his ear that one hundred
armed men were lying in wait to sui^se and convey him to
prison. Without inquiring into the grounds of the informa-
tion, he stole to the door, mounted a horse, and rode with Feb.
precipitation to Windsor. His abrupt departure revived
all the former dissensions ; fresh conferences were held at -
Baynard's castle, under the mediation of Cecily, duchess of
York, the king's mother ; and a new reconciliation was ef-
fected, equally insincere with those which had preceded it f.

7. During these conferences an insurrection burst out
m Lincolnshire, of which the king could at first discover
neither the real object nor the authors. The inhabitants,
provoked by the extortions of the officers of the household,

* MoDstrel. addit p. 33.

t Fragment, 302. Fab. 499. Tlie author of the Fragment ia singularly
unfortunate in hia dates. He places this incident in the present year after
Easter. Yet it is evident from authentic records, and subsequent eyenta,
that if it happened at all it must hare happened before Lent.



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198 SDWARD IV. ' [CEiAF. XU

rose in arms, chased or Robert Burgh, a purveyor, out of
the county, burnt his mansion, and pillaged his estates
pj ' This outrage, and the fear of punishment, bound them
more strongly to each other, and emboldened sir Robert
Welles, a partisan of Warwick and the real instigator of the
rising, to place himself openly at l^eir head. The king com-
missioned several persons, and among them the duke and
earl, to levy troops for his service ; and before he left Lon-
don sent for the lord Welles, fother of sir Robert, and for
ur Thomas Dymock, the champion, to appear before the
council. They wavered, obeyed the summons, then fled
to a sanctuary, and afterwards, on the promise of pardon,
repaired to the court. Edward insisted that lord Welles
should employ his paternal authority, and command his
son to submit to the royal mercy : but ^e young man at
the same time received letters from Warwick and Clar-
ence, exhorting him to persevere, and assuring him of
speedy and powerful aid. When the king had reached
Stamford, and found that sir Robert was yet in arms, he
ordered, in violation of his promise, the &ther and Dymodc
to be beheaded ; and sent a second summcms to sir Robert,
who indignantly replied that he would never trust the
perfidy of the man who had murdered his parent. This
answer was, however, dictated by resentment and despair.
The king attacked the insurgents at Erpingham, in Rut-
-^ landshire : his artillery mowed down their ranks : their
12,* leaders were tak^i ; and while the meaner prisoners were
15. dismissed, sir Thomas Delalaunde and sir Robert Welles
19- paid the forfeit of their lives. Their confessions show that
the insurrection had been got up at the instigation of Clar-
ence and Warwick, that a confidential emissary from the
duke regulated the movements of the force, and that the
avowed object was to raise Clarence to the throne in the
place of his brother Edward *. They had received orders
'to avoid an engagement, and to march into Leicestershire ;

* Rot. Pari. vi. 144. " As the said sir Robert Welles, &c., have openly
" confessed and showed before his said highness, the lords of his blood, and
« the multitude of his subjects attending upon him in his host at this time,

** which they affirmed to be true at their deaths, uncompelled, un-

« stirred, and undesired so to do." Ibid. p. 233. The confession of sir JElob-
«rt is still extant. Excerp. Hist. 282.



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A.D. 1470»] lUOHT OF CLAI^EIfCE AND WARWICK. 109

bat chance or miamanagemeat brought them into collision
with i^e royalists, and their total defeat placed the lead-
ers, Clarence and Warwicl^, in a most perplexing situation.
They had purposed to join sir Robert Welles on the mor-
row : now, seeing them^^lves unable to cope with the king,
tiiey advanced towards Yorkshire, having previously by
proclamation ordered every man able to bear arms to join
them, under the penalty of death *. The king was at
Boncaster when they reached Esterfield, at the distance
of twenty miles ; and having arrayed his forces, he sent Mar.
Garter-king-at-arms to summon them to appear before him, 20.
and clear themselves of the offices laid to their charge.
They immediately turned to the west, and marched to
Manchester, to solidt the aid of the lord Stanley, who had
married the uster of Warwick. Want of provisions pre-
vented the pursuit by the royal army, and Edward, hasten-
ing to York, published a proclamation, 4n which he enume- Mar
rated their ofiences, but exhorted them to return to their 23.
duty within a certain term, assuring them that if they
could vindicate thdr innocence, he would accept their
justification with pleasure ; and that if they could not, he
would still remember that they were alUed to him by
blood, and had been once numbered amongist his dearest
firiends f. At the same time he took from Clarence the
lieutenancy of Ireland, and gave it to the earl of Worces-
ter ; restored to Henry Percy the earldom of Northumber-
land and the wardenship of the east marches, giving in Mar.
compensation to Warwick's brother, who had held them 25.
ever since the battle of Towton, the barren title of mar-
quess Montague ; .and having learned that the fugitives, un-
able to corrupt the fidelity of the lord Stanley, had marched
to the south, issued conmiissions to array the population of ^^
all the counties through which it was probable they would
pass. From York he hastened to Nottingham ; where, as
the time allotted to them had expired, he declared them Mar.
traitors, and, having oflfered rewards for their apprehension, 8L
continued his march with the greatest expedition {. But.

* Rot. ParL vL 238. f Rot Pari. vi. 283, and Penn, U. Z6.

X Ibid. Bym. 654—657. The reward was 100^. per annxun in land, or



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200 EDWARD IV. [cfiAI». Itl.

they fled more rapidly than he could pursue ; and sailed
from Dartmouth by the time that he reached Exeter. At
April Southampton they made a bold attempt to cut out of the
16. roads a lar^ vefisel, the Trinity, belonging to the earl of
Warwick, but were repulsed with considerable loss by the
exertions of the lord Scales. £dward arrived in a short
time, and by his orders the prisoners made in the late ac-
tion, about twenty in number, were delivered to Tiptofi',
earl of Worcester and earl constable, by whom they were
condemned to be drawn, hanged, and quartered. But he
was not satisfied with the death of his victims. The in-
dignities inBicted on their remains for the space of three
weeks excited the execration of ihe people, and earned for
Tiptofi' himself the nickname of the Butcher*.

Warwick had intrusted the government of Calais to a
gentleman of Gascony, named Vauclerc, a knight of the
garter. To his dismay and astonishment, the batteries of
the place opened upon him as he attempted to enter. It
was in vain that he sent an officer to remonstrate. Vau-
clerc, acquainted with the recent transactions in England,
had resolved to play a deep, but, he trusted, a secure game.
To Warwick he apolo^ed for his conduct, by informing
him that the garrison was disaffected, and would, if he
landed, infallibly betray him. At the same time he des-
patched a messenger to Edward with assurances of his loy-^
alty, and his determination to preserve so important a fort-
ress for his sovereign. What impression his reasons made
on the mind of Warwick we know not ; but Edward re-
warded Vauclerc with the government of Calais, and tho
duke of Burgundy granted him a pension of a thousand
crowns. The fugitives, after some deliberation, steered their
course towards Normandy, captured every Flemish mer-
chantman which fell in their way, and were received at Har-»
fleur, with distinguished honours, by the admiral of Eranee f.

Louis XI. had hitherto espoused but fointly the cause of

1000/. in money. Hence we may Infer that land in this reign sold at ten
years' purchase.

* Warkworth, jf. 9. Stowe, p. 422. Hie trux carnifex, et hcnninom decol-
lator horridus. — Notes to Warkworth, p. 63.

t Commines, iii. 4. Monstrel. addit. 34.



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A. I>. 1470.] THEIR RECKPT£ON BT LOUIS XI. 201

the house of Lancaster : but he now saw the advantage to
be derived from the arrival of Warwick and his friends, and
ordered them ajld their ladies to be provided with the best
accommodations in the neighbouring towns. Clarence and
the earl were invited to his court at Amboise and Angers,
where they met Henry's queen, Margaret of Anjou. No July
two persons had ever inflicted more serious injuries on each 16.
other than the earl and that princess : but misfortune
blunted the edge of their mutual hatred, and interest in-
duced them to forget their past enmity. After a decent
struggle Margaret suflered her antipathy to be subdued
by Warwick's oaths and the authority of Louis. The
earl acknowledged Henry for his rightful sovereign, and
bound himself to aid her, to the best of his power, in her
efforts to restore her husband to the thronl. She prom-
ised on the gospels never to reproach liim with the past,
but to repute him a true and faithful subject for the fu-
iir friendship, it was agreed that the
[d marry his daughter Anne, and, to
ntent of Clarence, that, in failure of
;e, the right of the crown should, on
}e, devolve on the duke ; and lastly,
3 of this reconciliation, engaged to
Warwick required for his projected
I*.

dissatisfied with this arrangement
lis consort. He had hitherto been
counsels of Warwick hy the pros-
his brother on the throne : he now
it interposed between himself and
ibition, and his chance of success
made to depend on a distant and very uncertain contin-
gency. His discontent was artfully fomented by the

• Ck>ni. ihid. Hall, 206, 807. Frag. 304. LeL ColL ii. 503. Ellis, i. 13S.
That this marriage actually took place, ig clear both from the testimony
of our own historians, and from the order given by Louis that the city of
Paris should receive in public procession the queen of England avec sou
fits le prince de Galles et sa femme fille dudit comte de Warrick, avec Ift
femme dudit de Warvick irere de la femme dudit prince de Galles. Monst.
Nouvelles Chroniques, 35.



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202 BDWARDIT. [chap. 111.

intrigues of a female agent. A lady in the suite of the
duchess had in the hurry of the flight heen left in Eng-
land, but was permitted to follow, in appearance through
the attention of the king to his sister-in-law,— in reality,
.that she might carry private instructions to Clarence.
She represented to that prince how unnatural it was for
him to fight against his brother, and to support the cause
of a family, the prosperiUr of which must depend on the
destruction of his own. These suggestions were not lost
on a mind already predisposed to receive them ; and the
duke, it,is said, found the means to assure Edward, that
when the occasion should offer, he would prove himself
a loyal subject and affectionate kinsman*.

The conduct of that prince during this interval is
almost inexplicable. If we except the execution of some,
and the banishment of others, among the adherents of
Warwick, he took no precautions to avert, made no pre-
parations to meet, the approaching storm. His time
was spent in gallantries and amusements : the two bro-
thers of Warwick were received into favour ; and one
of them, the marquess Montague, was honoured with
the royal confidence t. In such circumstances, no man
but the infatuated monarch himself entertained a doubt
of the result, if Warwick should effect a landing. That
nobleman had always been the feivourite, his exile had
made him the idol, of the people ; no ballad was popular
in the towns and villages which did not resound his
praise; and every pageant and public exhibition made
allusions to his virtues and his misfortunes. But if
Edward was indolent, his brother-in-law, the duke of
Burgundy, was active. He sent emissaries to Calais to
watch the conduct of Vauclerc ; complained to the par-
liament of Paris of the reception which had been given
to his enemy ; sought by menaces and preparations of

• Commlnes. ilL 5.

t Though the archbishop was allowed to remalii at the Moor in Hert-'
Ibrdshire. *• ther was belefile with hym dyverse of the kynge'i WTTantea.*'
•videntiy to watch his motioni. Fenn, il.48.



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A. D. 147<K] EDWARD DRIVEN OUT OF THE KINGDOM. 203

war to intimidate Louis; seized all the French mer-
chandize in his territories as an indemnity for the cap-
tures made hy Warwick ; and despatched a powerful
squadron to hlockade the mouth of the river Seine. But
the Burgundian ships were dispersed by a storm ; and the
next morning the exiles, under the protection of a French
fleet, left their anchorage, and steering across the chan- «^
nel, landed without opposition at Plymouth and Dart- j^y*
mouth *.

The incautious Edward had been drawn as far as York
by an artifice of the lord Fitzhugh, brother-in-law to
Warwick, who pretended to raise a rebellion in North-
umberland, and on the approach of the king, retired
within the borders of Scotland t. Thus the southern
counties were left open to the invaders. The men of
Kent had risen in arms: in London Dr. Goddard
preached at St. Paul's Cross in favour of the title of
Henry VI. ; Warwick proclaimed that monarch, ordered
all men between sixteen and sixty to join his standard,
and marched with an army, which increased every hour,
in a direct line towards Nottingham. The thoughtless
king had affected to treat the invasion with his usual
levity : he was happy that his enemies had at last put
themselyes in his power, and trusted that the duke of
Burgundy would prevent their escape by sea. But the
delusion was soon dissipated. Very few of those whom he
had summoned resorted to his quarters at Doncaster ;
and of these few many took the first opportunity to de-
part. As he sat at dinner, or lay in bed, word waft
brought that Warwick continued to approach with the
utmost expedition ; nor had he recovered from his sur-
prise before a second messenger informed him that six
thousand men, who had hitherto worn the white rose,

* Commines, ibid, ^all, 807, 90& The dake of Burgundy wrote with
nnosukl warmth on these subjects. Par Si. George, says he in. one oi him
letters, si Ton n'y pourvoid, a Taide de Dieu j'y pourveolru sans Tot eon-
fies n'y vos raisons. Apud Duclos, ii. p. 1 1.

t Fab. 600. Fenn,U.4&



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204 BDWARD IV. [chap. III.

nad, at the instigation of Montague, thrown away that
device, and tossing their honnets into the air, had
cried, ** God hless king Harry." A hattalion of guards
Was immediately despatched to secure a neighbouring
bridge, and the king, after a short consultation with his
friends, mounting his horse, rode, without stopping, to
the town of Lynn. He found in the harbour an English
ship, and two Dutch brigs ; and embarking in them
with a few noblemen and about eight hundred followers,
Ocf, compelled the sailors to weigh anchor, and steer imme-
3, diately for the coast of Holland. The fugitives were de-
scried by a fleet of pirates from the Hanse Towns ; and,
to escape the pursuit of these unknown enemies, the
king was compelled to run his vessel on shore. He
landed near Alkmaar, was received with every token of
respect by Grutuse the governor of the province, and
conducted by him to the Hague to meet the duke of
Burgundy. Thus, by his presumption and inactivity,
did Edward lose his crown, before he could strike one
blow to preserve it *.

Queen Elizabeth with her family had remained in the

Tower : but perceiving that the tide of loyalty had turned

in favour of Henry, she left that fortress secretly, and

Oct. fled with her mother and three daughters to the sanc-

^» tuary of Westminster, where she was shortly afterwards

delivered of a son t. Within a few days Clarence and

g^ ' Warwick made their triumphal entry into the capital.

Henry was immediately conducted from the Tower to

.)ct. the bishop's palace ; and thence walked in solemn pro-

*3. cession, with the crown on his head, to the cathedral of

St. PauVs. His friends attributed his restoration to

the undoubted interposition of Heaven J; by foreign

* Cont. Croyl. 554. ComtDines, iii. 5. Fraf^ent, 306. Stow, 423
Hall, S09. Edward after his restoration rewarded Grntuse with the
earldom of Winchester, which that nobleman was induced to resign by
Henry VII. f Stow. 432. 423. Feon.iL52.

I Cont. Croyl. 554, who adds, though himself a Yorkist, that the Lan-
castrians were at that period the more numerous party. Ibid.



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k. D. 1470.] SETTLEMENT OF THE SUCCESSION. 205

nations it was viewed with wonder, or treated with ridi-
cule ; to himself it is doubtful whether it proved a source
of joy or regret. He had been the captive of Edward ;
he was now the slave of Warwick*.

By a parliament summoned in the name of the re-
stored king, Edward was pronounced an usurper, his
adherents were attainted, and all acts passed by his au- Nov.
thority were repealed. The next step was to ratify the re-
convention of Amboise. An act of settlement entailed



Online LibraryJohn LingardA history of England, Volume 5 → online text (page 19 of 33)