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John Lord Hayes National Association of Wool Manufacturers.

The awards and claims of exhibitors at the International exhibition, 1876 ... online

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THE



AWARDS AND CLAIMS

OP



AT TBB



International Exhibition,



isre.



CONTAINING THE OFFICIAL AWARDS, WITH THE RESPECTIVE

CLAIMS OF EACH EXHIBITOR, AND THE GENERAL REPORTS

OF THE JUDGES IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF TEXTILE

MATERLLLS, FABRICS, AND MACHINERY.




^ BOSTON:

NAT IONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOOL MANUFACTURERS.

II PBMBBBTOSr SqUARB.



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^'\jV/ "^ u ^ I L i^'*^''"*'»''^ Oollt^fer** LilvH-iV'

r.-'r A. l\ Pe-wbodV
n '^cv. 1893-



ZEconS^S8;/(.7..C>



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877, by

JOnir L. BATES,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



Cambridge:
Press of John Wilsom 6* Son,



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PREFACE.



The display at the Centennial Exhibition of the products
of the American textile industry gave the opportunity, and
made more apparent the necessity, of supplying a deficiency
in our industrial liteittture, by a work which should give, in
one department at least, the personnel of our principal manu-
facturing establishments, — their individual history, and the
precise character of their products. The exhibits of the
different branches of our textile manufactures in this depart-
ment, grouped as they were together in the great hall of the
Exhibition, brought into relief the unity of our textile indus-
try, and suggested that it could be appropriately considered
as a whole, and might be naturally separated from other
groups of industries. The examination to which the exhibits
were subjected by the general visitors, and especially by the
examining judges, showed the avidity with which the most
minute details were sought for in relation to the establish-
ments making attractive and unexpected displays. Of the
great mass of interesting information communicated to visi-
tors by the exhibitoi's, no record remains, except in the traces
of imperfect notes which may be found in the general reports
of the judges. The official awards, brief and general as they
are from necestdty, instead of allaying, serve only to stimulate,
curiosity.

The principal object of the present work is to supply, in
the American department of the textile industry, what was
unsaid or unrecorded at the Exhibition, in relation to the his-
tory and production of the establishments whose prominence
was recognized by an official award, and to give in detail the
facts establishing that prominence. This work is, therefore,



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IV PREFACE.

in its department a complement of the Exhibition : it re-
enforces and emphasizes its awards ; it locates and describes
those whom it has honored ; it records information which it
has made of public interest ; and it more widely diffuses a
knowledge of the judgments which the authorities of the
Exhibition have pronounced upon the textile industry of the
world, by placing all the awards in the textile department in
a single volume, easily accessible to those interested in this
special subject.

The descriptions of the establishments which are appended
to the awards are called *^ claims," as no better word has oc-
curred to express their principal object, — that of designating
the distinctive facts in the history of the establishments or
the qualities of their products " claimed " by the proprietors.
The ** claims " in all cases have been furnished or written
by the respective proprietors ; and the work, therefore, has
the unique character of a collection of autobiographies of
the American textile manufacturers whose eminence has been
established by the highest possible official recognition. The
importance of these purely original and authoritative con-
tributions, which will hereafter serve as memoirs for a com-
prehensive history of American industries, will be equally
appreciated by practical men and scholars.

A large portion of the work is occupied by the general
reports of the judges at the Exhibition, which will speak for
themselves. They comprise all the reports in the textile
department. Their individual value, it is believed, will be
enhanced by their being grouped together as they are in this
volume, while the opportunity for verifying or correcting .
them is afforded by the descriptive claims.

John L. Hayes,

£ditor.



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CONTENTS.



Paok

AWABDS AND ClADCS 1

Rbpobt ok Group VIIL — Isaac Watts: Woven Fabrics,

Cotton, 4c 239

„ „ „ VIIL — EowABD Atkinson: Cotton . 249

n n n VIIL — Samttel Webber: Machinery 263

n n n VIIL — Samttel Webber: Linen . . 269

„ „ „ VIIL — Samttel Webber: Fibres . . 274

„ „ „ IX. — John L. Hates: Wool . . 277
,, „ n IX. — John L. Hates : Woollen

Fabrics 326

n n n I^* — John Jj. Hates : Silk and Silk

Fabrics 384

„ „ „ XIIL — James M. Wilcox: Paper, Ac. 459

Awards to American Exhibitors. — Group VIIL. . . 475

Awards to Foreign Exhibitors. — Group VIIL . . . 494

Awards to American Exhibitors. — Group IX. . . . 538

Awards to Foreign Exhibitors. — Group IX. . . . 556

Awards to American Exhibitors. — Groups X. and XIIL 622



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AWARDS AND CLAIMS.



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PAOinO MILLS, LAWEENOE, MASS.

AWARD.
PRODUCT: Printed Calicoes, Lawns, and Percales.

Commended for taste and variety/ in design^ clear colors and
sharp printinffy especial excellence in laums and percales.



Edward Atkinson.
Hugh Waddell, Jr.
Edward Richardson.
A. D. LocKwooD.
Charles II. Wolff.
Samuel Webber.
George O. Baker.
Isaac Watts.



JUDGES.

W. W. HULSE.

Don Alyaro de la Gandara.

Arnold Goldy.

GusTAV Herrmann.

Joseph Dassi.

Meni Rodrigues de Yascon'-

CELLOS.



The Pacific Mills are located in Lawrence, Mass., on the Merrimack
River, 26 miles from Boston. Thej were started by the Kssez Co.,
lion. Abbott Cawrence being President, and Mr. J. S. Young Treas-
urer. They were incorporated in 1853 under the present name with
a capital of $2,000,000, for the purpose of making ladies* dress goods
from wool wholly, from cotton wholly, and from wool and cotton com-
bined, and were provided with all the appliances of manufacture, includ-
ing print and dye works. The construction of the works having
exceeded the amount of capital paid in, the establishment found itself
in the very first years of its existence, on the brink of failure. This
failure was arrested by the munificence of its President, Mr. Law-
rence, who on his private responsibility advanced several hundred
thonsand dollars to meet the emergencies of the mill, thus adding to
hu title for recognition as one of the great founders of the manufact-
ures of New England. A hardly less important work of Mr. Law-
rence was the securing for the Treasurership of the mill vacated by the
declining health of Mr. Young the services of Mr. J. Wiley Edmands,
who had been educated in his house. Mr. Edmands took the Treasurer-
ship and the responsible management of the mill in June, 1855. For
the subsequent two or three years, the establishment, although actually
making money, was only sustained by largely borrowing money. In
1857, the leading commission houses of New England succumbed under

1



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2 AWARDS AND CLAIMS.

the pressure of the well-known panic of that period. The Padfio
Mills were compelled to ask an extension of credit /or six mouths, to
which every creditor assented. In 1858, the stockholders were called
upon to furnish an additional capital of $500,000, of which all but
$75,000 was secured. The stock representing this amount not secured
was sold at public auction in 1859 from $1,320 to $1,342 per share,
the par value being $1,000; although in 1857, two years previously,
many shares had been sold at prices ranging from $75 to $200.
During the first year of the war, 1861, the mill lost money, its product
then being about 11,000,000 yards of dress goods, cotton and woollen.
In 1870, the product reached 45,000,000 yards, and for several years
since that date the sales, including the cloths purchased for printing,
have reached about 65,000,000 yards. Of this, about 60 per cent are
stuff or worsted goods. Estimating our population at 45,000,000, and
that one-third of this population 15,000,000 consists of women and
girls, the Pacific Mills, which has all its consumption at home, supplies
not less than four yards of dress goods to each person of our popula-
tion wearing these fabrics. The following statistics of this mill will
give a better idea of the magnitude of its operations : —

Number of mills and buildings 12

Acres of flooring in buildings 41

Cotton spindles ! 135,000

Worsted spindles 25,000

Number of looms 4,500

Pounds of cotton used per week 116«000

Pounds of fleece wool used per week 65,000

Yards of cloth printed or dyed per week, more than . 1,000,000

Printing machines, from 2 to 16 colors 24

Tons of coal used per year 23,000

Number of steam boilers, in all 32,000 horse power ... 50

Steam engines, 1,200 horse power 37

Turbine wheels, 2,000 horse power 11

Cost of gas per year, 5,000 burners $35,000

Cost of labor, per month $160,000

Average daily earnings, women and girls .... 98 cents

,, ,, „ men and boys $1.40

Persons employed, women and girls .... 3,534

„ ,, men and boys 1,766

5,300

Number of houses for work-people 275

To this it may be added, that the raw materials for dyeing, etc., require
an annual expenditure of $400,000 ; the consumption of potato-



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AWABD8 AND CLAIMS. 8

•tarch is 500 tons a year, or 125,000 bashels of potatoes; the
wool consumed requires the fleeces of 10,000 sheep each week ; while
to all these is to be added the food and clothing of 5,300 operatives,
and their dependants twice as many more, and the items of trans-
portation of raw material and manufactured products. Considering
these multiform relations, how vast is the wave of production set in
motion by the wheels of a single mill ! and bow broadly extended are
its ever-enlarging circles, for the materials of consumption above
enumerated show that the productive stimulus of this industrial centre
moves labor not only in the fields of the South and the pastures of the
West, but in the plains of India, the forests of Brazil, and the islands
of the Equator.

The extraordinary success of this mill, although formed by the
drcumstances of the times, is to be attributed mainly to its command
of the almost unequalled faculties of administration possessed by its
Treasurer, Hon. J. Wiley Edmands, now deceased, and to iu foituue
in having as a selling agent Mr. James L. Little, whose mercantile
sagacity was supplemented by a creative taste, which he has imparted
to all ttie fabrics of the mills.

Not less conducive to its success was the enlightened regard to the
higher social obligation in industrial enterprise which distinguished the
earlier founders of that New England manufactory. The Company
has never ceased its care for the welfare of its operatives, and their
improvement morally and intellectually. It early founded a library, witb
reading rooms, which contain nearly 7,000 volume.^ which is open to the
work-people and their families, and has actually an average of 700
daily readers. It has also established a relief society for work-people
temporarily ill, to which operatives and Company contribute; as well
as a ** Home,*' or hospital, provided with physicians and matrons, where
those seriously ill can be better provided for than in the boarding-
houses, or even their own homes.

As the result of thb recognition by the Company of its moral respon-
sibilities, there has been no disposition on the part of its operatives
to organize strikes, all diiiiculties which have arisen having been
amicably arranged.

This moral work of the Company was suitably recognized at the
Paris Exposition of 1867 by the tribute to the Company of one of the
awards granted, from ^ve hundred contestants, to the individuals or
associations ^ who, in a series of years, had accomplished the roost to
secure a harmony between employers and their work-people, and most
successfully advanced their material, intellectual, and moral welfare."



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4 AWARDS AND CLAIMS.

Tlie very extensive exhibit from the Pacific Mills at the Inter-
national Exposition was not for purposes of competition, but simply
to show the range and character of their product. It elicited the most
unqualified commendation, more especially from the Judges from
abroad, who were astonished at the extent and perfection of its fabrics.



President,
John Amort Lowell.



Directors,



John Amort Lowell.
George W. Ltman.
J. Huntington Wolcott.
Abbott Lawrence.



Benj. E. Bates.

Jambs L. Little.

James McGregor (deceased).

Augustus Lowell.



J. Wiley Edmands (deceased).

Treasurer.
J. Wiley Edmands (deceased).

Treasurer pro tern,
James L. Little.

Clerk.
Henry Davenport.

Selling Agents.
James L. Little & Co., Boston and New York.
Amos R. Little & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.



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AWARDS AND CLAIMS. 5

WILLIAM WOOD & 00., PHILADELPHIA, PA.

AWARD.

PRODUCT: Cottonades and Cotton Cassimeres.

For excellence in stylet, comprising a very large assortment ; imita^
lion of fine woollen cassimeres very good; superior fabric^ durability^
economy.

JUDGES.

W, W. HULSK.

Don Alvaro de la Gakoara.

Arnold Goldt.

GcsTAv Herrmann.

Joseph Dassi.

Meni Rodrioues ds Yascon-

CELLOS.



Edward Atkinson.
Hugh Waddell, Jr.
Edward Richardson.
A. D. Lock WOOD.
Charles IL Wolff.*
Samuel Webber.
George O. Baker.
Isaac Watts.



CLAIM.



The firm of William Wood & Co., manufacturers of cotton and
woollen goods, and proprietors of the Pequea and Mount Vernon
Mills was established in 1858 by William Wood, a son of Thomas
Wood, proprietor of the celebrated Fairmount Machine Works, in this
city. The new enterprise rapidly increased, compelling Mr. Wood's
removal in 1860 to a building known as the Mount Vernon Mills,
situated at Twenty-Fourth and Hamilton Streets, which building still
forms a part of the present factories. In the year 1861, Mr. Wood
associated with him in partnership Mr. John McGill, and the firm
became known as William Wood & Co., a style which they retain to
the present day. In 1867 they purchased the lot of ground extend-
ing from Twenty-First to Twenty-Second Street, and from Hamilton
to Spring Garden Street, upon which they erected six buildings,
covering four acres of ground. The original building, known as the
Mount Vernon Mills, is a spacious structure 100 feet square, and
three stories in height. The new works, which bear the name of the
Pequea Mills, comprise six extensive buildings, and cover the area of
ground above mentioned. Of these buildings the one used for storage,
stock-rooms, and repair shops is two stories in height, 260 feet in
length, and 60 feet in width. The dye-house is 180 feet long and 70
feet wide, and the spinning and carding department is in another build-

* Signing Judge.



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b AWARDS AND CLAIMS.

ing four stories high, 200 feet long, and 60 feet wide. The weaving
and finishing are done in a five-stor^ building 280 feet long, and 42 feet
w^ide, and the preparing department is a one story building 1 30 feet long
and 70 feet wide. A fireproof storage building, two stories high and
GO by 40 feet in dimensions, concludes the list. In these large mills
over 700 hands are constantly employed. The machinery Includes
650 looms and spinning machinery, together with all the necessary
appliances. The products of the mills are cottonades and coiton
cassiraeres in every variety of style, weight, and price, which, being
used for clothing by the masses of the people, find a ready sale.
Wool and worsted mixture suitings of various styles for the clothing
and jobbing trade, superior jeans, plaid flannels, and shawls — the
latter being long, square, and shoulder styles — are also manufactured.
Immense quantities of these goods are produced and shipped to every
part of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and South America. This
necessitates a large consumption of raw material, nearly all of which
is purchased from first hands, — the cotton in the Southern, and the
wool in the Western States. The firm sell their goods directly to
jobbers. Tliey are the largest individual manufacturers of cottonades in
this country, and are now preparing a larger variety than ever hereto-
fore of these goods, together with cotton cassimeres suitable for all
markets, to meet the wants of the coming season. The firm had two
handsome and interesting exhibits of their goods at the Centennial
Exposition, including double-twist and fancy cottonades, and also plaid
flannels, for which they received the highest award of a medal and
diploma for superiority of manufacture and extra quality, thus sus-
taining the high popularity which has for many years been accorded
them by the trade of all markets. A large case of the finished goods
was displayed in the Main Building, where they attracted much atten-
tion. In Machiuery Hall they kept running continuously four looms,
upon which were manufactured, in the presence of visitors, the differ-
ent fabrics produced by the firm. This novel display attracted much
attention at the Centennial.



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AWAltDS AND CLAIMS. 7

HABTFOBD OABPET OOMFANT, HABTFOBD, CONN.

AWARD.

PRODUCT: Carpets.

A capital exhibit of BriuseU and two and three ply ingrain carpets,
all of the best fabrication, the designs original and tasteful, and the
colors clear and bright; the material and texture indicating high
wearing qualities. The exhibit is illustrative of a vast production.



John L. Hates.
Elliot C. Cowdik.
Chas. lk Boutillibr.
Chas. J. £lli8. *
J. D. Lang.

Consul GusTAv Gebhakd.
Theodore Bochner, Jr.
Uenrt Mitchell.



JUDGES.

Dr. Max Weioert.
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnbero.
Hatami Kenzo.
John G. Neeser.
August Behmer.
Albert Daninos.



The Thompsonville Manufacturing Company was incorporated 1828,
and commenced manufacturing carpets in 1829, and was the first to
manufacture Brussels carpets in this country. The Hartford Carpet
Company succeeded them, in 18j4, in the manufacture of Brussels,
two and three ply ingrain, and Venetian carpeting. In 1856 they
purchased the Tariffville Manufacturing Company's works, and suc-
ceeded them in the manufacture of Brussels and two and three ply
ingrain carpeting. In 1867, the mills at Tariffville were destroyed by
fire. They immediately increased their works by additions equivalent
to their loss ; and now have at Thompsonville 247 two and three ply
ingrain power-looms, with all necessary machinery for preparing the
wool for weaving, and substantial and convenient dwellings for all
their operatives.

The chief lines of goods made by the Hartford Carpet Company
are body Brussels, extra three-plys, imperial plys, superfine, and
medium superfine.

The date is very recent since the American public would believe
that carpets of fiist colors, good wearing qualities, and tasteful designs,

* Signing Judge.



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8 AWARDS AND CLAIMS.

oonld be made in this country ; while abroad the current of opinion
has been entirely changed by the revelations of the Centennial, it
having there been clearly demonstrated in all the above qualities
portions of the American exhibit were not only equal, but exoelled,
the samples from abroad.

One of the most distinguished of the English judges, standing amid
the carpets of the Hartford Company's exhibit, said, " I had supposed
our home manufacturers were acquainted with and catered to an
exclusively American taste, whirh, judging from the samples shown by
them here, would be any thing but popular in England. I find I am
mistaken ; for the fabric, colors, and designs of this exhibit are the
equal, in all respects, of goods made for the best trade we have in our
home markets.*'

While this was highly complimentary to our goods, we believe
it was a just recognition of our industry to-day. Certainly, ample
pecuniary means are at our disposal. We buy the best raw material,
conform to the most cultivated tastes in our designs, command the
highest order of skilled labor in all departments, make it a special
point to secure fast colors, and are determined to maintain no lower
standard of excellence, in all particulars, than we have achieved in the
past ; while our tariff of prices will compare favorably with those of
any other factory whose goods are of similar make with our own.

We refer with a just pride to the recognition of the merit of our
manufactures as shown in the above award.

Capital, $1,500,000.

John L. Houston, Resident Agent at the mill in ThompsonviUe.
George Roberts, Treasurer and President, Hartford, Conn.
Reune Martin, Agent, 114 and 116 Worth Street, New York.



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AWARDS AND CLAIMS.



BEL AIE MANUFAOTUEINO 00., PITTSFIELD, MASS.

AWARD.
PRODUCT: Fancy Cassimeres.

An admirMe erJiilnt of fancy ccusimeres of bold and novel destgnty
in great variety, and of excellent manufacture.



JUDGES.



JoHK L. Hates.
Elliot C. Cowdin.
Charles le Boutillieb.
Charles J. Ellis.*
J. D. Lang.

Consul GusTAv Gerhard.
Theodorr Bochner, Jr.
Hexrt Mitchell.



Dr. Max Weioebt.
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnbero.
Hayami Kenzo.
John G. Neeser.
August Brhmer.
Albert Daninob.



This enterprise was started in the saiftmer of 1873, nnder the man-
agement of Hon. Edward Learned, President, Frank E. Kernochan,



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