John Lord Hayes National Association of Wool Manufacturers.

The awards and claims of exhibitors at the International exhibition, 1876 ... online

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manufactured in Europe by the slow process of hand operation. Pre-
vious to the introduction of this invention, it was impossible to compete
ID this country with the foreign manufacturer, as the cost for labor in
weaving constituted a very large proportion of the cost in manufact-
uring ; whereas we now have thirty-four of these looms in operation,
capable of producing 700 yards per day, and of supplying most of our
people who desire a fine carpet of this description, at moderate price,
without depending upon European productions.

The Alexander Smith & Sons* Carpet Company have 34 Axminster
looms, producing 700 yards per day ; 100 tapestry Brussels looms,
producing 5,500 yards per day; and 138 ingrain looms, producing
2,000 yards per day ; with all the carding, spinning, and printing ma-
chinery necessary for preparing the wool for the looms, of the latest
and most approved kinds; giving employment to twelve hundred

AH the principal buildings are new and substantial, of ample capac-
ity for the purposes intended, located on a stream of very pure water ;
and we take pleasure in believing that our establishment is not excelled
by any in its appointments and arrangements for the manufacture of
caqyeting : and are especially gratified in knowing that we were the
first to successfully establish the manufacture of a class of fine carpet-
ing by power-loom, never before attempted in this or any other coun-
try ; and that, by the employment of superior artisans in the various
departments, the production of our looms will not suffer by comparison
with any goods manufactured of similar description.

Alexander Smith . . • President.
Wabren B. Smith . . . Treasurer.
Wm. F. Cochrak .... Secretary.
W. k J. Sloane .... AgentSy No. 655 Broadway, N. T.

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PRODUCT: Wonted and Stuff Goods.

A very creditable exhibit of three-quarters stuff goods^ cotmsting of
plain and twilled mixtures, checks^ stripes^ cretonnes^ and all-wool
delaines ; aU very useful goods, and adapted for general consumption.


John L. Haye8.
Elliot C. Cowdin.
Charles le Boutillier.
Charles J. Ellis.
J. D. Lang.

Consul GusTAv Gerhard.
Theodore Bochner, Jr.
Henry Mitchell.*

Dr. Max Weigert.
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnberg.
Hay^mi Kenzo.
John G. Neeser.
August Behmer.
Albert Daninos.


The Washington Mills, of Lawrence, Mass., originally known as the
Bay State Mills, were established thirty years ago, and are the most
extensive manufactory of a general range of woollen goods in this or
any other country.

The products of the woollen mills comprise shawls, flannels, coat-
ings, beavers, cheviots, and many other styles of woollens.

In the worsted mills, coating of various kinds, for men's use, and
ladies' dress goods in great variety, are produced.

In the cotton mill, with a capacity of 20,000 spindles, the product
is varied to meet the changes and emergencies of the market.

A review of the history of this manufactory brings prominently for-
ward certain leading lines of goods — now in constant and growing
demand — that had their origin liere, in the use of the inventive
genius, enterprise, and capital that from the first have been lavishly
employed by the company. Some of these facts have been mentioned
(and which we will quote) in the general official report of the Board
of Judges in Group Nine, at the late Centennial Exhibition.

Signing Judge.

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** lo the important class of shawls, we naturally observe those most
nearly allied in material and texture to the fabrics which we have
been considering. The manufacture of the all-wool plaid shawls, for-
merly known in this country as the Bay State shawls, from the mill
which introduced them, originated in Massachusetts, about 1848.
Favored by the easy application of the cashmere twill to this fabric,
and the facility with which the design is made, and varied, through
tiie ultimate concurrence of the warp and woof, and still further aided
by the adaptation of American wools to this fabric, it at once obtained
(perfection. The shawls of the Bay State Mills exhibited at the first
International Exposition, that of 1852, were pronounced by French
experts as * quite remarkable for the lightness and softness of the
stuff;' and shawls exhibited by the same mill at the Paris Ex}H)8ition
of 1867 were commended for the same qualities, as well as for their
moderate price. This manufacture has an immense production, quite
excluding foreign articles of the same grade."

About 1859 appeared, either through the Washington or Middlesex
Mills, — for the honor is claimed by both, and the products of both
vie with each other in celebrity — the blue flannel coating, indigo and
wool dyed, and having a three-leaved twill. This fabric, sheared and
tiiiished like cloth, but retaining the lightness and flexibility of the
flannel texture, forming an admirable material for summer garments,
i« distinctly American in origin and character. It has a large domes-
tic consumption, and has become an article of export to South America.

Opera flannels — a name given abroad, from one of its original uses,
to a light flannel, more highly gigged and finished than the ordinary
article ; being pieoe-dyed, uniformly, in many fancy colors, and hot-
pressed — were first introduced into this country by the Bay State

The Exposition showed that the most formidable rivals of the
fancy cassimeres are the fabrics known as worsted coatings. Being
woven in the fancy lo<xn, either Jacquard or Crompton, and made for
the same purposes and by the same manufacturers as the fancy cassi-
meres, they differ from them only in the respect that the cassimeres
are made of carded, and the worsted cloths of combed, wool. This
fabric was created in France, and the introduction of its manufact-
ure into this country afibrds another illustration of the benefits of
international expositions.

Hon. E. R. Mudge, of Boston, being Commissioner of the United
Sutes at the Exposition of Paris in 1867, was impressed with these
goods, then eihibited, and which were then being much worn as a


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novelty in both London and Paris. Seeing that thej were made of
combed merino wool, Mr. Mudge made inquiries, to ascertain if suit-
able wools for these fabrics could be abundantly furnished by Ameri-
can fleeces. Satisfying himself affirmatively upon this point, he
imported and introduced the requisite machinery for combing and
spinning the wools, at the Washington Mills, in Lawrence, Mass., of
which he was the Managing Director.

This establishment succeeded so well in the fabrication of these
stuffs, and they proved so popular when put upon the market, that
there immediately sprung up a host of rivals and imitators.

From the beginning, the present proprietors of the Washington
Mills have conducted their operations on an extended scale. The cap-
ital is $1,650,000. The total value of the product of the mills, for
I860, was $2,000,000. The value of the annual production, during
more recent years, has ranged from $3,060,000 to $3,500,000. The
yearly consumption of wool exceeds 3,000,000 pounds ; and that of
cotton, from 1,500 to 2,000 bales. The value of the indigo and other
dyes used each year is from $150,000 to $200,000; and 10,000 to
12,000 tons of coal are annually required.

About 2,500 operatives are employed, whose wages yearly aggre-
gate $900,000 ; and the most of whom occupy tenements provided for
them by the corporation.

In 1862, Mr. £. A. Bourne, the first president, resigned, and Mr.
Joseph S. Fay became his successor. After holding the office two
years, Mr. Fay resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. John A. Blanch-
ard; and the latter, in 1866, by Geo. R. Minot; who, in 1872, was
followed by the present incumbent, Peter T. Homer.

The treasurership, vacated by Mr. Fay, in 1862, was conferred upon
Mr. Joshua Stetson, who held the office until 1868, when he resigned
on account of ill health.

After an interval of about one year, during which Mr. Mudge was
the Managing Director, the present treasurer, Mr. Henry F. Coe, was
elected. The present board of directors is composed of the following
gentlemen : —

Peter T. Homer, President

£. R. Mudge,
Henry Saltonstall,
Charles U. Cottino,

Chas. W. Freeland,

BoBERT Couch,

John A. Blanchard, Jr.

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PRODUCT: Carpets.

An excellent exhibit of two and three ply ingrain carpets, unexception-^
able in texture, design, and color ; the material and fabrication indi-
cating excellent wearing qualities.


John L. Hates.
Elliot C. Cowdin.
Charles le Boutillier.
Charles J. Ellis.
J. D. Lang.

Consul GusTAV Gebhard.
Theodore Bochner, Jr.
Henrt Mitchell.

Dr. Max Weioert.*
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnbero.
Hayami Kexzo.
John G. Xeeser.
August Behmer.
Albert Daninob.


This establishment is the second oldest carpet manufactorj in the
United States. The store and warehouse — a marble building on
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia — was pronounced by Sir John Crossly,
in 1875, the handsomest carpet store in the world ; and the works are
on Carpenter Street, Germantown.

The business was established on its present site, in 1830, by the
brothers Andrew and William McCallum, who had emigrated to
America from Scotland, some two or three years previously. In the
following year, 1831, they purchased the property from James Burke,
the then owner. The fisictory is situated in a valley, in which there is
a well-defined echo; and this circumstance suggested the name of
**" Glen Echo Mills," by which the works are known throughout the
United States, and even abroad. The number of hands employed
during the first year or two was not more than thirty. For the first
three or four years the machinery of the factory was driven by water-
power ; but in 1835 they put in a steam-engine of ten-horse power.
The capacity of the works increased until, in 1858, a fire occurred in

* Signing Judge.

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the mills, which destroyed a part of the main building and much ma-
chinery. During the war of the Rebellion, the firm engaged in the
manufacture of army blankets. For some portion of this time, the mill
ran night and day, and was worked by two sets of hands. This house,
now about completing a half century of existence, has grown with the
growth of its particular industry, and with that of the State and coun-
try, and is now a representative house. The works cover an extent of
two acres ; a force of 350 hands is employed, and the machinery is
driven by an engine of 250-hor8e power, with seventeen sets of cards.

Their principal production is extra-super ingrain carpets, — the class
of carpeting which is the most in demand for general use. In this
specialty the firm lead the trade ; producing the best carpets of this
description which are known either here or in Europe, as is shown by
the fact that the '' Glen Echo " can always command a higher price
than any other kind. Of this ingrain they turn out in its yarious
grades, inclusive of stair carpeting, about 1,500 yards per diem.

From 1845 to 1855 the firm were extensively engaged in the manu-
facture of Brussels carpeting by hand. But> owing to the competi-
tion of newly introduced power-looms, they suspended that branch
until 1875, when they recommenced the manufacture of Brussels
carpets, using power-looms. They are now producing an article
equal to any in the market.

The firm spin all their own yams, and are also enabled to do a large
trade in supplying yarns to other manufacturers. The quantity of
worsted and filling yarns produced for this purpose is about 1,800
pounds per diem, in addition to what is required for their own mills.

The consumption of wool is about two and a half million pounds per
annum. In addition to their large manufacturing interest, this firm
also carry on an extensive jobbing interest, and are the largest im-
porters of carpets and wools in Philadelphia. The stock at the store
in Chestnut Street embraces a very wide variety. The members of
the firm were at first the two brothers, Andrew and William McCallum.
In 1841, on their adding a city warehouse to the business, Charles J.
Hendrickson was admitted into the partnership. In 1855, Andrew
McCallum died, and Charles J. Hendrickson retired, leaving the busi-
ness in the entire control of William McCallum. In 1859, Hugh
McCallum, Orlando Crease, and Andrew J. Sloan, were admitted into
the firm, and the style became McCallum <& Co. In 1866, William
McCallum retired from active participation in the business, when the
firm name was altered to its present form.

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PRODUCT: Oil-Cloth.

Commended for their very great variety^ exceUent quality , numeroiu^
original, and artistic designs^ richjini$h and colors ; admirable in every


Edward Atkinsox.
Hugh Waddell, Jr.
Edward Richardson.
A. D. LocKwoOD.
Cha8. H. Wolfp.
Samuel Webber.
George O. Baker.
Isaac Watts.

Wm. W. Hulse .♦

Don Alvaro de la Gandara.

Arnold Goldy.

GusTAv Herrmann.

Joseph Dassi.

Meni Rodrigues de Vascon-



To the oil -cloths manufactured by the firm of Thomas Potter, Sods
& Co., of Philadelphia, was awarded the only medal, by the judges of
the CeDteooial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876. In addition to
this distinction, the following tribute was paid to the productions of
this firm, by Isaac Watts, Esq., of England, the President Judge of
Group Eight, in his official report: —

" The other class upon which I had to form a judgment, in connec-
tion with my co-judges in textile machinery, was that of oil-cloths. In
this class I had no hesitation in assigning the first place to the United
States, for great variety, beauty of design, richness of colors, and
quality of texture, in oil floor-cloths, table-cloths, carriage-cloths, and
fiincy cloths for upholstery; the best exhibit, in my opinion, being
that of Messrs. Potter, Sons & Co."

The factories of this firm are located at the junction of the New
York branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Second Street, Phila-
delphia ; the warehouses and office, at 418 Arch Street. The facili-
ties of this firm for manu&cturing are unequalled ; factories covering
four acres of ground, replete with every machine applicable to this

* Signing Judge.

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branch of industry. Every part of the buildings heated with steam-
heating apparatus. Trained and practised workmen, and the best talent
in designing, employed. Ample capital to buy for cash all the materials
used in their productions. The productions are floor oil-cloth, of orig-
inal designs, in great yariety, artistic in form and coloring, made and
seasoned, to be used and safely handled in any climate ; furniture
oil -cloths, in woods and marbles and prints, smooth, brilliant, flex-
ible, workmanship exquisite. Carriage-makers' and upholsterers' en-
amelled oil-cloths, ducks, drills and muslins; blacks, browns, drabs,
blues, greens, bright and dull finished ; elastic, smooth, Jbright, enam-
elled in various grains, will be found pliant in the frosty North, and
free from adhesive qualities in the sunny South. The *' Potter Oil-
Cloth Works *' is capable of manu&cturing over two million square
yards of oil-cloths, annually. There are two distinct factories ; one for
the furniture and enamelled oil-doths, and the other for floor oil-cloths.
There is no article in the oil-cloth line that is not manufactured in this

The firm of Thomas Potter, Sons & Co., was formed in 1870. The
present firm consists of Thomas Potter, Sen., Edward S. Worrell, James
F. Hope, Thomas Potter, Jr., and William Potter. Greorge Potter,
a member of the firm, died October, 1876. Thomas Potter, Sen., has
been engaged in manufacturing oil-cloths since 1840. He was a
skilled workman when he commenced the manufacturing in said year,
as one of the firm of Potter & Carmichael.

He purchased in 1848 the Bush Hill Oil-Cloth Works, at Eighteenth
and Spring Garden Streets, that had been erected for the first oil-cloth
factories in the United States, by Isaac Macauley, who hegaxk the busi-
ness in Philadelphia in 1810. The growth of the city, also the growth
of Mr. Potter's business, made the removal of the factories a necessity.
The removal to the present location was consummated in 1872, and
the old lot sold for building purposes. The success of this branch of
manufacturing in Philadelphia is largely due to the practical knowl-
edge of the senior member of the firm. The present firm are all in
the prime of manhood, understand their business thoroughly, have
capital and enterprise, and are on the way to greater success and dis-
tinction as oil-cloth manufacturers.

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The United States Centennial Ck)mmi88ion has examined the report
of the jadges, and accepted the following reasons, and decreed an
award in conformity therewith.

PRODUCT: Alpacas and Brilliantines.
Name and Address of Exhibitor :


The undersigned, having examined the product herein described,
reapectfuUy recommends the same to the United States Centennial
Commission for award, for the following reasons, viz. : —

^or a very superior collection of black alpacas^ brilliantines, figured
mohairs^ and jRoubaix poplins ; all first-class goods of their kind, very
uniform in width, color, and finish, and, being of recent introduction,
reflect great credit on the manufacturers.

Henry Mitchell.

{Signature of the Judge*)
Approval of Group Judges.

JoHjY L. Hayes.


Cbarles le Boutillikr.

Charles J. Ellis.

J. D. Lang.

Consul GusTAV Gerhard.

Theodore Bochner, Jr.

Henry Mitchell.

A true copy of the record :

Dr. Max Weigert.
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnberg.
Hayami Kenzo.
Johk G. Neeser.
August Behmeh.
Albert Daninos.

Francis A. Walker,

Chief of the Bureau of Awards.

Given by authority of the United States Centennial Commission.
J. L. Campbell, Secretary.

A. T. GosHORN, Director- General
J. R. Hawlet, PresidenL

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The Arlington Mills are located on the Spicket River, in the dtj of
Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts. This company was incor-
porated under the General Statutes, in 1865, under the title of the
Arlington Woollen Mills, with a capital stock of $200,000. The orig-
inal incorporators were Robt. M. Bailey, Chas. A. Lambard, Joseph
Nickerson, and George C. Bosson.

The business in which the mills first engaged was the manufacture
of fancy shirting flannels and woollen-felted fabrics.

In October, 1866, the mills were totally destroyed by fire, entailing
a severe loss upon the company. The proprietors were not dis-
couraged by this disaster ; but immediately began the erection of a new-
mill, which was completed early in 1867, and in April of the same
year the capital stock was increased to $240,000. The tariff of 1860
having given a stimulus to the worsted industry of the country, then in
its infancy, the proprietors were encouraged to embark in it, and
decided to manufacture women's worsted and cotton dress goods.
For this purpose, there were put into the new mill 175 looms, with the
necessary worsted-preparing machinery. In the prosecution of this
business, great difiiculties were encountered, such as always at-
tend the inauguration of a new industry, and proprietors less cou-
rageous and determined would have been disheartened, when, at tlie
close of the year 1869, the financial condition of the company wa*
found to be such as to necessitate a reorganization. The shareholders
met the requirements, and paid into the treasury the whole amount of
the capital stock ($240,000) to make the same good. A change was
made in the management, by the election of Joseph Nickerson for
President, and William Whitman for Treasurer and General Agent.
The work of remodelling and increasing the productive capacity of the
mills was begun in 1871 ; and since then additions of machinery and
buildings have from time to time been made, until now the company
operates 508 looms, producing 5,000,000 yards of cloth annoally, and
giving employment to 600 persons.

In 1875, the title of the company was changed by act of the legisUt-
re to the Arlington Mills. In July, 1876, the capitnl stock was
icreased to $320,000 ; and in May, 1877, it was further increased to

The Arlington Mills now make a specialty of the manufiicture of
ack alpacas, mohairs, and brilUantines ; and they were the first to
iccessfully produce these goods in the United States. Their manu-
kcture was begun in 1872 ; and at that time it was believed that siidi
[>ods could not successfully be made elsewhere than in Bradford. Eng-

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land : but this company has demonstrated that they can be made in the
United States equal, if not superior in every respect, to the productions
of the best manufacturers in the old-established seats of the worsted
industry in Europe. To accomplish this result, no expense or labor
has l)een spared by this company ; its first aim having been to produce
good goods.

The mills are located in the heart of the manufacturing centre of
New England, where skilled labor naturally gravitates ; and this com-
pany endeavors to retain such permanently in its employ, by the pay-
ment of liberal wages, by making the surroundings of the mill healthful
and cheerful, by taking all necessary precautionary measures for the
prevention of accidents and for the security of life, and by careful
attention to all that affects the moral and physical well-being of its
employes. The report of the Judges of Award on this company's
exhibit at the Centennial Exhibition evidences the advanced state of
its manufacture; ^e goods exhibited comprising all of the regular
qualities making at that time.

It is claimed for these goods that, in all that comprises excellence of
manufacture, in evenness, firmness of weave, lustre, brilliancy, and
durability of color, and in silkiness of finish, tliey are unsurpassed by
similar fabrics of any country.

It is the determination of the managers of this company, not only to
maintain the present high standard of their fabrics, but to spnre no
effort to attain, if possible, greater excellence, and to furnish to the
trade goods that may always be relied upon as the best of their kind.

This business was inaugurated under the present management.


Joseph Nickerson.

Treasurer and General Agent.

William Whitman, 40 Water Street, Boston.

Superintendent of Mill,

Samuel Smith.

Selling Agents.

Lawrence & Co., 13 Chauncy Street, Boston; 109 & 111 Worth Street,

New York.
Thos. T. Lea & Co., 325 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia.


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PRODUCT: WooUen Goods.

Commended for indigo-blue police-Jlannels, cadet uniform^ and tfacht
cloths^ with police heavers ; aJU of substantial fabricatimi^ and adapted
for uniformed schools^ city police^ and for general consumption ; alsOj
for large shawls^ in excellent colors, at moderate prices.


Joiix L. Hayes.
Elliot C. Cowdin.
Charles le Boutilliek.
Charles J. Ellis.
J. D. Lang.

Consul Gustav Gerhard.
Theodore Bochner, Jr.
Henry Mitchell.

Dr. Max Weigert.
Louis Chatel.
Carl Arnberg.
John G Neeseu.
August Behmer.
Albert Daninos.

A history of the Middlesex Mills, Lowell, Mass., covers the entire
life of the successful woollen industry in this country ; and includes,
as the work of that establishment, some of the most important adapta-
tions of wool to popular and universal use known in manufactures.
One of its early achievements is thus alluded to, in the general official
report of the judges at the Centennial Exhibition, while speaking of
the diminution of one class of fabrics in American manufacture: —

" The capacity to manufacture the finest broadcloths in this country

Online LibraryJohn Lord Hayes National Association of Wool ManufacturersThe awards and claims of exhibitors at the International exhibition, 1876 ... → online text (page 14 of 48)