John Lord Hayes National Association of Wool Manufacturers.

The awards and claims of exhibitors at the International exhibition, 1876 ... online

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of fibre from plants which never attain in this garden more than 4 feet
in height, being cut down by frost every winter; yet I have seen it,
beside the fiame-tree in the brush lands of Qaeensland and New South



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BEPOBT ON PAPER, ETC. 467

Wales, attaining a height of 75 feet, and with a trunk more than 5 feet
in diameter.

The Pipturus propinqaus, Stercalia rnpestris, Sida retasa, and many
others, grow as quickly here as in Queensland. Quite as good results,
therefore, might be expected by cultivating these plants ; but need we
go further than our own colony of Victoria for quality or quantity of
fibre or paper material, when our forests teem with valuable plants
suitable for their manufacture ? If we only instance the Pimelias,
Dianellas, Plagianthus, Cladiums, Lepidosperma, or " Mat-grass,"
G>mmer6onia, Brachychiton populneum, Urtica incisa, Cyperus, Typha,
Scirpos, Carex, Isolepis, and the rushes (Juncus vaginatus, maritima,
and paudfiora), and there are scores of other indigenous plants equally
valuable, rag* need no longer be collected for paper-making, or intro-
ductions from other countries for cordage. With sixty millions of
acres of good land included between the parallels 30° and 39° south
latitude, we can, without cultivation, reap abundant harvests of paper
material, even from various species of Eucalypti, Xerotes, Melaleuca,
Cyperus, and others ; and, indeed, from some of the grasses which are
plentiful in their midst. Our native vegetable resources are great,
and should therefore be thoroughly searched up. My thirty crude
samples of paper, which are sent in frames, were prepared under great
difficulties ; and they were only made to prove what can be done with
some of our native plants. Many of them are new ; but the indefati-
gable Mr. Ramsden, of the Victorian Paper Mills, has devoted his
attention particularly to the manufacture of paper from Victorian
plants; and he will, no doubt, be able to add to his collection long
befi>re the colony has been thoroughly explored.

The dyes, forwarded in bottles, are not so numerous as they would
have been had time permitted me to send out collectors ; but the sam-
ples of silk, calico, and woollen material stained with them show a
variety of beautiful colors ; the value of which will, no doubt, be proved
at Philadelphia.

I regret to have to say that my collection of woods could not be
properly seasoned. Some of them were polished within a week aAer
they were cut from the tree : consequently many of tlie specimens have
split from end to end.

I have the honor to be, gentlemen.
Your obedient servant,

William R. Gcilfotle,

Director of Botanic Gardens, Melbourne*



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468 REPORT ON PAPER, ETC.

The display of blank and aooonnt books (Qasg 261) was remurk*
ably good. From Europe were specimens of books made up of very
strong and excellent paper (principally hand-made), with most solid
covers, sheathed with metal over the wearing parts, closed with lock
and key, and in every respect admirable. These were few ; and the
foreign display was confined to France, Italy, Germany, and Russia, —
doing much credit to all. The American blank-book manufacturers,
especially, but not exclusively, those nearest to the Exhibition, in this
city, made very large and handsome exhibits. On the merits of these
I prefer to give the words of Mr. G. W. Seitz, of Germany, my asso-
ciate judge, who writes : " The binding of books, as well as the manu-
facture of blank-books, are, as to solidity and execution, decidedly the
best that I have seen in the Exhibition."

The manufacture of papers belonging to Class 263 (building papers)
has vastly increased within a few years, and many new applications of
them have been made. The quality, also, has improved by the nae
of hemp and manilla in much larger quantities. These papers are
used natural, or saturated with bitumen, and are sometimes printed
either in water or oil colors. They cover roofs and floors, line inside
walls, protect outside walls, line cisterns, underlie carpets, displace
mattings and oil-cloth, dispense with lathing and plastering, and find
a number of uses that increases every year. This increase is good
evidence of their economy and utility ; and the exhibits were, in the
order of their quality and extent, from, first. United States ; second,
Sweden ; third, Japan ; fourth, France. The Japanese papers of this
character were the strongest and best shown ; being made principally
of mulberry bark, and enamelled with oil-colors and varnish, iu the
most perfect and durable manner. These were floor-papers only, and
the various other species of building papers shown by other countries
were not shown by Japan.

Very little Japanese paper is made from rags or linen or cotton
fibre; but most is made, in a primitive way, of materials obtained
from plants which are specially cultivated for the manufieu^ture of paper,
and for no other purpose. The most important of these plants is the
Kodzu ; then comes the Gampi^ the Mitsumataj the Kuwa (or mul-
berry-tree), the Hi-fUh-ki (a species of wild cherry), and several others
unknown to us. It is the bark only of these shrubs and trees that is
used, and not the woody fibre. The better qualities of paper are made
in workshops arranged for that special purpose ; but most of the paper
is home made by farmers at times when their fields do not require
their whole attention. Such paper as we are accustomed to see is



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BEPOBT ON PAPEB, ETC. 469

manufactured from rags, and only in the regular paper-mills recently
built at Tokis, and which are provided with foreign machinery.

Of Class 264, embracing wall and other ornamental papers, there was
an excellent display ; and it is much to be regretted that France, who
notably excels in the manufacture of these kinds of paper, sent none
of her best wall-papers to the Exhibition. But one notable display
came from Great Britain, and it might well serve for a suggestive
model to our designers of decorative paper. Sweden showed speci-
mens from several of her principal manufacturers ; among which, rich
and bright designs in velvet and colors were numerous. Warm colors
predominated ; and the patterns not suitable to American taste indi-
cated the climate of the country from which they came, and would
seem to accord well with a refined taste, modified by the protracted
winters of the far North. Italy presented a very beautiful book of
patterns from Naples, that was in keeping with the well-known Italian
artistic taste. The ancient frescoes on the recently uncovered walls of
Pompeii were there reproduced with accuracy ; and the finest miniUia
of all the designs had received great care and pains. These papers
were well worth the study of our producers of paper decorations, and
might aid in forming a true and high artistic taste. What principally
distinguishes the European wall-papers, generally, from those of this
oountry is, that the former are mostly made up of specific designs, each
being complete in itself that court inspection and study, the general
effect being subordinate to the particular excellences of the parts ; while,
in the American papers, the general effect is principal, shades and designs
more blending, and the finished details of the finest papers of Europe
wanting. This general effect aimed at by our manufacturers is not too
much at the expense of minut%<B for the prices that they are able to
obtain ; and it is certainly admirably produced according to their aiuL
Any other style would not meet their market ; and their efforts are
naturaJly put forth to protect the styles that will. There are excep-
tions to this rule ; and in one of the principal American exhibits there
were perfect and cheap copies of very fine foreign designs. Nothing
is here meant in disparagement of American designs ; for differences in
taste are frequently radical, and due to unalterable characteristics of a
people. The American machinery for printing wall-paper has reached
great perfection ; and more than twenty colors are sometimes printed
from as many cylinders, during one continuous operation. Very hand-
tome specimens of decorative paper were to be seen in the Grerman
Department ; and Russia presented quite a number, some of which
were peculiar and quite attractive. From the Netherlands came imi-



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470 BEPORT ON PAPER, ETC.

tadons, on paper, of fine and variegated marbles, of ornamental woods,
and of inlaying of woods of various textures and colors, that were very
perfect, and quite superior to any thing of the kind found elsewhere.
Correct Flemish taste and patient labor were conspicaous in these elabo-
rate imitations. Suspended from the walls of the office of the Com-
missioners from Belgium were admirable imitations, in heavy embossed
paper, of the old leather hangings of Molines and Cordon. So perfect
were they that close inspection only could satisfy one that remnants of
these famous leather ornaments were not before him.

Of ornamented papers for bookbinders' use, a very fine exhibit came
from New York; and two exhibitors, from Austria and Bavaria
respectively, presented books of patterns, of marbled and other fancy
papers, that seemed absolutely perfect of their kind. If these could
be purchased and retained in the United States, they might in the
future contribute largely to the perfecting of the products of oar book*
binderies.

In paper-making machinery there were few exhibits, — all American.
In this branch of manufacturing, Americans are not excelled ; and this
may partly account for the absence of foreign exhibits in it. Machin-
ery of this kind, too, is heavy, and expensive to handle ; and could not
naturally be expected from abroad, when no hope of prospective re»
muneration is entertained. An entire paper machine was in operation
in Machinery Hall, erected and run at great expense by the builder.
This was critically examined by practical judges, and deemed to be
excellent in all its details. It contained some important improve-
ments, and manifests in the builder an ambitious and intelligent desire
to accomplish real progress. The demand in this country for highly-
finished book-paper has wrought great improvement in apparatus for
super-calendering in the web ; and the several exhibits made of such
would seem to indicate that nothing much more complete need reason-
ably be looked for. One most important improvement in calendering
machinery is of the last ten years ; and consists in a stack of from eight
to twelve small rolls, not of ordinary cast-iron (as of old), but of chilled
iron, with surface as hard as steel. Three exhibits of these were
brought from Wilmington, Delaware, in which each roll was separately
ground, and polished so accurately that the faintest glimmer of light
could not pass between any two rolls when put together. So great is
the accuracy attained by the new processes of single polishing, that
any two rolls of all these exhibits might be placed together, and
touch each other throughout the entire lengths.

The envelope machines were equally interesting and satis&ctorj;



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BBPORT ON PAPEB, ETC. 471

and a most important addition has been made to these within a few
years. Formerly, the blanks for folding were run out by hand ; and
the flaps that are finally closed were gummed by a brush, and dried.
This was to allow the machine to make up and press together the
envelopes without an adhering of the last flap. The latest improve-
ment permits the whole envelope to be gummed by machinery at one
process ; after which, it is carried some minutes through the air to dry
the last flap before counting and banding. This is perfectly well ao«
complished, and considerable labor saved thereby. One machine cut
the envelopes automatically from narrow rolls, with a minimum waste
of paper ; and a cheapening of the product seemed to be effected to a
considerable extent by this feature. Envelopes made by the machines
exhibited were very perfect, and made with great economy ; and it is
probable that there is little room for further improvement in that line.
One of the most important parts of our labors was the examination
of articles included in Class 540, which embraces all kinds of printing-
presses. This was a study of the ^ art preservative of all arts ; " and
all progress made in it ought to be important to the progress of man-
kind. A great number of presses for various purposes, including
roller-presses for bank-note work, were exhibited ; many of which were
kept in pretty constant operation. Most of these were American ;
and the most notable foreign presses were from England, France, and
Germany, — all of the very best character. The immense issues of
the principal newspapers of the large cities of Europe and America,
and the few short hours in which they have to be printed, have de-
manded new facilities and greater rapidity of printing than was pos-
sible by feeding sheet by sheet. Within a few years only, this demand
has been supplied ; and presses now take the paper in large, continu-
ous rolls, pass it rapidly between cylinders covered with circular
stereotyped plates, print both sides in quick succession, divide the
broad web into two running sheets, cross-cut them precisely in the
middle of the margins, fold each sheet neatly twice, and deposit all in
rows at the rate of over twenty thousand newspapers per hour. A
printing press of this character deserves to rank among the greatest
feats of mechanic art ; and the three exhibited, for many months drew
crowds of observers, and were universally recognized as being among
the wonders of the Exhibition. These three were, the Walter press
from England, exhibited by Mr. Walter, of the ^ London Times ;" the
Hoe press from New York, exhibited by R. Hoe & Co. ; and the Bul-
lock press from Philadelphia, exhibited by the Bullock Press Company.
The latter company boldly placed in competition a press of unusual



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472 REPORT ON PAPER, ETC.

width, and printed two sheets at a time of the " New York Herald," on
a roll of paper sixty-three inches wide. The web of double width was
then rapidly slit in two, and cross-cut into separate sheets. The Iloe
press was also double, and printed two sheets at a time of the ^ Phila-
delphia Times," on a roll of paper fifly-two inches wide, which it then
slit and cross-cut, afler which it carried the separated sheets forward
for an additional operation. This was the folding; and the process
was effected by two folders, one on each side, folding each slieet twice,
and delivering it with absolute exactness, without a single fault. The
Walter press was narrower, and printed a single sheet of the ^ New
York Times," on a roll of paper thirty-six inches wide, which it cross-
cut and delivered flat. Its speed was greater than that of the wider
presses, and the work of each was admirably done. The following is
a summary of the competitive trial : —

Walter Press. — Printed ** New York Times," size 36X 46f : web of
paper, thirty-six inches wide; number of impressions in an hour, 10,4d5;
number of running yards printed in an hour, 13,486; number of
square yards printed in an hour, 18,486.

Hoe Press. — Printed " Philadelpia Times," 26x27^ : web of paper,
fifty-two inches wide; number of impressions in an hour, 21,810;
number of running yards printed in an hour, 11,359; number of
square yards printed in an hour, 16,401 ; slit the web and folded the
sheets twice.

Bullock Press. — Printed " New York Herald," size 3 1 J X 45 1 : web
of paper, sixty-three inches wide ; number of impressions in an hour,
14,856; number of running yards printed in an hour, 9,388; number
of square yards printed in an hour, 16,372 ; slit the web, after printing,
into two sheets.

For further particulars of this remarkable trial of merit, I refer to
the letter of Sir Sidney H. Water Jow, Bart., M.P., of London, one
of my associate judges, — a gentleman eminently qualified to judge of the
merits of printing-presses, and who gave to those of the Exhibition a
special and careful examination. The letter contains, also, general
observations upon the printing-presses of various kinds exhibited, that
are very valuable, and that should be publicly presented to that part
of the community interested in such information.

I much regret not being able at this late day (September 6) to see
the Campbell roll-press in practical operation. At several appointed
times, we met to see this press operating; but were always disappointed
in our expectations. Great simplicity and originality are shown in its
general plan; and there is a reaching afler effects through almost



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BEPORT ON PAPER, ETC. 473

iorariablj iiew devices. The press on exhibition shows perhaps the
highest aims yet held by the inventor ; and I am far finom uttering
any words in disparagement of it, simply because the builder has not
yet been able to overcome all the difficulties that stand in the way of
perfect success. What we have seen is unquestionably a work of
genius ; and I cannot resist the perbuasion thai it will yet attain a
marked success.

The exhibition was rich in beautiful typography ; but nothing abso-
iutely new was noticeable, except a plan for cheaply and rapidly
composing titles and scripts in letters and designs of the highest and
most elaborate art. This was submitted by the Bureau of Engraving
and Printing, in the United States Treasury Department, as an in-
vention of 6. W. Casilear, in charge of the engraving division. It is
a plan only fttasible in large aud first-class establishments, where the
bigbest art and skill can be commanded for the execution of original
letters and designs to be repeated ; but it enables such establishments,
by laying in a large store of the most perfect originals, to compose
the titles and scripts of bonds, checks, certificates, billheads, 3cc., by
cheaply transferring and combining these originals, instead of sepa-
rately engraving every design and script that they may have to pro-
duce in the course of a large and miscellaneous business.

Several ^ protective " papers were submitted for our inspection and
report ; viz., " The National Safety Paper,*' the ** Commercial Safety
Paper," and a paper printed with Francis & Loutrel's sensitive ink.
These are specially designed to prevent the alteration of checks and
other evidences of value, and are all based upon the same idea ; viz.,
a sensitive coloring that will be destroyed by any agent, chemical or
unchemical, that discharges or erases the writing upon the paper, — thus
affording evidence of any tampering with the instrument The papers
of each party written upon were submitted to a rival ; and, according
to the best judgment of the examiners, all were fisiirly altered. I have
always held that such devices are so many steps in the right direction,
as tending to multiply and complicate the difficulties to be overcome
by the forger and counterfeiter ; yet, on the other hand, it is rationally
maintained that any device publicly claimed to afford certain protec-
tion, and sometimes failing to give it, positively misleads the public, by
leading men to rely upon a false security. Certain it is, that men
who practise fraud by raising checks are skilful experts, and may be
safely matched against men of science in honorable callings ; yet these
find in no safety-paper submitted absolute defence against alteration.
Of this fact we were assured by Dr. Charles M. Cresson, of this city

60



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474 REPORT ON PAPER, ETC.

who stated to us, in the presence of representatives of several pro-
tective papers, that he had found none able to prevent him from alter-
ing a writing without changing the paper. It is not to be supposed
that invention in this direction is exhausted, and that a partial failure —
a failure to be simply perfect — is a total fisdlure. The best that has
been accomplished is very creditable, and narrows down the number
of forgers to chemical experts ; and enough is accomplished to promise
more in the future.

The administration of the Exhibition can be congratulated upon the
number and quality of articles submitted to our group of judges.
They were indeed too numerous and important to have full justice
done them by our best efforts. Our reports recommending awards for
merit are not few, and attest our desire to be as just as possible to
those many men of uncommon intelligence and earnestness who have
expended so much time, money, and pains to contribute their produc-
tions as a part of the American Centennial Exhibition. Where we
have erred in our judgment, it is probable that we have erred upon the
side of liberality.

Respectfully yours,

James M. Wilcox,

President of Group XIII.,
Judges of the International Ezhibition,



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AWARDS TO AMERICAN EXHIBITORS.*

GROUP VIII.



JUDGES.
A. mtrtcdvi*

Edward Atkinson, Secretary Boston, Mass.

HnoH Waddell, Jr Savannah, 6a.

Col. Edward Richardson Jackson, Miss.

A. D. LocKWOOD Providence, R. I.

Charles H. Wolff Cincinnati, Ohio.

Col. Samuel Webber, C. E Manchester, K. H.

Gboroe O. Baker Selma, Ala.

Isaac Watts, President Great Britain.

W. W. Hulse, C. E „

Don Alvaro dr la Gandara Spain.

Major Arnold Goldy Switzerland.

Prof. GusTAV Herrmann Germany.

Prof. Joseph Dassi Italy.

Meni Rodrioues de Yasconcellos Portugal.



COTTON, LINEN, AND OTHER FABRICS, INCLUDING THE MA-
TERIALS AND THE MACHINERY.

1. Class 228. — Woven fabrics of mineral origin.

2. Wire cloths, sieve cloth, wire screens, bolting cloths. Asbes-
tos fibre, spun and woven, with the clothing manufactured from
it. Glass thread, floss and fabrics.

3. Class 229. — Coarse fabrics, of grass, rattan, cocoa-nut, and bark.

4. Mattings — Chinese, Japanese, palm-leaf, grass and rushes.
Floor cloths, of rattan and cocoa-nut fibre, aloe fibre, &c.

5. Class 665. — Cotton on the stem, in the boll, ginned, and baled.

6. Class 666. — Hemp, fiaz, jute, ramie, &c., in primitive forms and

in all stages of preparation for spinning.

7. Class 230. — Cotton yams and fabrics, bleached and unbleached.

8. Cotton sheeting and shirting, plain and twilled.

9. Cotton canvas and duck. Awnings, tents*

* The Awards not appearing in the list followiDg, will be found in another
part of the volume, with the claims of the parties having received them,
attached to the same.



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476 AWARDS TO AMERICAN EXHIBITORS.

10. Class 231. —_ Dyed cotton fabrics, exclosiye of prints and calicoes.

11. Class 232. — Cotton prints and calicoes, including handkerchiefs,

scarfs, &c.

12. Class 233. — Linen and other vegetable fabrics, uncolored or dyed.

13. Class 234. — Floor oil-cloths, and other painted and enamelled

tissues, and imitations of leather with a woven base.

14. Class 521. — Machines for the manufacture of cotton goods.

15. Class 523. — IVIachines for the manufacture of linen goods.

16. Class 524. — Machines for the manufacture of rope and twine,

and other fibrous materials not elsewhere specified.



■OlrOflO*-



ARKANSAS.

Wm. Taylor, Philips County, Arkansas.
BAW COTTON (10) COMMERCIAL BALE.

Report, — Commended for extraordinary fineness, silky appearancey
good staple, and excellent ginning.



CONNECTICUT.



Falls Company, Norwich, Connecticut.
COTTON AWNINGS AND TICKINGS.

Report, — Awning stripes, wide-striped tickings, commended for ex-
cellent fabric and color of awning stripes, clear white and blue in tick-
ings, and great smoothness in stripe and texture.



Palmer Patent Tentering and Drying Machine Company, Norwich,
Connecticut.

MACHINES FOB STRETCHING, STRAIGHTENING, AND DRYING TEXTILE

FAERICS.

Report, — Commended for originality, utility, and completeness of
machine ; excellence of construction, fitness for the purposes intended,
adaptation to public requirements and economy.



Willimantic Linen Company, Hartford, Connecticut.

SPOOL COTTON, FINE TARNS, AND MACHINES FOR WINDIKO AND
TICKETING SPOOLS FOR SEWING THREADS.

Report, — Commended for originality and completeness of system,



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AWARDS TO AMERICAN EXHIBITORS. 477

excellence of machinery and appliances, the winding frame being the
invention of Hezekiah Conant ; and for snperiority and economy of
production, also, excellence of material, and variety of colors of threads.



Woven Wire Mattress Company, Hartford, Connecticut.
WIRE MATTRESSES.



Online LibraryJohn Lord Hayes National Association of Wool ManufacturersThe awards and claims of exhibitors at the International exhibition, 1876 ... → online text (page 39 of 48)