John Lord.

An ancient history for colleges and schools online

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ANCIENT HISTORY



FOB



COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS.



BY



JOHN LORD, LL. D.

AUTHOR OF THE " OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN HISTORY," ETC.



>.v1



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BOSTON:
LOCKWOOD, BROOKS, AND COMPANY.

1877.




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by

JOHN LORD, LL. D.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



I3 5*=i



PREFACE.



This work is a revised edition of " Ancient States and Em-
pires," which was found to be too large for the use of schools.
About ninety pages have been omitted, which did not have a
direct bearing on the progress of the human race ; and other
pages have been added, to make the book more simple. The
mistakes and typographical errors of the old edition have been
carefully corrected.

It has been the aim of the author to condense the leading
events of the ancient world, without destroying the interest of
the narrative ; and hence the salient points in the history of
four thousand years alone are presented. Allusion, however,
is made to every prominent man in the Oriental, Greek, and
Roman states, whose opinions or whose deeds have modified
or changed the current of human events. Reference to au-
thorities has been thought unnecessary, since the work is
nothing but a compilation from the great standard authorities,
especially Rawlinson, Grote, Thii'lwall, Niebuhr, Mommsen,
and Merivale. The author has attempted nothing new but in
arrangement of subjects, and aimed at nothing higher than
lucidity of statement, avoiding technicalities, hard words, mi-
nute details, and unimportant names.
Stamford, September, 1875.



CONTENTS.



BOOK I.

THE ANCIENT OKIENTAE NATIONS.



CHAPTER I.

THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.



PA6B



Creation — The Garden of Eden — Fall of Adam — Cain and Abel —
The Deluge — Its Traditions 13

CHAPTER II.

POSTDILUVIAN HISTORY TO THE CALL OF ABRAHAM.

Noah and his Sons — The Tower of Babel — Dispersion of the Descendants
of Noah — Patriarchal Constitution 19

CHAPTER III.

EGYPT AND THE PHARAOHS.

Geography of Ancient Egypt — "Wonders — Dynasties — Rameses II.—
Thebes — Religion and Manners of the Old Egyptians . . . .24

CHAPTER IV.

THE JEWISH COMMONWEALTH.

Moses and his Laws — Joshua — Jewish Conquests — Judges — Samuel —
Saul .33



vi Contents,



CHAPTER V.

THE JEWISH MONARCHY.

David — Solomon — Jerusalem — The Rebellion of the Ten Tribes — The
Princes of the House of David — The Princes who reigned at Samaria —
The Jewish Captivity '45

CHAPTER VI.

THE OLD CHALDEAN AND ASSYRIAN MONARCHIES.

Nineveh — Assyrian Kings — The Chaldeans — Babylon . . . .51

CHAPTER VII.

THE EMPIRE OF THE MEDES AND PERSIANS.

Media — Median Princes — Lydian Monarchs — The Persians — Zoroaster
— Cyrus — Cambyses — Xerxes — Fall of the Monarchy . . .59

CHAPTER VIII.

THE RULE OF THE HIGH PRIESTS, AND OF THE ASMONEAN AND IDUMEAN

KINGS.

Return of the Jews — Esther — Rebuilding of Jerusalem — Alexandria —
The High Priests — The Asmonean Princes — Herod and the Idumean
Eoags . .71



BOOK II.
THE GRECIAN STATES.



CHAPTER IX.

THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE, AND ITS EARLY INHABITANTS.

Mountains — Rivers — National Productions — States — Cities — Early In-
habitants — Early Legends 85



Contents. vii

CHAPTER X.

THE GRECIAN STATES AND COLONIES TO THE PERSIAN WARS.

Lycurgus and Sparta — The Helots — Constitution of Sparta — Messenia —
Corinth — Megara — Athens — Solon — His Legislation — Pisistratus —
Bceotia — Phocis — Epirus — Ionian Cities 93

CHAPTER XI.

GRECIAN CIVILIZATION BEFORE THE PERSIAN WARS.

Legislature — Amphyctjonic Council — Delphic Oracle — Olympian Games
— Pythian Games — Nemean and Isthmian Games — Temples — Politi-
cal Rights — Commerce — Art 110

CHAPTER XII.

THE PERSIAN WAR.

Revolt of Ionian Cities — Their Conquest by the Persians — Darius — In-
vasion of Greece — Miltiades — Themistocles — Aristides — Marathon —
Xerxes — His Enormous Army — Thermopylae — Leonidas — Salamis —
Effects of the Battle — Mardouius — Battle of Plataea — Battle of My-
cale — Rivalry between Athens and Sparta 119

CHAPTER XIII.

THE AGE OF PERICLES. '

Rivalry between Athens and Sparta — Confederacy of Delos — Sparta —
Rebellion of Helots — Cimon — Pericles — The Piraeus — The Long
Walls of Athens — Aggrandizement of Athens — Democratic Power —
Improvements of Athens — Literature and Art 147

CHAPTER XIV.

THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR.

The Causes of the "War — Influence of Pericles — Warlike Preparations —
Invasion of Attica — The various Campaigns — Plague of Athens —
Athens solicits Aid from Persia — Revolt of Mitylene— ISTicias — Alci-
biades — Cleon — Attack of Megara — Battle of Delium — Brasidas —
Loss of Amphipolis — Peace of Nicias — Battle of Mantinsea — Invasion
of Sicily — Syracuse — Gelo — Mismanagement of Nicias — Treason of
Alcibiades—Lysander — Capture of the Athenian Fleet— Annihilation
of Athenian Power — Triumph of Sparta — Consequences of the War . 166



viii Contents.

CHAPTER XV.

MARCH OF CYRUS AND RETREAT OF THE TEN THOUSAND GREEKS.

Cyrus — Xenophon — Cyrus in Asia — Battle of Cunaxa — Retreat of the
Greeks — Their Hardships and Success — Moral Effect of the Retreat . 210

CHAPTER XVI.

THE LACEDEMONIAN EMPIRE.

Great Power of Sparta — Jealousy of Greece — Tyranny of Sparta — Ages-
ilaus — Alienation of Allies — Conspiracies against Sparta — Revolt of
Thebes — Battle of Coronsea — Decline of Sparta 220

CHAPTER XVII.

THE REPUBLIC OF THEBES.

f hebes — Revolt from Sparta — Alliance with Athens — Epaminondas —
Pelopidas — Attack on Thebes — Humiliation of Sparta — The Invasion
by Epaminondas — Dismemberment of Sparta — Theban Supremacy —
Fate of Orchomeu us — Battle of Mantinsea — Philip of Macedon . . 231

CHAPTER XVIII.

DIONYSIUS AND SICILY.

Carthaginian War — Dionysius — His Great Successes — Hirailco — Inva-
sion of Italy — Fate of Croton — Dion — Dionysius II. —Plato in Sicily
— Dion Master of Syracuse — Tim oleon — His Noble Character . . 249

CHAPTER XIX.

PHILIP OF MACEDON.

Philip and Thebes — His Duplicity and Ambition — Social War — Demos-
thenes — Phocion — Conquest of Thessaly — Encroachments on Grecian
Liberties — Siege of Perinthus — Alliance of Thebes and Athens —
Fall of Thebes — Humiliation of Athens 272

CHAPTER XX.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

The Persian Empire — Alexander — Conquest of Greece — Alexander in
As-ia— Battle of the Granicus — Conquest of Asia Minor — Battle of
Issus — Siege of Tyre — Founding of Alexandria — Darius — Battle of
Arbela— Conquest of Persia — Death of Clitus — Invasion of India —
Hephsestion and his Funeral — Death of Alexander — Effects of his
Conquests ^°^



Contents,

BOOK III.
THE ROMAN EMPIRE.



IX



CHAPTER XXI.

THE INFANCY OF KOME.

Foundation of Rome — Romulus — Numa — Successive Kings — Early
Struggles of Plebeians — The Servian Constitution — Expulsion of the
Kings — Early Civilization of Rome 314

CHAPTER XXII.

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC TO THE INVASION OF THE GAULS.

Legends of Early Rome — The Heroic Age — Conflict between Patricians
and Plebeians — Change in the Constitution — Republican Laws — Cin-v
cinnatus — The Decemvirs — Siege of Veil — The Gauls — Sack of
Rome 326

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE CONQUEST OF ITALY.

The Samnite War — Subjection of Latium — Tarentum — Pyrrhus — Sub-
jection of Italy 338

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE FIRST PUNIC WAR.

Causes of the \Yar — Sicily — Hiero — Carthage — Creation of a Roman
Fleet — Battle of Mylae — Regulus — Hamilcar — Hasdrubal — Acquisi-
tion of Sicily 345

CHAPTER XXV.

THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.

Hannibal — Fall of Saguntum — Invasion of Italy — Battle of the Thrasi-
mene Lake — Scipio — Fabius — Battle of Cannae — Revolt of Allies —
Wisdom and Talent of Hannibal — Victories of Scipio — Siege of Syra-
cuse — Scipio in Africa — Battle of Zama 355



Contents.



CHAPTER XXVI.

THE MACEDONIAN AND ASIATIC WARS.

Macedonia — Philip — Achaean League — Independence of Greece — Anti-
ochus — Protectorate of Rome in Asia — Battle of Pydna — iEmilius
Paulus 371

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.

Massinissa — War against Carthage — Scipio — Siege of Carthage — Fall
of Carthage — Effect of the Punic Wars — Great Accession of Roman
Territories 380

CHAPTER XXVIII.

ROMAN CONQUESTS TO THE TIME OF THE GRACCHI.

The Spanish Peninsula — War with the Spaniards — Scipio — War with
Macedonia — War in Achaia — War in Asia 388

CHAPTER XXIX.

ROMAN CIVILIZATION AT THE CLOSE OF THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.

The Aristocracy — The Provincial Governors — Festivals and Games —
Cato — Change in the Constitution — Agriculture — Commerce — Slav-
ery — Small Farmers — Great Fortunes — Literature — Art . . . 394

CHAPTER XXX.

THE REFORM MOVEMENT OF THE GRACCHI.

Evils of the Government — Tiberius Gracchus — His Reforms, and Death
— Caius Gracchus — Attack on the Aristocracy — Success of Gracchus,
and Death 404

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE WARS WITH JUGURTHA AND THE CIMBRI. — MARIUS.

The Kumidian War — Jugurtha — Metellus — Marius — The Cimbri —
Invasion of Italy — The Victories of Marius 415

CHAPTER XXXII.

THE SOCIAL WAR. — MARIUS AND SULLA.

The Servile Classes — Insurrection — Sulla — His Legislation . . . 423



Contents. xi



CHAPTER XXXIII.

THE MITHRIDATIC AND CIVIL WARS. — MARIUS AND SULLA.

Mithridates — Pontus — Sulla Deposed — Battle of Chseronea — Rising of
Asia — Cinna — Civil War — Dictatorship of Sulla — Abdication of Sulla 428

CHAPTER XXXIV.

ROME TO THE CIVIL WARS OF POMPEY AND C^ESAK.

Reaction in Favor of the Aristocracy — Pompey — The Servile War —
War with the Pirates — Second Mithridatic War — LucuUus — Pompey
in the East — Cicero — Catiline — Ceesar ....... 436

CHAPTER XXXV.

THE CIVIL WARS BETWEEN CESAR AND POMPEY.

Rivalship between Caesar and Pompey — Military Preparations — War —
Defeat of Pompey — Flight and Death of Pompey — Consequences of
the Battle of Pharsalia — Caesar in the East and West — His Dictator-
ship — Triumphs — Death — Character . . .... 451

CHAPTER XXXVI.

THE CIVIL WARS FOLLOWING THE DEATH OF C^SAR.

Antonius — Octavius — Lepidus — Brutus — Cassius — Cicero — The Tri-
umvirate—Civil War— Battle of Philippi — Battle of Actium — Su-
premacy of Octavius 462

CHAPTER XXXVII.

THE ROMAN EMPIRE ON THE ACCESSION OF AUGUSTUS.

Extent of the Empire — Cities — Rome — Government — Army — Com-
merce — Literature — Art 474

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

THE SIX CuESARS OF THE JULIAN LINE.

Augustus — Ministers — Campaign — Tiberius — Wars with the Germans
— Germanicus — Caligula — Claudius — The Conquest of Britain — Mes-
salina — Agrippina — Nero 483



xii Contents,

CHAPTER XXXIX.

THE CLIMAX OF THE EMPIRE.

Galba — Vespasian — Titus — Domitian — Nerva — Trajan — Hadrian —
Antoninus Pius — Marcus Aurelius — Commodus 511

CHAPTER XL.

THE DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE.

Moral Corruption — Pertinax — Septimius Severus — Caracalla — Elaga-
balus — Alexander Severus — Maximin — Decius — Gallienus — Inva-
sion of the Barbarians — Warlike Emperors — Arrest of Ruin — Dio-
cletian — Constantine — Division of the Empire 527

CHAPTER XLI.

THE FALL OF THE EMPIRE.

Successors of Constantine — Theodosius — Irruption of Barbarians — The
Goths — Alaric — Capture of Rome — The Vandals — Second Siege and
Sack of Rome —The Huns —Fall of the Western Empire — Conclusion . 550



book: I.

AIsTOIEE'T OEIEE^TAL IsTATIONS.



CHAPTER I.

THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD.



The history of this world begins, according to the chro-
nology of Archbishop Usher, which is generally received as
convenient rather than probable, in the year 4004 before
Christ. In six days God created light and darkness, day and
night, the firmament and the continents in the midst The Crea-
of the waters, fruits, grain, and herbs, moon and *^"°*
stars, fowl and fish, living creatures upon the face of the
earth, and finally man, with dominion " over the fish of the
sea, and the fowls of the air, and cattle, and all the earth,
and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." He
created man in his own image, and blessed him with univer-
sal dominion. He formed him from the dust of the ground,
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. On the
seventh day, God rested from this vast work of creation, and
blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, as we suppose, for
a day of solemn observance for all generations.

He then planted a garden eastward in Eden, with every
tree pleasant to the sight and good for food, and ^^^^ garden
there placed man to dress and keep it. The orig- ^^ ^*^«"-
inal occupation of man, and his destined happiness, were thus
centered in agricultural labor.



14 The Antediluvian World, [Chap. I.

But man was alone ; so God caused a deep sleep to fall
Adam and ujDon him, and took one of his ribs and made a
■^^®' woman. And Adam said, " this woman," which

the Lord had brought unto him, " is bone of my bone, and
flesh of my flesh ; therefore shall a man leave his father and
mother, and shall cleave unto his wife : and they shall be
one flesh." Thus marriasre was instituted. We observe
three divine institutions while man yet remained in a state
of innocence and bliss — the Sabbath ; agricultural employ-
ment ; and marriage.

Adam and his wife lived, we know not how long, in the
Primeval garden of Eden, with perfect innocence, bliss, and
Paradise. dominion. They did not even know what sin was.
There were no other conditions imposed upon them than
that they were not to eat of the fruit of the tree of knowledge
of good and evil, which was in the midst of the garden — a pre-
eminently goodly tree, " pleasant to the eyes, and one to be
desired."

Where was this garden — this jDaradise — located ? This is
a mooted question — difticult to be answered. It lay, thus
Situation of ^^'^ ^"^^ know, at the head waters of four rivers, two
Eden. ^£ which were the Euphrates and the Tigris. We

infer thence, that it was situated among the mountains of
Armenia, south of the Caucasus, subsequently the cradle of
the noblest races of men, — a temperate region, in the latitude
of Greece and Italy.

We suppose that the garden was beautiful and fruitful,
Glory of bcyoud all subsequent experience — watered by
Eden. mists from the earth, and not by rains from the

clouds, ever fresh and green, while its two noble occupants
lived upon its produce, directly communing with God, in
whose image they were made, moral and spiritual — free from
all sin and misery, and, as we may conjecture, conversant
with truth in its loftiest forms.

But sin entered into the beautiful world that was made,
and death by sin. This is the first recorded fact in human
history, next to primeval innocence and happiness.



Chap. I.J The Garden of Eden. 15

The progenitors of the race were tempted, and did not
resist the temptation. The form of it may have r^^^^ tempta
been allegorical and symbolic ; but, as recorded by *^""-
Moses, was yet a stupendous reality, es]3ecially in view of its
consequences.

The tempter was the devil — the antagonist of God — the
evil power of the world — the principle of evil — a

rx- 7- TO- -in • • The Devil.

Satanic agency which bcripture, and all nations, m
some form, have recognized. When rebellion against God
began, we do not know ; but it certainly existed when Adam
was placed in Eden.

The form which Satanic power assumed was a serpent —
then the most subtle of the beasts of the field, and jj^g assump-
we may reasonably suppose, not merely subtle, but ^^^ "of *^a
attractive, graceful, beautiful, bcAvitching. serpent.

The first to feel its evil fascination was the woman, and
she was induced to disobey what she knew to be a The disobe-
direct command, by the desire of knowledge as well ev".*^^
as enjoyment of the appetite. She put trust in the serpent.
She believed a lie. She was beguiled.

The man was not directly beguiled by the serpent. Why
the serpent assailed woman rather than man, the The Fail of
Scriptures do not say. The man yielded to his ^^^™-
wife. " She gave him the fruit, and he did eat."

Immediately a great change came over both. Their eyes
were opened. They felt shame and remorse, for

^ . •' . The effect

they had sinned. They hid themselves from, the
presence of the Lord, and were afraid.

God pronounced the penalty — unto the woman, the pains
and sorrows attending childbirth, and subserviency to her hus-
band; unto the man labor, toil, sorrow — the curse

. . The penalty.

of the ground which he was to till — thorns and
thistles — no rest, and food obtained only by the sweat of the
brow ; and all these pains and labors were inflicted upon both
until they should return to the dust from whence they were
taken — an eternal decree, never abrogated, to last as long as
man should till the earth, or woman bring forth children.



16 TJie Antediluvian World, [Chap. i.

Thus came sin into the world, through the temptations of
Introduction Satan and the weakness of man, with the penalty
of sm. ^£ labor, pain, sorrow, and death.

Man was expelled from Paradise, and precluded from re-
Expuision entering it by the flaming sword of cherubim, until
dise. the locality of Eden, by thorns and briars, and the

deluge, was obliterated forever. And man and woman were
sent out into the world to reap the fruit of their folly and
sin, and to gain their subsistence in severe toil, and amid
the accumulated evils which sin introduced.

The only mitigation of the sentence was the eternal enmity
The mitiga- between the seed of the woman and the seed of the

tion of the ^ . .

punishment. Serpent, in which the final victory should be given
to the former. The rite of sacrifice was introduced as a
type of the satisfaction for sin by the death of a substitute
for the sinner ; and thus a hope of final forgiveness held
out for sin. Meanwhile the miseries of life were alleviated
by the fruits of labor, by industry.

Industry, then, became, on the expulsion from Eden, one
Industry— of the final laws of human happiness on earth,

one of the . • /» i . ^

fundamen- whilc tlic sacrificc held out hopes of eternal life by
lions of life, the Substitution which the sacrifice typified — the
Saviour who was in due time to appear.

With the expulsion from Eden came the sad conflicts of
the race — conflicts with external wickedness — conflicts with
the earth — conflicts with evil passions in a man's own soul.

The first conflict was between Cain, the husbandman, and
Cain and -^^t the shcphcrd ; the representatives of two
Abel. great divisions of the human family in the early

ages. Cain killed Abel because the oflering of the latter
was preferred to that of the former. The virtue of Abel was
faith : the sin of Cain was jealousy, pride, resentment, and
despair. The punishment of Cain was expulsion from his
father's house, the further curse of the land for hira^ and the
hatred of the human family. He relinquished his occupation,
became a wanderer, and gained a precarious support, while
his descendants invented arts and built cities.



Chap. I.] The Deluge, 17

Eve bore another son — Seth, among whose descendants
the worship of God was preserved for a long time ; but the
descendants of Seth intermarried finally with the descendants
of Cain, from whom sprung a race of lawless men, ^he descend-
so that the earth was filled with violence. The antsofCain.
material civilization which the descendants of Cain intro-
duced did not preserve them from moral degeneracy. So
great was the increasing wickedness, with the growth of the
race, that " it repented the Lord that he had made man," and
he resolved to destroy the whole race, with the exception
of one religious family, and change the whole surface of the
earth by a mighty flood, which should involve in destruction
all animals and fowls of the air — all the antediluvian works
of man.

It is of no consequence to inquire whether the Deluge was
universal or partial — whether it covered the whole

..,-,.. c A ,, The Deluge,

earth or the existmg habitations oi men. All were
destroyed by it, except N"oah, and his wife, and his three
sons, with their wives. The authenticity of the fact rests
with Moses, and with him we are willing to leave it.

This dreadful catastrophe took place in the 600th year of
Noah's life, and 2349 years before Christ, when Theproba-

•^ ble condition

the world was 1655 years old, according to oftheante-

-r~r •, 1 ITT T TTiT diluviaa

Usher, but much older according to Hale and world.
other authorities — when more time had elapsed than from
the Deluge to the reign of Solomon. And hence more peo-
ple were destroyed, in all probability, than existed on the
earth in the time of Solomon. And as men lived longer
in those primeval times than subsequently, and were larger
and stronger, " for there were giants in those days," and
early invented tents, the harp, the organ, and were artifi-
cers in brass and iron, and built cities — as they were full of
inventions as well as imaginations, it is not unreasonable to
infer, though we can not know with certainty, that the ante-
diluvian world was more splendid and luxurious than the
world in the time of Solomon and Homer — the era of Egyptian
glories.

2



18 Tlie Antediluvian World. [Chap. i.

The art of building was certainly then carried to consider-
able perfection, for the ark, which Noah built, wa*"

The ark. .

four hundred and fifty feet long, seventy-five wide,
and forty-five deep ; and was constructed so curiously as to
hold specimens of all known animals and birds, with provi-
sions for them for more than ten months.

This sacred ark or ship, built of gopher wood, floated on
the world's waves, until, in the seventh month, it rested
upon the mountains of Ararat. It was nearly a year before
Noah ventured from the ark. His first act, after he issued
forth, was to build an altar and ofier sacrifice to the God
who had preserved him and his family alone, of the human
race. And the Lord was well pleased, and made a covenant
The Divine with him that he would never again send a like

covenant _ . t i t • t i

with Noah, destruction upon the earth, and as a sign and seal
of the covenant which he made with all flesh, he set his bow
in the cloud. We hence infer that the primeval world was
watered by mists from the earth, like the garden of Eden,
and not by rains.

" The memory of the Deluge is preserved in the traditions
The tradi- of nearly all nations, as well as in the narrative
Deluge. of Moses ; and most heathen mythologies have some

kind of sacred ark." Moreover, there are various geological
phenomena in all parts of the world, which can not be
accounted for on any other ground than some violent dis-
ruption produced by a universal Deluge. The Deluge it-
self can not be explained, although there are many ingen-
ious theories to show it might be in accordance with natural
causes. The Scriptures allude to it as a supernatural event,
for an express end. When the supernatural power of God
can be disproved, then it will be time to explain the Deluge
by natural causes, or deny it altogether. The Christian
world now accepts it as Moses narrates it.



CHAPTEE IL

POSTDILUVIAN HISTORY TO THE CALL OF ABRAHAM. — THE
PATKIAECHAL CONSTITUTION, AND THE DIVISION OF NA-
TIONS.

When N"oali and his family issued from the ark, they were
blessed by God. They were promised a vast posterity, do-
minion over natm-e, and all animals for food, as well as the
fruits of the earth. But new laws were imposed, against
murder, and against the eating of blood. An authority



Online LibraryJohn LordAn ancient history for colleges and schools → online text (page 1 of 47)