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LIBRARY



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



Class



x



r '*



PEACE AND HAPPINESS



BY

THE RIGHT HON. LORD AVEBURY, P.O.

Pres. Soc. Ant.; For. Sec. R.A.; F.R.8., D.C.L. (OxoN.), LL.D. (CANTAB. DTTBL.

ST. ANDREWS BT EDIN.), M.D. (WirKZB.), German Ord. Pour le Me'rite ; Com.

Legion d'Honneur ; F.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.E.S., Trust. Brit.

Mus. ; Pres. Roy. Mic. Soc. ; Pres. Roy. Soc. ; Assoc. Roy. Acad. des Sci.

Brux. ; Hon. Mem. R. Irish Acad., Amer. Ethnol. Soc., Anthrop.

Soc. Wash. (U.S.), Brux. Firenze, Anthrop. Verein Graz, Soc.

Entom. de France, Soc. G6ol. de la Suisse, and Soc.

Helvet. des Sci. Nat. ; Mem. Amer. Phil. Soc. Philad.,

and Soc. d'Ethn. de Paris; Corresp. Mem.
Soc. des Sci. Nat. de Cherb., Berl. Gesell. fur Anthrop.,
Soc. Romanadi Antrop., Soc. d'Emul. d' Abbeville ; For. Mem.
Roy. Dan. Acad., Soc. Cient. Argentina, Soc. de G6og. de Lisb.,
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Numis. and Ant. Soc. Philad., Amer. Entom.
Soc. ; For. Assoc. Mem. Soc. d'Anthiop. de Paris ; For. Mem. Amer. Antiq.
Soc. ; For. Mem. Soc. Espaftolade Hist. Nat., Roy. Soc. of Sci. Upsala;
Hon. Mem. New Zealand Inst. ; Hon. Mem.Soc.de Sociologie;
Patron Calcutta Historical Soc. ; Vice-Patron Royal Anthropo-
logical Soc. of Australasia ; Lord Rector of the University
of St. Andrews ; LL.D. St. Andrews




THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1909

All rights reserved






COPYBIGHT, 1909,

BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.



Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1909.



Nortoooto

J. S. Gushing Co. Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



CONTENTS
CHAPTER I

ON HAPPINESS

PAGE

Importance of Subject The Wish of all How are Peace
and Happiness to be secured ? Apology for Advice

The Lesson of Life Complexity of Life The
Duty of Happiness Self -Control The Folly of
Anger The Importance of keeping one's Temper
We might all be Good Pleasures Epicurus : Old
Legend Ujnhappiness, Causes of Pain, Use of
Imaginary Troubles Sin Luck Necessity for
Work Sloth Industry Lessons from other Races

Burmese Japanese Civilisation and Science
Reason Limitations of Knowledge Two Views of
Life : Retirement, Usefulness Rest Sunday
Supreme Importance of Leisure Time ... 1



CHAPTER II

THE BODY

Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes Life a Miracle Mind
and Body Marvellous Complexity of the Body
The Action of the Brain Memory The Priceless
Gift of Life Conditions of Health Cleanliness
Health Mental Troubles Luxury Wealth, Power,
and Health Moderation Fresh Air Fasting
Eating and Drinking Work, Indolence, and Patience
Sleep Dreams Alcohol ..... 31



180681



vi PEACE AND HAPPINESS

CHAPTER III

THE MIND

PAGE

The Body a Temple for the Soul The Soul is all the World
to Man King of Edessa Fire of Prometheus
Shortness of Life Supposed Insignificance of Man,
and Misery of Life : Death in that case no Evil Two
Views of Man Not Opposite, but Alternative
Strength Woman Beauty Helen Poets and
Women Draupadi Solomon on a Wise Woman
Dignity of Life Mystery of Life Clearness of Duty
Milton on Life 66



CHAPTER IV

ASPIRATION

To what should we aspire ? St. Augustine on Avarice
and Ambition The Athenian Oath Cicero on Glory

Disadvantages of Wealth and Power Precipices
in Life Shakespeare on Ambition Perseverance
The Ideal of Socialists The Ancients on Progress

The Golden Age Science and Progress The
Future of Science 75



CHAPTER V

CONTENTMENT

Sunshine involves Shadow Unreasonable Complaints
Solomon Ages of Man : Childhood, Boyhood, Man-
hood, Old Age Death Melancholy Brooding
over Grievances Living in Paradise Freedom
Anxiety Courage 97



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER VI

ADVERSITY

PAGE

The Complexity of Life Troubles inevitable Classifica-
tion of Troubles : Warnings, Trials, Imaginary or
Trifling, Self-made, Punishments, Blessings in Dis-
guise Hope Courage 117

CHAPTER VII

KINDNESS

Allowances for Children, for Illness, and after Death
Why not for all? Our own Faults give us more
Trouble than those of others Charity : giving Money
and giving Thought The Lessons of Providence
Prayer Gregory the Great and Trajan Forgiving

Grievances The Home 136

CHAPTER VIII

EDUCATION

Neglect of Nature Narrowness of System What a
University might be Classics alone only Part of
Education Learned Men often only half educated
Mistake of Early Specialisation Importance of Sci-
ence Drawing Instruction and Education Edu-
cation and Character 165

CHAPTER IX

ON FRIENDS AND ENEMIES

The Folly of making Enemies A Foolish Friend more
dangerous than an Enemy Pylades and Orestes
Jonathan and David The Sanctity of Friendship
The Faults of Friends The Candid Friend Con-
versation Argument Misunderstandings So-
ciety The Love of Towns Strangers Solitude
Value of Friends Peace in Crowds A Kind Word

Gifts The Presence of Friends Love Jealousy 177



viii PEACE AND HAPPINESS

CHAPTER X

ON RICHES

PAGE

Overestimate of what Wealth can do Enjoyment without
Possession Love of Money rather than Possession of
Money, against which we are warned Pleasure of
Giving not confined to the Kich The Widow's Mite

The Gift of Time more important than Money
The Best Things not to be bought : nor can they be
stolen Wealth of Nations Thrift Speculation
Gambling A Man may be made of Money, but
Money cannot make a Man 199

CHAPTEE XI

THE DREAD OF NATURE

The Dread of Nature Comets Eclipses Heathen Gods

Magic Savages Koinans Valentias Stars
and Planets Nature Spirits Indifference to Nature

Madame de Stael Goldsmith Johnson Tenny-
son and the Cruelty of Nature Death, often Pain-
less Science and Nature 215

CHAPTER XII

THE LOVE OF NATURE

Nothing really important is uncommon Love of Collect-
ing Collections the Material for Study Problems
of Nature The Life History of Animals Ruskin on
the Squirrel; the Serpent; Flowers The Sky
Night Wordsworth on Science Nature and Beauty

Nature and Colour The Sea Autumn Tints
The Earth The Beautifying Touch of Nature
Nature as a Friend Nature and Peace 229



CONTENTS ix

CHAPTER XIII

NOW

PAGE

Importance of the Present Uncertainty of the Future
Shortness of Time No one has more than another
Equality of Conditions Thrift of Time : Moses,
David, Bacon, Jeremy Taylor Proverbs about Time,
Shortness of Life Time is easy to lose but difficult
to find Youth and Old Age To-day only is our
own Time is invaluable and irrevocable . 263



CHAPTER XIV

WISDOM

Wotan giving Mimir one of his Eyes for a Draught from
the Fountain of Wisdom Definition of Wisdom
Speech and Silence National Mistakes due to Hurry

Sleep and Prudence Easy not to do, very difficult
to undo Knowledge Solomon on Wisdom Rea-
son The Fatigue of Thought Our Extreme Ig-
norance The Mystery of the World Duty Faults

Odiousness of Vice The Wisdom of Solomon

His own Conduct The Voice of Conscience . . 275



CHAPTER XV

RELIGION

Peace and Comfort of Importance of the Thoughts
Temptations not irresistible The Commandments
Three Views of Life Unreasonable Complaints
Gracious Promises Progress of Religion The
Church of England Stanley and Jowett Prayer
The Souls of the Righteous 293



X PEACE AND HAPPINESS

CHAPTER XVI

THEOLOGY

PAGE

Religion and Conscience Theology and Reason The
Mystery of the Universe The Essence of Religion
Essence of Christianity Tennyson on Doubt For-
bearance Eastern Story Views of Moses, David,
Solomon, Micah Teaching of the New Testament
Creeds as a Hindrance Miracles Faith The
Athanasian Creed Differences of Religions Per-
secution Horrors of the Inquisition Scepticism

Futility of Disputations The Spirit of Religion
Reverent Scepticism Keble Jeremy Taylor Faith

of the Fijians The Teaching of Christ . . .309

CHAPTER XVII

PEACE OP MIND

A Man's Peace of Mind depends on himself Unnecessary
Anxieties Sleep and Care Brooding Eastern
Proverb Dr. Johnson on Insults Meddling Diffi-
culties Business and Anxiety Business and Peace

Mr. Gladstone's Temple of Peace St. Maria della
Pace Working for oneself and working for others
The World The Commandments A Good Life
Suspicions Religions Controversy The Promises

of the Bible Peace 335

CHAPTER XVIII

THE PEACE OP NATIONS

Present State of Europe The Crushing Burden of Arma-
ments Arbitration Gambetta Horrors of War

Futility of War Common Interests of Nations
Comparison of Navies The Disunited States of
Europe compared with the United States of America

The Policy of Europe International Barriers
Discouragement of Commerce The Federation of
Europe Lord Salisbury The Future of Europe . 359



CHAPTER I
ON HAPPINESS






'




CHAPTER I



ON HAPPINESS

WE all wish for peace and happiness. We
cannot hope for more, and we need not wish for
less. It may be doubted whether it is possible
to have peace without happiness, or happiness
without peace. But how are either or both to
be secured?

On what do they depend? Money cannot
make us happy, success cannot make us happy,
friends cannot make us happy, health and
strength cannot make us happy. AIL these
make for happiness, but none of them will
secure it. Nature may do all she can, she
may give us fame, health, money, long life,
but she cannot make us happy. Every one
of us must do that for himself. Our language
expresses this admirably. What do we say if

3



4 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

, we have had a happy day? We say we have
x enjoyed ourselves.

This expression of our mother tongue
seems very suggestive. Our happiness
depends upon ourselves, f We differ, however,
so much from one another in condition,
circumstance, age, duties, and acquirements,
that it may seem impossible to lay down any
general rules, and presumptuous even to make
suggestions. I Varro long ago cited 288
opinions of philosophers with reference to
happiness.

Nevertheless there is no one advanced in life,
however successful his or her career may have
been, who does not look back with regret on
some faults which need not have been com-
mitted, some temptations which might have
been resisted, some mistakes which could have
been avoided, if only they had known then
what they know now; and some experience
which, without any real sacrifice or difficulty,
might have made their lives brighter, happier,
and more useful.

" Theodore Parker was loaded with erudi-
tion, but exclaimed on his premature death-bed,



i ON HAPPINESS 5

'Oh, that I had known the art of life, or
found some book, or some man to tell me how
to live, to study, to take exercise/" 1

It is recorded that in Athens there was a
law according to which any man who had a
lighted candle and refused to allow another to
light his at it, was to be punished with death.

Plutarch tells us in a noble passage that
"It was for the sake of others that I first
undertook to write biographies; but I soon
began to dwell upon and delight in them for
myself, endeavouring, to the best of my
ability, to regulate my own life, and to make
it like those who were reflected in their
history as it were in a mirror before me.
. . . Thus, by our familiarity with history
and the habit of writing it, we so train our-
selves by constantly receiving into our minds
the memorials of the great and good, that
should anything base or vicious be placed in
our way by the society into which we are
necessarily thrown, we reject it from our
thoughts by fixing them calmly and serenely
on some of these great exemplars." 2

1 Youman's Modern Culture. 2 Life of Timoleon.



6 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

In theory we all, or at any rate a great
majority, regard peace and happiness as the
greatest good; but in practice many throw
them away for wealth or power or fame.

It may, indeed, be said to many of us, as
Christ said of Jerusalem: "If ' thou hadst
known, even thou, at least in this thy day,
the things which belong unto thy peace!"

No doubt life is difficult. "Nature is
often hidden, sometimes overcome, seldom
extinguished. Force maketh nature more
violent in the return; doctrine and discourse
maketh nature less importune; but custom
only doth alter and subdue nature." l

Life is not a picture or even a page, but
a book of many pages and many chapters,
by no means easy to read. We speak of the
world, but in fact there are^ many worlds,
and every one creates his own world for
himself. "~

All men desire happiness, but few know
how to secure it. It is wise
interests rather than pleasures^ Those who
are never grave when they areyoung, will be^

1 Bacon.



i ON HAPPINESS 7

melancholy when they are old^jwhile those
"who sow in tears shall reap in joy." *

Solomon tells us that "he that loveth
pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth
wine and oil shall not be rich." 2

Thomas a Kempis puts it on higher ground,
but went perhaps too far when he said:
"Behold the truth: the two you cannot have,
here in this world to pass delightful days, and
afterwards to reign a king with Christ."

"It is a perfect sin," said Max Miiller, "not
to be happy." We must not, indeed, expect
too much. "Connoissons done notre portee;
nous sommes quelque chose, et ne sommes pas
tout." 3

It is most important to form a just con-
ception of life, not to be disconcerted by the
contradictions and vicissitudes, to be prepared
for all its varied phases successes and
reverses, triumphs and disappointments, hopes
and fears, health and ill-health, pleasures and
pains, joys and sorrows, happy memories and
vain regrets.

1 Psalm cxxvi. 2 Proverbs xxi.

3 " We must learn our limits ; we are all something, but
not everything" (Pascal).



8 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

"Whilst you are upon earth," said Selden,
" en joy the good things that are here (to that
end were they given), and be not melancholy,
and wish yourself in heaven." Those who
do not value life, certainly do not deserve
it. In the teaching of Christ happiness
was not only the reward of duty, but a duty
itself.

Self-control is perhaps the first requisite of
happiness.

Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control,
These three alone lead life to sovereign power. 1

That is to say, true sovereign power almost,
I might say, the power best worth having
namely, the power over oneself.

Every one is ruled by somebody, and it is
better to be governed by oneself than by
anybody else. Caprice for caprice, another's
whims are more easily borne than one's own.
Moreover, one can more or less often escape
from the tyranny of others, but our own is
always with us. To obey no one is better
than to command any one; and to control

1 Tennyson.



ft -ON HAPPINESS 9

oneself is better than to rule over any one
else. Every one is bound to make the best
of himself.

Self-love ... is not so vile a sin
As self -neglecting. 1

It has been^said tha^t^ILjaen^are controlled
either by reason or bjrjDassion- Passion, how-
ever, is a fitful mistress, and leads her slaves
into innumerable disasters. If a man cannot
control himself, how can he expect to be
master of others? and on the other hand "he
that is master of himself will soon be master
of others/ 72 at least if he wishes; and if he
cannot master himself, others will soon master
him. An angry man has no chance with a
cool one. Seneca well said that " anger is
like rain, which breaks itself against that
on which it falls." Always then keep your
temper. When you are in the right you can
surely keep it, and when you are in the wrong
you cannot afford to lose it. "Democritus
laughed," said Seneca, "and Heraclitus wept at
the folly of mankind, but no one ever heard of

1 Shakespeare. 2 Bacon.



10 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

an angry philosopher." 1 If you can master
yourself and the alphabet you can master
anything. Neither task, however, is very easy.
Grown-up people forget the difficulty of the
alphabet: it is acquired once for all and we
learnt it long ago. The mastery of self
requires a continual watch. Every one, how-
ever, can win the victory if he chooses. We
cannot all be great statesmen, artists, or
philosophers, but what is more important, at
any rate for us, we can all if we choose be
good men. "Etre meilleurs ou pires," says
Joubert, " depend de nous; tout le reste
depend de Dieu." 2 It is not the wicked world
without, but the sinful soul within, that ruins
a man. We pray that we may not be led
into temptation, but in ninety-nine cases out
of a hundred it is we who lead ourselves into
temptation. In a weird and tragic story by
Calderon, the hero is constantly haunted and
thwarted by a mysterious figure in a mask,
and when at last the mask is lifted, his own
features are disclosed.

1 Gratian.

2 "To be better or worse depends on ourselves, all the
rest on God."



i ON HAPPINESS 11

Mrs. Browning says that we spend our lives
" little thinking if we work our souls as nobly
as our iron." The heart is indeed often as
hard as iron or stone, but the will is, or ought
to be, stronger. Iron and stone can offer but
a passive resistance, and if drops of water
can wear away stone, surely the human will
ought to be able to do so.

There is no doubt high authority for
saying that

There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough-hew them how we will ; l

but yet no one was ever thoroughly ruined
except by himself:

We ne'er can be, but by ourselves, undone. 2

Englishmen pride themselves on being free,

but there are two sorts of freedom "the

/ false, where a man is free to do what he likes ;

/ the true, where he is free to do what he

* L - ___

^ ought." Many think that wealth gives

leisure and leisure gives pleasure. But what
kind of pleasure? There is all the difference
in the world between false pleasures and true

1 Shakespeare. 2 Savage. 8 Kingsley.



12 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

pleasures. False pleasures are fleeting; true
pleasures last long. True pleasures are paid
for in advance; false pleasures afterwards,
with heavy and compound interest. As
Thomas a Kempis says in The Imitation of
Christ "So every fleshly joy comes with a
smiling face, but at the last it bites and
kills. 77 False pleasures come from without
jind are imperfect: happiness is internal and
our_own.

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Chancellor
of the Exchequer under Sir Robert Peel,
said that "life would be tolerable, if it
were not for its amusements 77 ;' or, as Mme.
de Sevigne* put it, "On est au milieu des
plaisirs, sans avoir un moment de joie."
"Silence and stillness, 77 says Alfred Austin,
our Poet Laureate, "are the sweetest of all
our joys. 77

But who can describe happiness? " Silence
is the perfectest herald of joy: I were but
little happy, if I could say how much. 77 1 The
view of Epicurus was "that man cannot live
agreeably, unless he lives honourably, justly,

1 Shakespeare.



i ON HAPPINESS 13

and wisely; and, if he lives wisely, justly,
and honourably, it is impossible that he should
not live agreeably. " l

There is an old legend that soon after the
creation the gods announced that mankind
would, on a given day, be permitted to
divide the earth between them. As soon as
the appointed time arrived, the agriculturists
appropriated the fertile fields; merchants the
roads and seas; monks the slopes suitable for
vines; noblemen the woods and forests, for
the sake of the game; kings the bridges and
defiles, where they could raise taxes. The
poet, who was in deep meditation, came when
all was over and bewailed his lot. What was
to be done? The gods had nothing more to
give. "Come," they said, "and live with us
in the eternal azure of heaven. Come as
often as you like, you will find the door
open." He accepted, but had no need to
disturb himself; in his happy moments, free
from care or anxiety, his mind, like some
well-tuned instrument, could at will bring
down the heaven to earth.

1 Cicero.



14 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

We cannot all be poets, but in these
happier days we have all the same gracious
invitation if we will only accept it. We
cannot all be great or powerful, rich or clever,
but we may all be happy and good. We can
all make our lives bright and beautiful if we
choose. This rests with us. We can succeed if
we choose, but we must do our best. We do not
spring into life perfect, like Pallas. Children
are innocent, but not virtuous. Even those
who unfortunately inherit a tendency to evil
may escape from their ancestors if they will.
The result depends not on cleverness, but on
character. "L'esprit," said Amiel, "sert a
tout, mais il ne suffit a rien." l Rousseau was
certainly one of the cleverest of men, but his
life was far from happy; and why? It was
his own egotism and pride which made him
miserable.

Sorrow and pain are, of course, sure to
come, but they are often exaggerated.

Many people distress themselves about
matters which are of very slight importance.
A proper sense of proportion would reduce

1 "Cleverness serves for everything, but suffices for nothing."




i ON HAPPINESS 15

/many troubles to infinitesimal dimensions.
\We are apt to let our mind dwell on any
I source of sorrow or anxiety, and to overlook ^ , I
/ the many blessings by which we are sur- /
I rounded, or to take them as a matter of course.
Small troubles loom great, and great blessings
seem small.

3^ Pain is not always, or even generally, an
evil. It is often a warning and safeguard.
Indeed, but for pain we should soon lose our
lives. This will be generally admitted; but
we do not so readily acknowledge that the
same is true of mental troubles. That care
is a safeguard from disaster, and sorrow from
despair.

It is foolish to make ourselves miserable
about troubles which may never happen.
According to the old saying, it is no use
jumping till you come to the ditch. It is,
of course, very difficult to avoid worrying
ourselves if things go wrong, and yet it is
foolish. Either we can change them or we
cannot. If we can change them, of course we
shall do so, and it is unnecessary to worry; if
we cannot change them, it is clearly useless.



16 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

Many troubles in life are in reality trials or
opportunities.

And if we so often exaggerate our troubles,
we constantly fail to appreciate our blessings.
Those that come every day pass unnoticed,
whereas we ought on that very account to be
all the more grateful for them. We__^hojild
enjoy what we have, and not fret for what we .
havenotT^

- ~*x s ^ -

^m^^the^aain source of sorrow. It is a
mistake to suppose^SS by repentance we can
escape punishment for wrong-doing. "Re-
morse," says Joubert, "is the punishment of
crime, and repentance is the expiation." "Not
that which produces happiness is good; but
that only which is good produces happiness." 1

As Ruskin said of a beautiful picture: "As
I myself look at it, there is no fault nor folly
in my life and both have been many and
great that does not rise up against me, and
take away my joy, and shorten my power of
possession, of sight, of understanding. And
every past effort of my life, every gleam of
Tightness or good in it, is with me now, to

1 Fichte.



i ON HAPPINESS 17

help me in my grasp of this, and of all other
beautiful things."

Peace and happiness do not depend upon
luck. "It is," says Sir Frederick Treves, "a
common plea of the faint-hearted that success
depends mainly on luck. I do not believe at
all in luck, and the man who is content to
wait for a stroke of good fortune will probably
wait until he has a stroke of paralysis." I do
not say that there is no such thing as luck.
We are told that Timotheus, the Athenian,
after he had, in the account he gave to the
state of his government, often interlaced in his
speech, "And in this fortune had no part,"
never prospered in anything he undertook
afterwards. 1 But a belief in one's own star is
no slight help. "Good Fortune, what a force
it is! It imparts courage. It is the feeling
that fortune is with us that gives us the
hardihood to dare. Not to dare is to do
nothing of moment, and one never dares ex-
cept in the confidence that fortune will favour
us." 2 Yet sooner or later, so far as fortune
is concerned, things average themselves.

1 Bacon. 2 Napoleon.



18 PEACE AND HAPPINESS CHAP.

We live in a very beautiful world; but
few good things are to be had in it without
hard work. It is not a world in which any
one can expect to be prosperous if he is easily
#\ discouraged. Perseverance earnest, steady
perseverance is necessary to success.

He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either hold or drive. *

This is no drawback. Good solid work is
as necessary to peace of mind as it is for
the health of the body; in fact, the two are
inseparable.

Sleep, we know, is one of our greatest
blessings, but like others it must be used


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