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UNIVERSirr OF CA RIVERSIDE LIBRART



3 1210 00^79 12^8



PRBHISTORIC TIMBS



Lord Avebury








THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



PREHISTORIC TIMES




H

5

o

3

H



PRE-HISTOEIC TIMES

AS ILLUSTRATED BY

ANCIENT REMAINS

jjV ' AND THE

Imanners and customs of modern savages



The Rt. Hon. LORD . AyEBURY,

(I

D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Cantab., Dubl. ct Edin.), M.D. (Wurzb.), F.R.S., V.P.L.S., F.G.S.,

F.Z.S., F.S.A., F.E.S., Trust. Brit. Mus. ; Assoc. Acad. Roy. des Sci. Brux. ;

Hon. Mem. R. Irish Acad., Amer. Ethnol. Soc, Anthrop. Soc. Wash. (U.S.), Brux., Flerenze,

Anthrop. Verein Graz., Soc, Entom. de France, Soc. G60I. de la Suisse, and Soc. Helv6t. des Sci. Nat. ;

Mem. Amei-. Phil. Soc. Philad. and Soc. d'Ethn. de Paris ; Corresp. Mem. Soc. Nat. des Sci.

Nat. de Cherb., Berl. Gesell. fur Anthrop., Soc. Roinana di Antrop., Soc. d'Emul. d'Abbeville,

Soc. Ciunt. Argentina, Soc. de Geog. de Lisb., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Numis. and Ant. Soc. Philad.

Anier. Entom. Soc. For. Assoc, Mem. Soc. d'Anthiop. de Paris ;

For. Mem. Amer. Antiq. Soc.



SIXTH EDITION REVISED




WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE

14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON"
20 SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH
AND 7 BROAD STREET, OXFORD

1900



PRINTED BT

NEILL AXD COMPANT, LIMITED.

EDlSBVRQa



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION



TN this Work I present to the public some essays
on Pre-historic Archaeology, parts of which have
appeared in the Natural History Review, viz. those
on —

The Danish Shell-mounds, in October, 1861.

The Swiss Lake-dwellings, in Januar}^, 1862.

The Flint Implements of the Drift, in July, 1862.

North American Archeology, in January, 1863.

Cave-men, in July, 1864.
Messrs. Williams and Norgate suggested to me to
republish these articles in a separate form ; and I was
further encouraged to do so by the fact that most of
them had re-appeared, either in France or America.
The conductors of the Annales des Sciences Naturelles
did me the honour to translate those on the Danish
Shell-mounds and the Swiss Lake-dwellinirs. The
latter also appeared in Silliman's Journal ; and the



VI PKEFACE.

iirt'u'lo on Anierirnn AivluDology, witli the exception of
tlie last paragraph, was reprinted in tlie Smithsonian
Keportfor 18G2.*

At first I only contemplated reprinting the papers
;is they stood ; but having, at the request of the
managers, delivered at the Royal Institution a short
course of lectures on the Antiquity of Man, it was
thought desirable to introduce the substance of these,
so as to give the work a more complete character.

My object has been to elucidate, as far as possible,
the principles of pre-historic archaeology, laying spe-
cial stress upon the indications which it affords of the
condition of man in primeval times. The tumuli, or
burial-mounds, the peat-bogs of this and other coun-
tries, the Kjokkenmoddings or shell-mounds of Den-
mark, the Lake-habitations of Switzerland, the bone-
caves and the river-drift gravels, are here our principal
sources of information.

In order to qualify myself, as far as possible, for
the task which I have undertaken, I have visited, not
only our three great museums in London, Dublin,
and Edinburgh, but also many on the Continent, as,

* The article on Cave-men was also translated in the Annales des
Sciences Naturelles, Fifth Ser. vol. ii., and that on North American
Archteology in the Revue Archdologitjue for 1865,



PREFACE. Vll

for instcance, those at Copenhagen, Stockholm, Lund,
Flensburg, Aarhuus, Lausanne, Basle, Berne, Zurich,
Yverdon, Paris, Abbeville, etc., besides many private
collections of great interest, of which I may particu-
larly specify those of M. Boucher de Perthes, Messrs.
Christy, Evans, Bateman, Forel, Schwab, Troy on,
Gilli^ron, Uhlmann, Desor, and, lastly, the one re-
cently made by MM. Christy and Lartet in the bone-
caves of the Dordoo-ne.

Sometimes alone, and sometimes in company with
Messrs. Prestwich and Evans, I have made numerous
visits to the Valley of the Somme, and have examined
almost every gravel-pit and section from Amiens down
to the sea. In 1861, with Mr. Busk, and again in
1863, I went to Denmark, in order to have the
advantage of seeing the Kjokkenmoddings themselves.
Under the guidance of Professor Steenstrup, I visited
several of the most celebrated shell -mounds, particu-
larly those at Havelse, Bilidt, Meilgaard, and Fanne-
rup. I also made myself familiar with so much of
the Danish language as was necessary to enable me to
read the various reports drawn up by the Kjokken-
modding Committee, consisting of Professors Steen-
strup, Worsaae, and Forchhammer. Last year I
went to the north of Scotland, to examine some



via PREFACE.

similar shell -mounds discovered by Dr. Gordon, of
Biruie, on the shores of the ]\Ioray Firth, ^vhich
appear, however, to belong to a much later period
than those of Denmark.

In 18G2, i\L Morlot very kindly devoted himself to
me for nearly a month, during which time we not
only visited the principal museums of Switzerland,
l)ut also several of the Lake-habitations themselves,
and particularly those at Morges, Thonon, ^^'auwyl,
Jiloosseedorf, and the Pont de Thiele. In addition
to many minor excursions, I had, finally, last
spring, the advantage of spending some time with
]\Ir. Christy among the celebrated bone-caves of
the Dordogne. Thus, by carefully examining the
objects themselves and the localities in which they
have been found, I have endeavoured to obtain a
more vivid and correct impression of the facts than
books, or even museums, alone could have given.

To the more strictly archaeological part of the work
I have added some chapters on the Manners and
Customs of Modern Savages, confining myself to those
tribes which are still, or were, when first visited by
travellers, ignorant of the use of metal, and which
have been described by competent and trustworthy
observers. This account, incomplete as it is, will be



PREFACE. IX

found, I think, to throw some light on the remains of
savage life in ages long gone bv.

Fully satisfied that Religion and Science cannot in
reality be at variance, I have striven in the present
publication to follow out the rule laid down by the
Bishop of London, in his excellent lecture delivered
last year at Edinburgh. The man of science, says Dr.
Tait, ought to go on, " honestly, patiently, diffidently,
observing and storing up his observations, and carry-
ing his reasonings unflinchingly to their legitimate
conclusions, convinced that it would be treason to
the majesty at once of science and of religion if he
sought to help either by swerving ever so little from
the straight rule of truth." *

Ethnology, in fact, is passing at present through
a phase from which other sciences have safely
emerged ; and the new views with reference to the
Antiquity of Man, though still looked upon with
distrust and apprehension, will, I doubt not, in a few
years be regarded with as little disquietude as are
now those discoveries in astronomy and geology
which at one time excited even greater opposition.

I have great pleasure in expressing my gratitude

* Lecture on Science and Revelation, delivered at Edinburgh. See
the Times, 7 th November 1864.



X PREFACE.

to ni;inv aivhirolosfical fiicutls for tlic lil)eral maniier

•I o

in whii-h tlu'ir niusoiims liavc been thrown open to
mo, and fur iniu-li valuable assistance in other ways,
^ly thanks are due to Professor Steenstrup for many
of the figures by which the AVork is illustrated.
Others, through the kindness of Sir W, R. Wilde, Mr.
P'ranks, and Dr. Thurnam, have been placed at my
disposal by the Society of Antiquaries and the Roj^al
Irish Academy. To Professor Steenstrup, Dr. Keller,
M. Morlot, and Professor Eiitimeyer, I am indebted
for much information on the subject of their respec-
tive investigations. Finally, Mr. Busk, Mr. Evans,
and Professor Tyndall, have had the great kindness
to read many of my proofs, and to them I am indebted



for various valuable susjojestions.



JOHN LUBBOCK.



Chislehurst,

February f 1865.



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.



TN preparing a New Edition of Pee-Historic Times,
I have endeavoured, as far as possible, to avoid
unduly increasing the size of the book ; and although
the present Work will be found to contain a great
number of new facts, some of the chapters being,
indeed, almost re-written, still it is only increased in
size to the extent of one hundred pages. Nearly half
of these are occupied by the addition of more than
seventy new figures, which will tend to diminish, rather
than increase, the time occupied by its perusal.

This course has compelled me to omit all reference
to many researches of much merit and interest, while
in other cases I have been obliged to treat the labour
of years in a few short sentences. The true force of
the evidence in support of archaeological conclusions
is thus materially weakened, by being deprived of its
cumulative character ; but I have endeavoured in



XU PREFACE.

many cases to meet this objection by the introduction
of statistical tables.

Since the First Edition was published, I have
visited the principal German and Italian museums,
and have been in correspondence with the most
active archneologists both in Europe and also across
the Atlantic.

I cannot attempt here to express in any suitable
manner my gratitude for the assistance which I have
received. Every museum which I have visited has
been thrown open to me with the greatest liberality,
and every archaeologist whom I have consulted has
ffivcn me the readiest and fullest information.

No one can be more sensible than I am of the

many shortcomings of this Work. Those, however,

who perceive them most clearly, will, I am sure, be

disposed to judge them leniently, because they will

best be able to appreciate the difficulty of keeping

pace with a science which has so many and such

enthusiastic votaries ; the results of whose earnest

labour are to be found scattered through a number

of periodicals, published in many different countries

and in various tongues.

JOHN LUBBOCK.
High Elms, Down, Kext,
March, 1869.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTEE I.

INTRODUCTION.

PAGE

Division of Pre-liistoric arclipeology into four periods — First dis-
covery of metal — Allusions to bronze in ancient writers — Lucretius
— Tiefenau — Find of iron objects at Nydam, in Slesvick — Owner's
marks — Inscriptions at Nydam — Nature of archaeological evidence
— Statistics — Pottery of the different ages— Bronze weapons not of
Roman origin — Geographical distribution of bronze weapons —
Summary of argument — Bronze weapons not Saxon — Hallstadt . 1

CHAPTER II.

ON THE USE OF BRONZE IN ANCIENT TIMES.

Bronze celts — Bronze swords — Bronze spears — Bronze fish-hooks and
sickles — Bronze knives — Bronze ornaments — The metallurgy of
the Bronze Age — Gold ornaments — List of Bronze objects — Dress
— Burial during the Bronze Age — Hut-urns — Pen-pits — Picts'
houses — Beehive houses — The Burgh of Moussa — Staigue fort,
Kerry 28

CHAPTER IIL

THE BRONZE AGE.

Similarity of bronze implements in different countries — The Bronze
Age and the Phoenicians— Ancient voyages — Himilco — Pytheas —
Phoenician colonies and commerce — Copper — Tin — Traces of Baal
worship in Northern Europe — Objections to the Phoenician theory 53



XIV CONTENTS,

CHAPTER IV.

THE USE OF STONE IN ANCIENT TIMES.

PACK

The great alimulance of stone impk-inents — Stone iinplenieuts ased
after the discovery of metal — Materials preferred— Jade — Flint —
Grimes' Graves — Pivssigny — The fracture of Hint — Modern Hakes
— Manufacture of flakes in Mexico, and among the Esijuimau.v —
Ancient manufactories — Stone axes — Pierced liatche Is— Scrapers
— Shell-mound axes — Chisels — Awls — S])ears — Daggers — Sliug-
stones — Arrow-heads — Saws — Bone im2)lements — Awls — Har-
poons — Flint finds 72

CHAPTER V.

MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS AND TUMULI.

Tumuli — Menhirs — Stone circles — Mention of stone circles and
tumuli in ancient history — Megalithic monuments not Druidical
— Avebury — Silljury Hill more ancient than the Roman road —
Stonehenge — Carnac — Megalithic monuments in India — Modern
Indian dolmens — Modes of burial in tumuli — Use of tumuli as
dwellings — Yurts and gammes — Hut-burial among modern
savages — Picts' houses — The mound -builders — Long barrows —
Ol^jects buried with the dead not always intended for actual use
— List of interments — Tabulated interments — Statistics — Models
of implements sometimes buried — Barrows belong to very different
2>eriods — Difficulty of determining the period to which a tumulus
belongs — Danish tumulus in the Island of Moen — Description of
a barrow at West Kennet — Pottery from the West Kennet tumulus
— Breton tumuli — Sepulchral pottery — Rock sculptures — Bones
of animals in tumuli — Sepulchral feasts — Sacrifices — Pre-historic
races of men — Desirability of preserving megalithic monuments . 98

CHAPTER VL

THE ANCIENT LAK.E-HABITATION.S OF SWITZERLAND.

Lake-dwellings mentioned by Herodotus — Modern Lake-dwellings —
Irish crannoges — Pile-dwellings in other parts of Europe — Lake-
dwellings found in most of the Swiss lakes — Attempt to make
a census — Construction of the platforms — Comparison of Lake-
dwellings of different periods — Condition of the objects found — ■



CONTENTS. XV

PAGE

Preparation of tlie piles — Number of the piles used — Description
of the remains at Wauwyl — Weapons and imjjlements of the Lake-
men — Implements of bone and wood — Pottery — Dress — The fauna
of the Lake-dwellings — Comi^arison of bones belonging to wild
and domesticated races — Oxen — Absence of extinct species —
Aurochs — Elk — Ibex — General character of the fauna — Com-
parison of the different Lake villages — The flora — Grain — Fruits
— Flax — Ancient agriculture — Scarcity of human remains —
Olijects of bronze — The worship of Lakes — Pottery of the Bronze
Age — Inhabitants of the Lake villages — Character of the objects
foiuid in different Lake villages — Antiquity of Lake villages . 16G



CHAPTER VII.

THE DANISH KJOKKENMODDINGS OR SHELL-MOUKDS.

Danish tumuli — Kjokkenmoddings, or shell-mounds — Description of
the shell-mounds — Distribution of the shell-mounds — Shell-
mounds in Scotland — Shell-mounds in other countries — Flora of
the Danish shell-mounds — Fauna of the shell-mounds — Condition
of the bones — Prevalence of certain bones — Habits of the mound -
builders — Flint implements — Absence of polished flint implements
— Food of the shell-mound builders — The Fuegians — The relation
of the shell-mounds to the tumuli — The opinions of Messrs.
Steenstrup and Worsaae — Antiquity of the shell-mounds . , 213



CHAPTER VIII.

NORTH AMERICAN ARCHEOLOGY.

Bibliography — Classification of antiquities — Implements — The use
of copper — Ancient copper-mines — Pottery — Ornaments — Fortifi-
cations — Earthworks — Enclosures ■ — Sacred enclosures — Earth-
works of the Scioto Valley — Aztalan — Vitrified walls — Modern
earthworks — Chunk yards — Sepulchral mounds — So-called sacri-
ficial mounds — Grave Creek mound — Temple mounds — Animal
mounds — Rock carvings — Wampiim — The mound-builders — Evi-
dence of ancient population — Traces of ancient agriculture-
Antiquity of the remains — Condition of the bones — American
forests — Indications of four periods — Man and the mastodon —
Antiquity of man in America 237



XVI CONTEXTS.

ClIArTKR IX.

QUATKRXARY MAMMALIA.

PAGE

Succession of species — The cuve-bear — The cave-hyania — The cave-
liou — The mammoth — Existence of the African elephant in
Europe — The quaternary species of rhinoceros — Rliinoceros
Tichorliinus — The musk-ox — The liippopotamus — The Irisli elk
— Wild horses — The reindeer — The aurochs — The urus — Elk —
Lenuning — Snowy owl — Mollusca — Links between existing species
— Climate of the quaternary period — Probable fluctuations of
climate 268

CHAPTER X.

riilMEVAL MAN.

Caves in the South of France — Belgian caves — Kent's Hole — Brix-
ham cave — Sicilian caves — Gibraltar caves — Aurignac — Wokey
Hole — Caves in the Dordogne — Fauna of the Dordogne caves —
Absence of domestic animals — Flint implements — Relative anti-
quity of the remains — Absence of polished implements — Bone
implements — Representations of animals — Drawing of reindeer
and mammoth — Sculpture — Habits of the cave-dwellers — Human
remains — The Engis skull — The Neanderthal skull — Cave-men . 292

CHAPTER XI.

RIVER-DRIFT GRAVEL-BEDS.

M. Boucher de Perthes — Mr. Prestwich and Mr. Evans — !Mr. Frere's
discovery in 1800 — Similar discoveries elsewhere — Similar dis-
coveries in other countries — Antiquity as shown by physical geo-
graphy — The questions at issue — Evidence derivable from the
flints themselves — The forgeries — Character of the true drift im-
plements — Drift implements never ground — Scarcity of human
bones — Scarcity of men in ancient times — Proportion of men to
other animals in the Hudson's Bay Territory — The mammoth and
rhinoceros — Cliaracteristics of the drift-beds — Physical geography
of the Sorarae Valley — St. Acheul — Organic remains — Minera-
logical constituents of the river-drift gravels — Objections to the
proposed theory — Ice action — Fresh -water origin of the gravels
— Inapplicability of cataclysms — Alteration of the river level —



CONTENTS. XVU

PAGE

Gradual excavation of the valley — The lower level gravel-beds
— Their fauna — The peat — Objects found in the jjeat — Relation
of the loess to the gravel — Continual changes of river courses —
Elevation of the land — Recapitulation 319

CHAPTER Xir.

ox THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN.

Historical evidence — Ethnological evidence — Evidence derivable
from physical geography — The vegetation of Denmark — The cone
of the Tiniere— The Valley of the Tliiele — The formation of
Egypt — The gradual elevation of the country, owing to the annual
deposit of Nile mud — Mr. Horner's Egyptian researches — Age of
the Mississippi delta — Lapse of time, as indicated by the change of
climate — Sir J. W. Lubbock on the earth's axis — Effect of a
change in the Gulf-Stream — Astronomical causes — Precession of
the Equinoxes — M. Adhemar's argument — The cupola of ice at the
South Pole — Objections to M. Adhemar's theory — Probable effect .
of precession — The excentricity of the earth's orbit — Date sug-
gested for the glacial epoch — Effect of rivers on the level of con-
tinents — The obliquity of the ecliptic — M. Adhemar on changes
in the sea-level — Geological changes in the Quaternary period —
Geological time — Reported evidence of man in the Pliocene period
. — Miocene man 360



CHAPTER XIII.

MODERN SAVAGES.

The imtrustworthiness of tradition — Tendency to the marvellous —
No evidence of degradation — Progress among savages — Hottentots :
dress ; food ; weapons ; metallurgy ; customs ; character ; Bush-
men — Veddahs — Andaman Islanders — Australians : houses ; food ;
rock-engravings ; canoes ; implements ; clubs ; spears ; throwing-
sticks ; the boomerang ; fire ; clothes ; ornaments ; tattooing ;
initiation ceremonies ; games ; superstition ; modes of burial ;
language ; marriage — Tasmanians — Fiji Islanders -. food ; weapons ;
houses ; temples ; religion ; canoes ; pottery ; games ; agricul-
ture ; women ; dress ; tattooing ; burial ; customs ; parricide ;
horrible rites ; cannibalism ; character of the Fijians — Maories :
food ; dress ; ornaments ; tattooing ; houses ; fortifications ;

h



XV 111 CONTENTS.

PACK

woajv^ns ; oJinoos ; liuri.il ; iiuisic ; cliaracter ; n-lij^ion ; cfinni-
Iviilism — Tahiti : iniploinentj? ; fish-liooks ; nets ; l)askets ; mats ;
l>)irk-clotli ; dress; camx's ; music; furniture; weapons; food;
tii\> ; otwkerv ; ava ; a cliiefs dinner ; solitary meals ; surgery ;
modes of hurial ; Olterea't? moral ; government ; ideas of right and
vroug ; the Arreoy society ; general character — Tke Tongans . 404



CHAPTER XIV.

MODERN SAVAGES — coiitinned.

Esquimaux : tents ; houses ; lamps ; absence of cleanliness ; stores
of food ; cookery ; difficulty of obtaining water ; fire ; imple-
ments and weapons ; modes of hunting and fishing ; sledges
lx)ats ; scrapers ; clothes, ornaments, cheek -studs ; music ; draw-
ings ; religion ; modes of burial ; things buried with the dead
character —A'oj'^/i American Indians : dress ; ornaments ; labrets :
the practice of head-moulding ; religion ; social position of women
character ; cruelty ; infanticide ; implements ; weapons ; boats
fire ; dwellings ; agriculture ; maize ; rice ; animal food ; burial
art — Paraguay Indians — Patagonians : stature ; huts ; dress
weapons ; food ; burial ; religion — Fuegians : huts ; implements
weapons ; food ; stature ; habits ; mode of fishing; cannibalism
absence of religion ; canoes ; dress ; fire 470



CHAPTER XV.

MODERN SAVAGES — concluded.

Skilfulness of savages — Varieties of implements — Neatness in sewing
— Art of drilling — Important works erected by savages — Differ-
ences in the Stone Age — Diff"erent lines of civilization — Differences
of weapons — Isolation of savages — Geographical distribution of
weapons, etc. — Differences between savages — Different uses for
the dog — Different modes of obtaining fire — Different modes of
burial — Descent of property — Differences in prevalent sounds —
Differences in signs — Ideas of decency — Ideas of virtue — Deifica-
tion of white men — CurioiLS customs — Social position of women —
Savages and children — Moral and intellectual inferiority of savages
— Poverty of savage languages — Deficiencies in numeration —
Absence of religion — Rudiments of religion — Low ideas of the
deitv — Witchcraft — General wretchedness of savages . , . 519



CONTENTS. XIX

CHAPTER XVI.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

PAGB

The higher animals — The primitive condition of man — Diffusion of
man — Early races of man — Natural selection applied to man —
The influence of mind — Increase of happiness — Sufferings of
savages — Superstitious terrors — Self-inflicted sufferings — The
blessings of civilization — The diminution of suffering — The
diminution of sin — The advantages of science — The future . . 560



Appendix 579

Index 587



DESCRIPTIOX OF THE PLATES AND FIGURES.



no.

1. Ancient Danish arrow-head, with owner's mark.

Engelhardt, Denmark in the Earl}' Iron Age, p. xiii, fig. 35.

2. Modern Es



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