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get through it quickly.

Moreover, even as regards the work itself,
if it is done irregularly, by fits and starts and
in a hurry, it is much more exhausting, much
more really laborious, than, if taken slowly,
steadily, and regularly without hurry and
bustle. Hurry not only spoils work, but
spoils life also.

" Work without haste and without rest/'
was Goethe's maxim, though our word " rest "
does not exactly express his idea.

" Haste not, let no thoughtless deed
Mar for aye the spirit's speed ;
Ponder well, and know the right,
Onward then, and know thy might ;
Haste not, years can ne'er atone
For one reckless action done.

" Rest not, Life is sweeping by,
Go and dare, before you die :
Something mighty and sublime

xin INDUSTRY 219

Leave behind to conquer time ;

Glorious 'tis to live for aye,

When these forms have pass'd away." l

Work hard then, but do not hurry, do not
fuss, and do not be anxious.

" Interest yourself/' says Mr. Francis Gal-
ton, " chiefly in the progress of your journey,
and do not look forward to its end with
eagerness. It is better to think of a return
to civilisation, not as an end to hardship and
a haven from ill, but as a thing to be regretted,
and as a close to an adventurous and pleasant
life. In this way, risking less, you will in-
sensibly creep on, making connections, and
learning the capabilities of the country as you
advance, which will be found invaluable in
the case of a hurried or a disastrous return.
And thus, when some months have passed by,
you will look back with surprise on the great
distance travelled over; for if you average
only three miles a day at the end of the year
you will have advanced 1000, which is a very
considerable exploration. The fable of the
hare and the tortoise seems expressly in-

1 Goethe.


tended for travellers over wide and unknown

Rise early, give to muscles and brain their
fair share of exercise and rest, be temperate
in food, allow yourself a reasonable allowance
of sleep, take things easily, and depend upon
it your work will not hurt you. Worry and
excitement, impatience and anxiety, will not
get you on in your work, and may kill you
in the end, or at any rate hand you over a
victim to some attack of illness ; but if you
take life cheerfully and peacefully, intellect-
ual exertion and free thought are to the mind,
what exercise and fresh air are to the body ;
they will prolong, not shorten your life.

"Perseverance . . .

Keeps honour bright : to have done is to hang
Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail
In monumental mockery." l

Perseverance " is the Statesman's brain,
the Warrior's sword, the Inventor's secret,
the Scholar's ' Open sesame.'" 2 Our gra-
cious Queen has been one of the very best

1 Shakespeare.

2 Adam's Plain Living and High Thinking.

xin INDUSTRY 221

sovereigns in History. And why? no doubt
she has great judgment and tact, but she
has spared herself no labour. The spirit
in which she has worked is indicated in a
remark to Lord Monteagle, quoted in Mrs.
Jameson's Memoirs. In reply to some ex-
pression of regret on his part that he was
obliged to trouble her on business, she said,
" Never mention to me the word ' trouble.'
Only tell me how the thing is to be done, to
be done rightly, and I will do it if I can."

Whatever your duties or business in life
may be, try to do it as well as it can be

The Duke of Wellington owed his victories
almost as much to his being a good man of
business as a great General. He paid the
most careful attention to all the details of
his supplies and commissariat ; and his horses
had plenty of fodder, his troops were well
supplied with warm clothes, strong boots,
and good food.

"Seest thou a man diligent in his busi-
ness," says Solomon; "he shall stand before
kings;" and St. Paul tells us to be "not


slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving
the Lord."

Industry brings its own reward. Colum-
bus discovered America while searching for
a western passage to India ; and, as Goethe
pointed out, Saul found a kingdom while he
was looking for his father's asses.

"Resolve," said Franklin, "to perform
what you ought, and perform without fail
what you resolve."

It is sometimes supposed that genius may
take the place of work. We read of men at
College who idled their first years, who only
worked at high pressure for a short time,
with a wet towel round their heads, and yet
took a high degree. Depend upon it they
paid dearly for the wet towel afterwards.
But even so, they had to work. Many of the
greatest men have owed their success to rh-
dustry rather than to cleverness, if we can
judge from their school record. Wellington
and Napoleon, Clive, Scott, Sheridan, and
Burns are all said to have been dull boys at

No doubt some men are much more gifted



than others. But let two men start in life,
the one with brilliant abilities, but careless,
idle, and self-indulgent ; the other compara-
tively slow, but industrious, careful, and high-
principled, and he will in time distance his
more brilliant competitor. No advantage in
life, no cleverness, no rich friends or powerful
relations will make up for the want of indus-
try and character.

Grosteste, Bishop of Lincoln, and a great
statesman, had an idle brother who once came
and asked to be made a great man. " Brother,"
replied the Bishop, " if your plough is broken,
I'll pay for the mending of it ; or, if your ox
should die, I'll buy you another ; but I cannot
make a great man of you ; a ploughman I
found you, and I fear a ploughman I must
leave you."

Milton was not merely a man of genius, but
of indomitable industry. He thus describes
his own habits : " In winter, often ere the
sound of any bell wakes man to labour or
devotion ; in summer, as oft with the bird
that first rouses, or not much tardier, to read
good authors, or to cause them to be read till


the attention be ready, or memory have its
full freight ; then, with clear and generous
labour, preserving the body's health and hardi-
ness, to render lightsome, clear, and not lump-
ish obedience to the mind, to the cause of
religion, and our country's liberty."

Do not look on your work as a dull duty.
If you choose you can make it interesting.
Throw your heart into it, master its meaning,
trace out the causes and previous history, con-
sider it in all its bearings, think how many,
even the humblest, labour may benefit, and
there is scarcely one of our duties which we
may not look to with enthusiasm. You will
get to love your work, and if you do it with
delight you will do it with ease. Even if you
find this at first impossible, if for a time it
seems mere drudgery, this may be just what
you require ; it may be good, like mountain
air, to brace up your character. Our Scandi-
navian ancestors worshipped Thor, wielding
his hammer ; and in the old Norse myth
Yoland is said to have sold his soul to the
Devil, in order to be the best smith in the
world ; which, however, was going too far.



It is a great question how much time should
be given to sleep. Nature must decide. Some
people require much more than others. I do
not think it possible to diminish the amount
which Nature demands. Nor can time spent
in real sleep be said to be wasted. It is a
wonderful restorer of nervous energy, of
which those who live in cities never have

Sir E. Cooke's division of the day was

" Six hours in sleep, in law's grave study six,
Four spend in prayer the rest on Nature fix."

Sir W. Jones amended this into

" Six hours to law, to soothing slumber seven,
Ten to the world allot, and all to Heaven."

Neither six nor seven hours would be enough
for me. ' We must sleep till we are so far
refreshed as to wake up, and not down.

In times of sorrow, occupation, which diverts
our thoughts, is often a great comfort. Indeed
many of us torment ourselves in hours of leis-
ure with idle fears and unnecessary anxieties.
Keep yourselves always occupied.



" So shall thou find in work and thought
The peace that sorrow cannot give." l

" Every place," says old Lilly, " is a coun-
try to a wise man, and all parts a palace to a
quiet mind."

Work, moreover, with, and not against Na-
ture. Do not row against the stream if you
can help it ; but if you must, you must. Do
not then shrink from it; but Nature will
generally work for us if we will only let

'For as in that which is above Nature, so
in Nature itself : he that breaks one physical
law is guilty of all. The whole universe, as
it were, takes up arms against him, and all
Nature, with her numberless and unseen pow-
ers, is ready to avenge herself upon him, and
on his children after him, he knows not when
nor where. He, on the other hand, who obeys
the law of Nature with his whole heart and
mind, will find all things working together to
him for good. He is at peace with the physi-
cal universe. He is helped and befriended
alike by the sun above his head and the dust

1 Stirling.



beneath his feet : because he is obeying the
will and mind of Him who made sun, and
dust, and all. things : and who has given them
a law which cannot be broken." *

1 Kingsley.



WE are told in statistical works that out
of 1,500,000,000 of human beings there are
500,000,000 Buddhists, 350,000,000 Chris-
tians, 200,000,000 Hindoos, and 150,000,000
Mahomedans; but Selden, 1 though he goes
into the opposite extreme, was doubtless
nearer the mark when he observes that "men
say they are of the same religion for quiet-
ness' sake; but if the matter was well ex-
amined, you would scarce find three anywhere
of the same religion on all points." It is no
wonder that this should be so, for as we know
in reality so very little even about our own
world, we cannot expect to be better informed
about another.

" The wonderful world," says Canon Lid-

1 Table Talk.

CHAP, xiv FAITH 229

don, " in which we now pass this stage of our
existence, whether the higher world of faith
be open to our gaze or not, is a very temple
of many and august mysteries. You will
walk, perhaps, to-morrow afternoon into the
country ; and here or there the swelling buds,
or the first fresh green of the opening leaf,
will remind you that already spring is about
to re-enact before your eyes the beautiful
spectacle of her yearly triumph. Everywhere
around you are evidences of the existence and
movement of a mysterious power which you
can neither see, nor touch, nor define, nor
measure, nor understand. This power lives
speechless, noiseless, unseen, yet energetic, in
every bough above your head, in every blade
of grass beneath your feet."

Doubt is indeed the very foundation of
philosophy. We live in a world of mystery ;
and if we cannot explain the simplest flower,
or the smallest insect, how can we expect to
understand the infinite? " We acknowledge,"
says Dr. Martineau, " space and silence to be
His attributes ; and when the evening dew has
laid the noonday dust of care, and the vision


strained by microscopic anxieties takes the
wide sweep of meditation, and earth sleeps as
a desert beneath the starry Infinite, the un-
speakable Presence wraps us close again, and
startles us in the wild night-wind, and gazes
straight into our eyes from those ancient
lights of heaven."

" Human existence/' says John Stuart Mill, 1
" is girt round with mystery ; the narrow re-
gion of our experience is a small island in the
midst of a boundless sea, which at once awes
our feelings and stimulates our imagination
by its vastness and obscurity. To add to the
mystery, the domain of our earthly existence
is not only an island in infinite space, but also
in infinite time."

But if we find ourselves continually com-
pelled to remain in ignorance, and to suspend
our judgment, we need not on that account
lose hope.

" And so we say that iii the dim hereafter,
Or be it dawn or twilight, noon or night,
The thread of that great scheme whereof this life
Is, as a something tells us, but a part,
Shall not be lost, but taken up again
And woven into one completed whole.' 7
1 Utility of Reliyion.

xiv FAITH 231

We feel much which we cannot explain.
This is not confined to theology. " If you
ask me," said St. Augustine, "what is Time,
I cannot tell you ; but I know quite well, if
you do not ask me."

Wesley described himself as

" Weary of all this wordy strife,

These notions, forms, and modes, and names,
To Thee, the Way, the Truth, the Life,

Whose love my simple heart inflames
Divinely taught, at last I fly,
With Thee and Thine to live and die."

" Those who tell me," says Martineau, " too
much about God ; who speak as if they knew
His motive and His plan in everything ; who
are never at a loss to name the reason of every
structure, and show the tender mercy of every
event ; who praise the cleverness of the Eter-
nal economy, and patronise it as a masterpiece
of forensic ingenuity ; who carry themselves
through the solemn glades of Providence with
the springy steps and jaunty air of a familiar ;
do but drive me by the very definiteness of
their assurance into an indefinite agony of
doubt and impel me to cry ' Ask of me less,
and I shall give you all.' '


Dean Stanley described one great object of
his life as being to do " something to break
the collision between the beliefs and the
doubts of the age, and to fix our gaze 'on
the hills from whence cometh our help.' '

" Amid the mysteries," says Herbert
Spencer, " which become the more mysterious
the more they are thought about, there will
remain the one absolute certainty, that man
is ever in presence of an Infinite and Eternal
Energy, from which all things proceed."

We must then be content to feel, we cannot

Many of the differences which separate men
into sects are factions, rather than religions.
In defiance of St. Paul's warning, they per-
sist in saying, " I am of Paul, and I am of

" The kingdom of God does not," says
Jeremy Taylor, " consist in words, but in
power, the power of Godliness. Though now
we are fallen upon another method, we have
turned all religion into faith, and our faith
is nothing but the production of interest or
disputing; it is adhering to a party and a

xiv FAITH 233

wrangling against all the world beside ; and
when it is asked of what religion he is of, we
understand the meaning to be what faction
does he follow, what are the articles of his
sect, not what is the manner of his life : and
if men be zealous for their party and that
interest, then they are precious men, though
otherwise they be covetous as the grave,
factious as Dathan, schismatical as Korah, or
proud as the fallen angels."

Men of science are often attacked for want
of faith, though Thoreau says that "as a
matter of fact there is more religion in
science, than science in religion."

But the man of science who doubts, does so
in no scoffing spirit ; it is an expression, not
of disdain, but of reverence. As Tennyson
has well said

" Perplext in faith, but pure in deeds,

At last he beat his music out.
There lives more faith in honest doubt,
Believe me, than in half the creeds."

Let me refer, for instance, to two repre-
sentative men. "When I attempt," says
Professor Tyndall, "to give the Power which


I see manifested in the universe an objective
form, personal or otherwise, it slips away
from me, declining all intellectual manipula-
tion. I dare not use the pronoun ' He ' re-
garding it ; I dare not call it a ' Mind ' ; I
refuse to call it even a ' cause.' Its mystery
overshadows me." Professor Huxley is one
of our ablest thinkers ; he is, moreover, an
Agnostic, and no friend of religious institu-
tions in the ordinary sense, but he has told
us that he could "conceive the existence of
an Established Church which should be a
blessing to the community. A Church in
which, week by week, services should be de-
voted, not to the iteration of abstract propo-
sitions in theology, but to the setting before
men's minds of an ideal of true, just, and
pure living: a place in which those who are
weary of the burden of daily cares, should find
a moment's rest in the contemplation of the
higher life which is possible for all, though
attained by so few ; a place in which the man
of strife and of business should have time to
think how small, after all, are the rewards
he covets compared with peace and charity.

xiv FAITH 235

Depend upon it, if such a Church existed, no
one would seek to disestablish it."

This seems to me not far removed from the
Church of Arnold and Maurice, Kingsley,
Stanley, and Jowett. The Church of England
is gradually approximating to this ideal, and
the more it does so, the stronger it will grow.

Theologians necessarily endeavour to ex-
press themselves in language which can be
understood, and we do them an injustice in
expecting that we can take them literally.
When poets speak of the " sunrise "we do
not accuse them of ignoring astronomy ; nor
can any one be justly accused of " blasphem-
ing " Shakespeare or Tennyson if he maintains
that it is the Earth and not the Sun which
moves. Even the discoveries of science re-
quire a language of their own, and if we can-
not describe a flower or a stone accurately
without the use of newly-coined phrases, we
may feel sure that it is impossible for human
language to comprehend the Infinite. Nor
can we wonder if, in accordance with the
general opinion of the times, ancient writers
in some cases attributed to the agency of


Demons, results which we now know to be
due to nervous disease.

There can be no merit in believing some-
thing which you can neither explain nor
understand. There can be no merit in be-
lieving a fact for which we have no sufficient
evidence ; or in persuading ourselves that we
believe something which we do not compre-
hend. Indeed, it is surely impossible to be-
lieve anything for which we are conscious
that there is no good evidence. On the con-
trary, our duty is to believe that for which we
have sufficient evidence, and to suspend our
judgment when we have not. Many people
seem to suppose that they must either believe
a statement or disbelieve it. And yet in a
great many cases we have no sufficient
grounds either for belief or disbelief.

True faith is no mere intellectual exercise.
The faith which is enjoined on us is a living
faith, and faith without works is dead. Sel-
den l compares faith and works to light and
heat : " Though in my intellect I may divide
them, just as in the candle I know there is

1 Table Talk.



both light and heat ; yet put out the candle,
and both are gone." The references to faith
in the magnificent eleventh chapter of He-
brews are to actions. By faith Abel offered
his sacrifices ; by faith Noah built the Ark ;
by faith Abraham left his home. They surely
all had, or at any rate every one will admit
that they thought they had, sufficient reason
for what they believed and for what they
did. They were commended because, finding
themselves face to face with a painful or
laborious duty, they did not flinch, but faith-
fully performed what they believed to be
right. One of our duties, however, and by
no means the easiest, is to suspend our judg-
ment, when the evidence is inconclusive.
There are many cases in which doubt, if not
a virtue, is certainly a duty.

" Our little systems have their day ;

They have their day and cease to be :
They are but broken lights of thee,

And Thou, Lord, art more than they."

The veil is slowly rising, but as regards
innumerable questions we must be content
to remain in ignorance.

1 Tennyson.


" Our happiness as human beings must
hang on our being content to accept only
partial knowledge, even in those matters
which chiefly concern us. . . .. Our whole
pleasure and power of energetic action de-
pend upon our being able to live and breathe
in a cloud ; content to see it opening here,
and closing there, delighting to catch, through
the thinnest films of it, glimpses of stable
and substantial things ; but yet perceiving a
nobleness even in concealment, rejoicing that
the kindly veil is spread where the untem-
pered light might have scorched us, or the
infinite clearness wearied." *

For, as Professor Huxley says, " Whoso
calls to mind what I may venture to term
the bright side of Christianity that ideal of
manhood, with its strength and its patience,
its justice and its pity for human frailty, its
helpfulness to the extremity of self-sacrifice,
its ethical purity and nobility, which apostles
have pictured, in which armies of martyrs
have placed their unshakable faith, and
whence obscure men and women, like Cath-

1 Ruskin.



erine of Sienna and John Knox, have de-
rived courage to rebuke Popes and Kings
is not likely to underrate the importance of
the Christian faith as a factor in human

St. Mark tells us that one of the scribes
came to Christ and asked Him which was the
greatest Commandment. " And Jesus an-
swered him, The first of all the command-
ments is, Hear, Israel ; the Lord our God
is one Lord : and thou shalt love the Lord
thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy
soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy
strength. This is the first commandment.
And the second is like unto it, namely this,
Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
There is none other commandment greater
than these. And the scribe said unto Him,
Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for
for there is one God ; and there is none other
but he : and to love him with all the heart,
and with all the understanding, and with all
the soul, and with all the strength, and to
love his neighbour as himself, is more than

1 Science and Christian Tradition.


whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. And
when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly,
he said unto him, Thou art not far from the
kingdom of God."



I HAVE often heard surprise expressed that
Hope should be classed as a virtue with Faith
and Charity. Faith could perhaps be under-
stood, or misunderstood, and Charity is obvi-
ously a virtue, but why Hope ?

It is, however, certainly wrong to despair :
and if despair is wrong, hope is right. En-
durance and tenacity of purpose imply hope ;
and endurance is a much better test of char-
acter than any single act of heroism, however
noble. Many a devoted and suffering woman
is a real martyr.

Do not lay things too much to heart. No
one is ever really beaten unless he is dis-

" ? Tis not the least disparagement

To be defeated by th' event ;
R 241


Nor to be beaten by main force ;

That does not make a man the worse ;

But to turn tail and run away

And without blows give up the day,

Or to surrender to th' assault,

That's no man's fortune, but his fault." 1

With his characteristically humorous com-
mon sense, Sydney Smith gave excellent
advice when he said that if we wish to do
anything in the world worth doing, we " must
not stand shivering on the bank, thinking of
the cold and the danger, but jump in and
scramble through as well as we can." It is
curious that men are seldom afraid of real
dangers : they are much more affected by
those which are imaginary. They are, for
instance, absurdly afraid of being laughed

Never give way to false shame. Peter
boldly faced the Pharisees and the soldiers,
but could not stand the jeers of the maids
and the servants in the hall of the Chief

" Cowards die many times before their deaths ;
The valiant never taste of death but once." 2

1 Butler. 2 Shakespeare.

xv HOPE 243

Don Quixote hanging by his wrist from the
stable window imagined himself over a terri-
ble abyss, but when Maritornes cut him down,
found he had only been a few inches above
the ground.

The very lions which frightened Mistrust
and Timorous in the Pilgrim s Progress were
found by Christian to be chained when he
walked boldly up to them.

How many armies which have been victori-
ous in battle, have taken to flight in a panic
during the night! The very word "panic"
has come to mean a terror without a cause.
And even in bright daylight are not fears and
anxieties often equally without foundation ?

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