John M. (John Milton) Niles.

A view of South America and Mexico, comprising their history, the political condition, geography, agriculture, commerce, &c. of the republics of Mexico, Guatemala, Columbia, Peru, the United provinces of South America and Chili, with a complete history of the revolution in each of these independ online

. (page 40 of 51)
Online LibraryJohn M. (John Milton) NilesA view of South America and Mexico, comprising their history, the political condition, geography, agriculture, commerce, &c. of the republics of Mexico, Guatemala, Columbia, Peru, the United provinces of South America and Chili, with a complete history of the revolution in each of these independ → online text (page 40 of 51)
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acknowledged talents and excellent character. ^ Before his pro-
ject was matured, Ubalde was betrayed, and fell a victim to his
patriotism and devotioato the cause of his country. He was sen-
tenced to death, with eight of his companions, and more than one
hundred others were banished from the countey. UJ)alde was
executed at Cusco, in August, 1805, and died with* christijm se-
renity, maintaining bi^ principles to the last. While seated on
the scaflTold, he declared that his death would not stop the pro-
gress of liberty ; that the independence of South America was
not far distant ; and, although he was going dCwn to the grave
without the satisfaction of witnessing that glorious event, yet his
mind was consoled with the hope, that his fiiends who survived
him would one day enrol his name among the mart3n*ed patriots
of his country. His lamentable fate drew tears from every eye. I
Most excellent man, and martyred hero ! thy prayers have been
heard — scarce twenty years have elapsed, and the day of retribu-

* " I passed dvor (says Don Vincente Pasos) the plains of Cica-Cica and
Calamarca, about twenty years after these massacres, and for an extent of
forty miles J beheld numerous heaps of bones of the miserable beings who
htA fallen there by the sword ; and at that time were to be seen at the
cross roads and in the public places throughout the country, the heads of
the leaders of the insurrection suspended on gibbets."

\ Pasos* Letters.

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tion has oome upon thy murderers — the oppressors of }faf coun-
tiy. The eagles of hberty have already winged their fligft to the
summits of the Andes, and the cry of independence and freedom
is hoard from the loftiest mountains,, ^d the deepest recesses of
the vallies ; and the same enlivening page that records the libera-
tion of thy country shall inscribe thy glorious devotion to the sa-
cred cause of humanity and justice.

No farther effort was made for the emancipation of Peru until
after the battle of Maypu, which gave liberty to Chili, when the
gallant general San Martin, perceiving that the independence of
CJhili would be much exposed, while the royalists were able to
command the wealth and resources of Peru, Conceived the noble
project of Uberatipg that country also. He, accordingly, with the
aid of the governments of Chili and Buenos Ayres, made imme-
diate preparations to fit out an expedition against that country.
A naval armament was provided with all possible haste, and
lord Cochrane, arriving in Chili, in November, 1818, was imme-
diately appointed to the command^ Many English and American
ofHcers and seamen flocked to his standard, and by great exer-
tions a formidable squadron was equipped, and sailed in 1819.
This squadron visited the coast of Peru, and continued to harass
the enemy by capturing their ships,, and blockading theif ports,
until the army was ready, which was not, however, until August,
1820. The expedition was reported ready for sailing oh the 15th,
and on the 18th the troops were embarked at Valparaiso. ' Their
appearance and discipline were worthy of any country, and their
numbers amounted to 4900 ; 15,0Q0 stand of arms, with a pro-
portionate quantity of ammunition and clothing, were shipped for,
the purpose of organizing a corps of Peruvians, who, it was ex-
pected, would flock to the revolutionary standard as jsoon as the
expedition landed. , General San Martin was appointed com-
mands in chief of the liberating army of Peru. The fleet under
lord Cochrane consisted oftheftag ship of fifty guns, one of sixty
guns, another of forty, and four smaller vessels ; the transports
were twenty in number.*

Before the expedition sailed, the^ following bulletin was pub-
lished : —

" An expedition, equipped by means of great sacrifices, is at
length ready to proceed, and the army of Chili, united to that of
the Andes, is now called upon to redeem the land in which slave-
ry has long existed, and from whence the latest efforts have been
made to oppress the whole continent. Happy be* this day On which
the record of the movements and the actions of the expedition
coQunences. The object of this enterprise is to decide whether
or not the time is arrived, when the influence of South America
• Journal of B. HaU.

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7. ^ • ^ '

upon the rest <^^e wor]d,'shaU^ be c(»nmensiirate with its extent,
its riches, and its situation."

The expedition sailed from the port of Valparaiso in Chili on
tiie.20th of August, 1820, and reached Pisco, which is situated
about 100 nnles south of Lima, oh the 7th of September, and bj '
the 11th the whole army was disembarkedt The Spanish troops
stationed in the neighbourhood had previously retired to. Lima,
where the viceroy resolved to collect his whole army. The libe-
rating army at first encountered no resistance, and on the 26th of
September an armistice for eight days was concluded, at the re-
quest of the viceroy, and commissioners from both parties held a
eoi^erence. On the 4th >of October, the armistice terminated
without any successful result to, the n^otiation, which had been
attempted, and on the 26th the expedition' moved northward to
Ancon. Lord Cochrane, with part of the squadron, anchored in
the outer roads of Callao, the sea port of Lima. Tj^ie inner har-
hom is extensively and strongly fortified, and is called the castle
of Callao. Under the protection of the batteries, lay three Spa-
nish armed vessels of war, a forty gim frigate, and two sloops ot
war, guaided by fourteen gun boats. On the night of the 5th of
November, lord Cochrane, with 240 volunteers in fourteen boats,
attempted the daring enterprise of cutting out the Spanish frigate,
and succeeded in the most ga]la.nt manner, with the loss of only
41 killed and wounded. The Spanish loss was 120 men. This
success annihilated the Spanish naval power on the Pacific.

-The joy ocoasioned by this splendid naval exploit was in-
creased by col. Arenales, who had been sent from Pisco with 1000
men, with orders to proceed by a circuitous route around Lima,
until he rejoined the army. Oi;! his ma^ch, he attacked and de-
fi^ated a detachment of the royal army sent from Lima to oppose
ium; and at the same time took the commanding officer prisoner.
Many districts declared in favour of the Uberating army, and the
revolutiona^ cause become so popular, that on the 3d of^Decem-
ber a whole regiment of the royalkts, with their colonel at their
head, deserted from the Spanish service, andjoined the hberating

. After a short stay at Ancon, San Martin prooeeded to Huara,
a strong position near the port of Huacho, about 76 miles north
of Lima. Here the army remained for six months, engaged in
recruiting ; in disseminating the spirit of independence, ind cut-
ting off the resources of the royalists in Lima. Afler another
unavailing armistice, the liberating army began to advance to-
wards the capital on the 5th of July, 1821, when the viceroy,
alarmed for its security, issued a proclamation, announcing lus
intention of abandoning the city, and pointing out Callao as an
asylum for those who felt insecure in ^e capital. This was a

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signal for an iipmediate flight ; tlw consternation vms excessive
throughout the city ; the road to Calico was crowded with fi^
tives, carrying their most valuable effects. The^ women were
seen flying in all directions towards the convents, and the narrow
streets were Uterally choked up with loaded wagons, mules, and
mounted horsemen ; the confusion continuing all mght, and un^
day-break. The viceroy marched out wift his troops, not leav-
ing a single sentinel over the powder magazin^, having previous-
ly nominated the marquis Montemire as governor of the city,
who iipmediately called a meeting of the inhabitants^ and theca^
bildo, or town council, which resolved to invite ^San Martin to
enter the capital. The answer of San Martin was full of n^-
nammity, and immediately inspired the greatest confidence
among the inhabitant. He told them that he did not diesire to
enter the capital as a conqueror, but as th^ir Uberator ; ridd-
ing, as a proof of his sincerity, th&t the governor might coi»-
mand a portion pf his troops, for the security of the persons and
property oif the inhabitants. The people who had deserted the
city, now returned to their dwellings, and order was restored ;
and San Martin, who a few days before was considered an enemy,
was now hailed as a benefactqr. ' On the 1 2th of July, he made
his entry into the capilai, without ostentation, or ceremoAy, and
in a manner worthy of a republican general. He was accompa-
nied by a single aid-de-camp only, and was received with the
greatest enthusiasm by most of the inhabitants. AH classes
were anxious to behold the man who had performed such distin-
guished services for their country ; he was kind, courteous, and
affable to^all. The female^ caught the enthusiasm of the nien,
- and vied with each other in paying their respects to their libe-
rator. To every one he had something kind and appropriate to
say, occasioning an agreeable surprise to the person he. address-
ed. San Martin now commenced the difiieult task of reforming
the abuses of the colonial government, and pubfished an address
to the Peruvians, containing sound and judicious sentiments,
which justly entitles it to preservation.*

On the 28th of Jjhyv 1821, the independence of Peru was s^
lemnly proclaimed. The troops were drawn up in the great
square, in the centre of which was erected a lofly stage, from
which San Martin, accompanied by the governor and some of the
principal inhabitants, displayed for the first time the independent
flag proclaiming that Peru was free and indepeiident, by the ge?
neral wish of the people, and the justice of her catise : Then
waving the flag, San Meutin exclaimed, Vive La Patria ! Vwt
La Liberia! Vivt La Independence! vihich yas reiterated by
the multitude in the square, while the bells rung a joyous peal,
* Journal of captam Basil Hall.

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and cannon were discharged amidst the universal acclamations of
the people. On the 3d of August, San Martin took, upon Jiim-
self the title of protector of Peru, and issued a proclamation.

This pKodahriation concluded hy declaring that the supreme po-
litical authority and military conunand were* united in mm, under
the title of protector, and that Juan Garcia del Rial vas named
secretary of state, and by specifying the other appointments un-
der his new government He also addressed a proclamation to
the Spaniards, bearing date the 4th of August, in which he says,
tliatlie has respected their persons and property agreeably to his
promise, but notwithstanding which, they murmur in secret, and
maliciously propagate suspicions of his intentions. He assures
those- who remain peaceable, who swear to the independence of
the cOMntrjr, ^d respect the new government, of being protected
in their persons and estates ;^ he offer? to such as do not confide
in his word, the privilege- of passports, Within a given time, to
leave the country with dl their efrects, and declares that thos6
who remain and profess to submit to the govern^ient, but are plot-
ting against it, shall feel the full rigour of the Mw, and be deprived
of their possessions.

San Martin now proceeded steadily in recruiting and disciphn-^
ing hik army, in reforming the local abuses in the administration
of affairs, and in preparing and organizing a provisional govem-
Dient, Until the permanent constitution of the state could boesv
tablishcd. When absent, he appointed the marquis of Torre Ta-
gle as supreme delegate, to exercise the functions of government.
On the Idth of September, the Spanish army returned from the
interior, a^d marching past Lima, entered Callao. As it passed
the capital, San Martin drew up his army, but did not attack the
enemy, wisely foreseeing that an increase of the garrison of Cal-
lao would diminish their proviaons, and hasten the surrender of
the fortress. The Spanish army, afler a short stay, retired, car-
rying off the treasures deposited in the castle, which shortly afler
surrendered to the independents.

The liberating array now remained inactive until the following
May, when a detachment was sent against the Spaniards, which
proved unsuccessful. In July, 1622, San Martin lefl Lima for
Quayaquil, where he had an interview with Bolivar, the liberator
of Colombiaj and, during his absence, the people of Lima irritated
against the minister, Monteagudo, forcibly deposed, imprisoned,
arid afler\vards banished liim to Panama. ' In August, San Mar-
tin resumed with a re-enforcement of Colombia^ troops.

On the 20th of September, 1822, the sovereign constitutional
congress of the federal provinces of Peru was assembled, and the
patriotic and popular chief was happy to divest himself of the dic-
tatorship^Md gladly resigned into tiieir hands the supreme autho-

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rit^ wycbkehad exercised for more than n yesff. Theccmgite
dxiy a{^[Nreciating bk aiagnanimity and patriotic services, dected
him, l^ an unanimous vote, general and conunander in diief of
the armies of Peru ; bii^ he decUned the iqppointment, <mly ac-
cepting the title as a mark of the approbation and confidence of
ihe Penivians,'declaring that m his opinion, liis presence in Pen
ip coBmmnd of the>army, was inconsistent with the authority (^tbe
congress. » ,

'< I have," says this illustrious patriot, ** fulfilled the sacred
promise which I made to Peru. . I have witqessed the assembfy
of its representatives. The enemy's force threatens the independ-
ence of no place tha| wishes to be. free, and posses^0s ^ means
of being so. A numerous army, under the direction of warifire
ehiefs, is ready to march in a few days to put an end to the war.
Nothing is left for me to do, but to offer you my sincerest thaois,
and to promise that if the Mbertieis of the Peruviaiis shiJl ey^ be
attacked) I shall claim the honour of accon^anyiqg them, to^de-
fbnd then: fineedom like a citizen." „ .

The congress expressed much regret at Im declaralimi, and
entreated him to take the actual command of their armies ; bat
their l^>pea^ had no effect on the conduct of San Martin, whose
resohifion was formed on mature consideration. He had accom-
plished the object of his mission ; he had emancipated the coun-
,try which he had visited for that purpose, and not to become ks
ruler. On retiring from a country which he had redeemed from
slavery, and to which he hp4l given a new crdktion, he published a
proclamation, in which he says that he is rensdd for ten years of
his life spent in revelation and war: <<Ihold in ^y hand Ihe
stJEuidard which Pizarro brought over to enclave the empire o( the
Incas." . ^ \

** My promises to the countries in which I made war, are Iql-
fiUed — ^I give them independence, and leave them the choice isf
their government"

San Martin proceeded to Callao, and immediately sailed for
Ghili. , —

The congress, now lefl to themselves, appointed a suprenoe
junta of three enlightened men, to whom they confided the execu-
tive power* . In November, 1822, an expedition sailed from Lima
for the southern coast, hut in January, 1823, shortly afler land-
ing, the army was defeated and dispersed. This disaster was
followed by a general disoontent among the people, and in Fd>-
luary, the sittings of the congress were suspended by Rivaaguero
the president, who shortly after dissolved them in a most uncon-
stitutional manner, and every thing was in confusion. Availing
themselves of these disorders, iQ June, 1823, the Spanisfa army
mider general Canterac, re-entered Lima, having drii^ the pa-

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triots mto Ctillao. Thej remained in the capital about aferlaiglil^
levying contributions on the defenceless inhabitants. Tlus Mm
a short and sad termination of ia struggle which had been so suc^
cessful under the direction of an abte leader. Whilst the cause
of the revolution was thus prostrated in Peru, general Bolivar wtts
bringing the war to a close in Colombia. Foreseeing that if thd
afiairs d* Peru were not placed in a better (Condition, &e rojal au-
thority would shortly be re-established in that country, and the ki*
dependence of t^olombia would be endangered, and being invited
by the Peruvkms, he resolved to proceed to tha;t country. This
he did at the head of a consicferable force, and Vas most cordially
j'eceived at Lima, and appmnted dictator until the Spaniardd
should be expelled or subdued. On his approach, the royafistt
retired into the interior.

In addition to a formidable enemy that possessed die whole of
Upper, and most of the interior of Lower Peru, the liberator sooit
found himself surrounded with difficulties, in the dissensiond
among the patriots, which threatened the entire destruction of the
revolutionary cause. Rivaaguero, the late president of the con-
gress, collected a force to oppose both the congress and Bolivar*
This insurrection, however, was soon suppressed, and the prhi-'
cipal instigators were made prisoners,' aiid exiled : but the disas^
ters of the army, and the conflicts of the parties soon obliged th^
congress to confer on Bolivar the supreme power as dictator, td
preserve the republic from ruin ; notwithstanding, however, BoM-
var found it necessary to return to Truxillo for safety until ^e ar-
rival of his re-enforcements from Colombia.

In the month of February, 1824, the royalists under genera!
Canterac, took possession of the city of Lima without opposition,
and about the same time, of the important forb'ess of Callao, by
Aeans of a defection of the troops from Buenos Ayres, which
formed part of the garrison. The state of affairs in Peru was now
critical and alarming. The factious exerted themselves to pre-
judice the people against Bolivar, and charged him with entertain-
ing ambitious designs, which induced him to address a proclama-
tion to the people, dated at Truxillo, the llth of March, 1S24.
Great exertions were made by the liberator to forward his re-en-
forcements from Colombia, and to organize a force for the ensu-
ing campaign, sufficient to liberate Ihe whole of Peru fh>m tiM
power of the royalists ; it was also necessary to acquire a naval
superiority in order to conduct the operations of ike war in the
most efficient manner. Such additions were therefore made to
the naval force, as to ena.ble the patriots, not only to blockade die
port of Callao, but to destroy a number of vessels in that hflrtfour.

The anqtj)eing at length completely organized, commenced
its operatiofll in the mon& oif June, IQU^ and crossing the An*

ToL. IL 13 T

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des, routed ike vanguard of the enemy, consisting of 3500 men,
with great loss. In addition to the other advantages of this vio-
tory, it wad productive of an accession to the forces of the patii-
ots of 500 of the enemy's infkntry, and 100 of his cavalry, who
deserted the royal standard, went over to the patriots, and foogfat
bravely against the Spaniards.

The beginning of August^ 1824, the liberating army was at
Conooancha, and the ro3^dis^ having approached near it for the
purpose of reconnoitering, Bolivar marched with his whole foroei
with the determination of bringing the enemy to a general action.
Alarmed by this movement, £e royalists retraced their steps by
forced marches, and succeeded in passing the point on the. read
to Jaoja, (where Boliv^ had intended to take a positiob^ with
the view to bring them to an engagement,) several' hours before '
the independents arrived. Perceiving that the enemy continued
to retreat in the most precipitate manner, Bolivar, untvilling that
they should escape, and seeing it impossible to engage them with
his whole force, i^aced himself at the head of his cavalry, although
greatly inferior in point of numbers to that of the enemy; and pur-
sued at full speed. The patriots came up with the enemy on the
plains of Junin, and took a position near them, hoping that the
inferiority of their numbers would induce the roys^sts to engage
them. The event answered* their expectations ; for relying on
his superior numbers, the enemy made a/urious charge on thepa-
tiiot cavalry, which sustained the shock with great firmness. The
conflict was sharp, and in the successive charges, each party, at
times, iseemed to have the advantage ; but at length the royalists
were thrown into conRiSion, beaten, and compelled to fall back on
their infantry for safety, which had continued its retreat towards
Jauja, and was many miles from the scene of action when the bat-
tle was decided. The enemy sustained a severe loss ; 235 lay
dead on the field, among whom were ten chiefs and officers ; many
were wounded and dispersed, and 80 ma<^e prisoners, besides
which, 300 horses were taken with all tlieir equipments', nnd im-
mense spoil. The loss of the patriots was 60 killed and wounded.*
The action took place on the 6th of August. This bnlliant suc-
cess nearly destroyed the enemy's cavalry, on which they princi-
pally relied, at the commencement of the csunpaign, and had a
highly favourable influence on the army and the people of Peru.

Two days after this victory, the republicans followed in pursuit
of the eneiiiy towards the valley of Jauja. From the battle of
Junin, no important action occurred untU the 9th of December.
After much skilful manoeuvreing on both sides, general Sucre,
commanding the liberating army, consisting of the united forces
of Colombia and Peru, took a position at Ayacucho early in De-
* 8ee Bolivar's despatch.

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Gember, near the enemy:, who was pQsted on a height. On the
8th of the monih, some skirmishes took place ; and on the fol-
lowing day, the enemy attacked the Ubemting army ; his right
was commanded by general Yaldes, composed of four battalions
and two squadrons of huzzars, with four field pieces ; his centre
by general Monet, consisting of five battalions ; and general
Villalobos commanded the left, composed of four battaUons, with
aeven pieces of artillery. The remainder of the enemy's cavalry
formed a reserve in the rear. Geni^ral Cordova commanded the
right of the Uberating army, with the second division of Colom-
bia, consisting of the battaUons of Bogota and the voltigeurs of
Pinchincha and Caraccas ; general Uamar commanded the left,
composed qf the battalions of Peru, and three legions of Colom-
-bians, and the division ofgeneral Lara formed the reserve. Ac-
cording to the official returns, there were 93lO of the Spanish
army, commanded by Canterac, the viceroy, in person ; and only
5780 of the Jiberathig sirmy, headed by the intrepid general Su-
cre. « But although the two armies were unequcd in numbers,
they ^ere both ardent td engage, and both confident of victory.
The Colombian division marched with supported arms, in the
most intrepid manner, and taking their station near the Spanish
line, opened a fire with such coolness and destructive effect, that
the enemy soon began to give way : and in spite of all their ef-
forts to maintaia their ground, they werd driven back and thrown
into confusion. The division of Peru on the left, experienced a
more yigorous resistance, and was re-enforced by general Lara
with two battalions "of the reserve, consisting of the Colombian
guards. This enabled the left,, as well as the right, to gain
ground on the enemyj and in «a few moments, nothing could re-
sist th^ impetuosity of the troops of the united army. The se-
cond squadron of huzzars of Junin made a brilliant charge on
the enemy's cavalry posted on the right of general Taldez, and
repul^.ed them ; the Colombian grenadiers atighted and charged
the Spanish infantry on foQt, and the regiment of huzzars of Co-
lombia, charged with their lances the grenadiers of the viceroy's
guard, and put them to the rout. The ardour and impetuosity
of the r^pubUcan troops soon decided the battle, which was short,
but terrible. The' slaughter was immense for the numbers en-
gaged., The enemy had 2600 men killed and wounded on the
field of action, including the viceroy wounded, and six generals
killed. The united army sustained a loss of 823 kified and
wounded, of which there were one general, eight officers, and 300
men killed, and six generals, thirty-four officers, and 480 men
wounded. What remained of the Spanish army capitulated, and
a treaty was signed on the field of battle, between the royal com-

Online LibraryJohn M. (John Milton) NilesA view of South America and Mexico, comprising their history, the political condition, geography, agriculture, commerce, &c. of the republics of Mexico, Guatemala, Columbia, Peru, the United provinces of South America and Chili, with a complete history of the revolution in each of these independ → online text (page 40 of 51)