John MacGillivray.

Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade online

. (page 25 of 26)
Online LibraryJohn MacGillivrayNarrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade → online text (page 25 of 26)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


collection amounts to thirty-one, belonging to five genera, all of which
appear to be common to both the Northern and Southern hemispheres; and
four are European types. The fifth, Pasythea, is stated by Lamouroux, to
be found on Fucus natans and in the West Indies; so that the present
collection does not present any peculiar Australian generic form. It is
far otherwise, however, with respect to the species. Of these three only
are found in the European seas namely:

Sertularia operculata.
Campanularia dumosa.
Campanularia volubilis ?

Of which the first is a perfect cosmopolite, and the last is perhaps
doubtful.

There are also, what is much more strange, not more than three species
which I have been enabled to trace to any other locality, even in the
Southern hemisphere. These are:

Sertularia elongata.
Sertularia divaricata, n. sp.
Plumularia macgillivrai, n. sp.

The first occurring in New Zealand; the second on the south coast of
Patagonia and in the Straits of Magellan; and the third (which, however,
is not, strictly speaking, an Australian form, having been procured in
the Louisiade Archipelago) in the Philippine Islands. With these six
exceptions, the whole number of species would therefore, to a certain
extent, appear to be characteristic of the Australian seas.

Of the thirty-one species, it appears strange that not less than
twenty-five should here be described as new; and there can be no doubt
many so described are included under the vague and uncertain descriptions
of Lamarck and Lamouroux; but, in the absence of authentic specimens, or
trustworthy figures, I have found it impossible to identify
satisfactorily the species described by them, and have therefore thought
it better to assign new names rather than to apply former ones, which
would in all probability prove incorrect. It is hoped, at all events,
that the descriptions here given will be found sufficient to prevent any
misconception of what is intended in the following catalogue.

The mode in which the species are arranged will be seen from the
following synoptical arrangement:

- -

SYNOPTICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF SERTULARIAN ZOOPHYTES
COLLECTED ON THE VOYAGE OF THE RATTLESNAKE.

Order. ANTHOZOA HYDROIDA.
Sub-order. SERTULARINA.
Fam. 1. SERTULARIADAE.
Gen. 1. Sertularia.
§ 1. Cells alternate (Sertularia).
(a) Cells distichous.
1. S. elongata.
2. S. divaricata, n. sp.
3. S. crisoides.
(b) Cells secund.
4. S. pristis.
§ 2. Cells opposite (Dynamena).
(a) Cells distichous.
5. S. subcarinata, n. sp.
6. S. patula, n. sp.
7. S. orthogonia, n. sp.
8. S. mutulata, n. sp.
9. S. operculata.
10. S. divergens, n. sp.
11. S. trigonostoma, n. sp.
12. S. digitalis, n. sp.
13. S. loculosa, n. sp.
14. S. unguiculata, n. sp.
15. S. tridentata, n. sp.
2. Pasythea.
16. P. hexodon, n. sp.
3. Plumularia.
§ 1. Angiocarpeae.
17. P. huxleyi, n. sp.
18. P. hians, n. sp.
19. P. delicatula, n. sp.
20. P. aurita, n. sp.
21. P. brevirostris, n. sp.
22. P. ramosa, n. sp.
23. P. divaricata, n. sp.
24. P. phoenicea, n. sp.
25. P. longicornis, n. sp.
26. P. macgillivrayi, n. sp.
§ 2. Gymnocarpeae.
27. P. effusa, n. sp.
28. P. campanula, n. sp.
Fam. 2. CAMPANULARIADAE.
4. Campanularia.
29. C. volubilis (?)
30. C. dumosa.
5. Laomedea.
31. L. torressii, n. sp.

Order. ANTHOZOA HYDROIDA.

Suborder. SERTULARINA.

Fam. 1. SERTULARIADAE.

Gen. 1. Sertularia, Linnaeus.

1. Cells alternate (Sertularia).

a. Cells distichous.

1. S. elongata, Lamouroux.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach. Port Dalrymple,
on stones at low water. (Also New Zealand.)

2. S. divaricata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate-subtubular, or very little contracted towards the mouth,
often adnate to the rachis nearly their whole length; mouth looking
upwards, with three large acute teeth, two lateral, and one rather longer
than the others, and slightly recurved, above. Ovicells - - ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms, dead shells.

Colour dirty yellowish white; polypidom branched, from a common stem;
branches irregular (?) straggling, pinnate and bipinnate, pinnae and
pinnules divaricate at rightangles, alternate; rachis flexuose, or with
an angle at the origin of each pinna. The cells are placed at wide
distances apart; small and adnate very nearly to the top. The mouth
circular, with three large teeth, the one above frequently obscured by
adventitious substances, very acute, ascending, and a little recurved.

Sertul. gayi. (Lamouroux. Exp. page 12 plate 66 figure 89 has four
teeth.)

This species occurs also on the south coast of Patagonia, and the Straits
of Magellan; in the latter locality, however, the habit is much more
robust.

3. S. crisioides, Lamouroux. (Dynamena.)

Cells adnate, conical, slightly curved, truncate at bottom, narrow at
top; mouth vertical, external.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Islands, 27 fathoms.

Very like a Thuiaria, but the cells are not immersed, though very closely
adnate, and the outer angle of the square base of each cell is in contact
with the upper and back part of the one below it, so that a small
triangular space or opening is left below each cell. The branches are
very regularly alternate; and the polypidom is of a light brownish
colour.

(b) Cells secund.

4. S. pristis, (B.).

Idia pristis, Lamouroux.

Cells tubular, all contiguous or adnate to each other, and to the rachis,
upper half curved laterally, lower half closely adnate, almost immersed
in the rachis; mouth looking upwards, rounded, expanded, almost
infundibuliform, border slightly scalloped towards the rachis, and
projecting externally. Ovicell cyathiform, long narrow with circular
rugae. Mouth as large as the diameter of the cup, margin very slightly
everted.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms. Off
Cumberland Islands, in 27 fathoms, fine grey mud.

I see no reason why the present species should not come under Sertularia.
It is peculiar from the position and extreme contiguity of the alternate
cells. The ovicells arise from the back of the rachis towards the side.
When viewed posteriorly, the cells are seen through the transparent
rachis, and it might thus at first sight appear as if the rachis itself
were cellular and not tubular, but such is not the case. The tube is wide
and continuous from end to end.

2. Cells opposite (sometimes alternate on the stem). (Dynamena).

(a) Cells distichous.

5. S. subcarinata, n. sp.

Cells tubular, upper half divergent, ascending. Mouth looking upwards,
circular, with an anterior and two lateral broad, expanding teeth. A
narrow angular line or keel down the front of the cell. Ovicell - - ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms dead shells.

Colour white, transparent, growth small, straggling. Branches irregular,
divaricate nearly at rightangles, subalternate. The three expanding teeth
and the anterior ridge or keel, besides its habit, distinguish it from a
Tasmanian species with which alone can it be confounded. The cells are
large.

6. S. patula, n. sp.

Cells tubular, upper third free, divergent ascending. Mouth perfectly
round, looking upwards and outwards, margin entire everted. Ovicell - -
?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms, dead shells.

Colour whitish. A small parasitic species, with opposite branches.

7. S. Orthogonia, n. sp.

Cells tubular, nearly half free, divergent laterally at a right angle.
Mouth looking directly outwards, border entire, slightly everted. Ovicell
- - ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, parasitic upon S.
pristis.

Very like the preceding in habit and size, of which it may possibly prove
to be a variety. The cells, however, throughout the whole of the
polypidom are of precisely the same character, in each form, and exhibit
no intermediate steps. In the present species the cells are much longer,
rather narrower, and the upper half is turned out abruptly at a
rightangle, whilst in the former they ascend at an angle of 45 degrees,
and the free portion is much shorter. The branches in both are opposite;
the ovicells are unfortunately absent in each.

8. S. mutulata, n. sp.

Cells compressed or flattened, from side to side; sometimes angular,
lower half adnate, upper half divergent, projecting like a bracket. Mouth
looking directly upwards, narrow oblong, quadrangular. Ovicells aculeate,
with strong widely set spines, pyriform depressed.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour light olive grey. Polypidom about three inches high, irregularly ?
branched, branches not opposite. The cells are distichous, and of a very
peculiar form, but varying in some degree according to their situation.
The younger (?) cells on the secondary branches are flat on the inferior
or outer aspect, with two angles on each side, or are quadrangular;
whilst the cells on the stems or older or fertile branches are usually
rounded below, or on the outer side, and thus have only one angle on each
side. The mouth varies in shape according to the cell; in the former case
being a regular long rectangle, whilst in the latter it is rounded on the
outer side. The ovicells are placed in a single series on one side of the
rachis, as in S. digitalis, but are widely different in form.

9. S. operculata, Linn.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

This species occurs in all parts of the world. It is to be carefully
distinguished from S. bispinosa, Gray - also an Australian and New Zealand
species, but which does not occur in the present collection.

b. Cells (on the branches) secund, contiguous.

10. S. divergens, Lamouroux.

Cells urceolate, much contracted towards the mouth; upper half free,
divergent, projecting laterally almost horizontally; mouth small
elliptical, with the long axis looking directly outwards; two lateral
teeth. Ovicell smooth, rounded, ovoid; oral margin not elevated.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait.

Colour light yellowish: parasitic upon a fucus. Height from 1/4 to 1/2
inch; simply pinnate, branches distant, regularly alternate. The stem is
divided into internodes, from each of which arises a single branch. The
cells on the stem are alternate.

b. Cells secund.

11. S. trigonostoma, n. sp.

Cells ovoid, gibbous, much contracted towards the mouth. Very small
portion free, projecting forwards and outwards. Mouth looking outwards
and forwards, triangular, with a short blunt tooth on the external angle.
Ovicell - - ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour very light yellowish. Polypidom simply pinnate, about two inches
high: longest pinnae about half an inch. Cells small adnate, projecting
suddenly at top, and much contracted at the mouth. The mouth is of a
triangular form, the longest side of the triangle being below. The cells
are placed in pairs, but one is always a little higher than the other
(subalternate) and one pair is placed on each internode on the pinnae.
The stem is also indistinctly divided into internodes, from each of which
a single pinna is given off alternately on opposite sides, and besides
the pinnae there are three cells on each internode, two on the side from
which the pinna springs, and on the opposite side alternate in position
to the other two.

12. S. digitalis, n. sp.

Cells digitiform, slightly curved to the front, mouth circular, looking
directly upwards. Margin entire, expanded. Ovicells long-ovoid, muricate,
spines numerous crowded, mouth prolonged, tubular.

Habitat Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour dark grey, almost black. Stem two or three inches high, rising
either from a strong main trunk (?) or from a mass of intertwined radical
tubes. Stems or branches pinnate: pinnae or branches alternate, straight,
divaricate. The cells forming a pair, are, on the branches, adnate to
each other throughout their whole length. But on the stem the cells are
distichous and wide apart. The ovicells are peculiar in their long
flask-like form, and tubular mouth. They are placed all on one side of
the rachis, generally in single file, but sometimes in pairs.

13. S. loculosa, n. sp.

D. distans ? Lamouroux.

Cells completely adnate to each other, each apparently divided into two
compartments by a transverse constriction. Upper half turned horizontally
outwards. Mouth roundish, irregular, contracted: looking outwards, and a
little downwards. Ovicell - - ?

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour deep brown; polypidom simple unbranched (?) about half an inch
high, parasitic upon a broad-leaved fucus. The cells are so closely
conjoined as to form but one triangular body, which appears as if divided
into five loculaments by transverse constriction. The upper apparent
constriction however seems merely to indicate the line of flexure of the
upper part of the cell upon the lower. The form of the conjoined cells is
not unlike Lamouroux' figure of S. (D.)distans; but the present is
clearly not that species.

14. S. unguiculata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, upper half free, projecting in front, and much
contracted towards the mouth; elliptical, with the long axis horizontal,
looking forwards and a little outwards; two long lateral teeth, the outer
the longer and usually incurved. Ovicell ovoid; mouth wide, with a much
elevated, thickened border.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach.

Colour bright brown; polypidom pinnate; the stems arising from creeping
radical tubes, very thickly intertwined around a long slender body. The
stems are from one to four inches long, the pinnae about 1/4 to 1/2 inch,
alternate. The rachis of the stem is divided into distinct internodes,
from each of which are given off two pinnae, and upon which are also
placed usually six cells, three on either side. The pinnae are also
divided, but less distinctly, into internodes of various lengths. The
pairs of cells on the pinnae are all secund, and in contact with each
other at their bases, though widely divergent above.

15. S. tridentata, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, ventricose below, contracted towards the mouth. Mouth
looking forwards and outwards, circular, with three acute teeth, two
lateral, longer than the third, which is above.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour yellowish white. Polypidom simply pinnate, about 2 1/2 inches
high; pinnae in the middle 3/4 of an inch. The cells are ventricose
below, and almost flask-shaped. The two lateral teeth are long, acute,
and slightly everted; the upper third tooth is sharp, but not near as
long as the others; the border of the mouth is as it were excavated
below, so that the mouth is as nearly as possible vertical. Contrary to
what is the case in S. divergens, but exactly as is represented in
Savigny's figures of the so-called S. disticha (Egypt plate 14 figures 2
and 3); and S. distans (Egypt plate 14 figures 1 and 3) the lateral teeth
are sloped or bevelled off from below upwards, and not from above
downwards, as in S. divergens (Mihi).

2. Pasythea, Lamouroux.

Cells in distinct sets, at some distance apart.

1. P. hexodon, n. sp.

Cells in sets of six - three on each side; a single axillary cell in each
dichotomous division of the polypidom. Ovicell pedunculate ovoid, adnate
to the rachis, with a lateral opening.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

As this differs in the number of cells in each set, as well as in the
form of the cells, and in the form and position of the ovicell, it
appears irreconcilable with Lamouroux' P. quadridentata. According to the
figure given of the latter the ovicell is not adnate, and is spirally
grooved.

3. PLUMULARIA, Lamarck.

a. Angiocarpeae - ovicells enclosed in siliquose, costate receptacles.

1. P. huxleyi, n. sp.

Plumularia - Huxley, Philosophical Transactions Part 2 1849 page 427 plate
39 figures 43 and 45.

Cells cup-shaped, shallow; mouth nearly vertical, subquadrangular, margin
subcrenate, plicate; with a small acute central denticle in front, and a
wide shallow notch behind. Rostrum twice as long as the cell, arising
from the rachis by a broad ventricose base, adnate the whole length of
the cell, narrow upwards and slightly expanded again at the summit;
lateral processes very short and wide, canalicular adnate. Costae of
ovarian receptacle numerous, each with a single branch near the bottom,
and beset with small cup-like processes, and not connected by a membrane.

Habitat: Port Curtis. Off Cumberland Islands, in 27 fathoms fine grey mud.

Colour yellowish white. Polypidom about 6 inches high, rising with a
single flexuose stem, which is naked at bottom, and afterwards gives off
alternate branches, bifariously disposed at each angular flexure.
Branches simple, 2 to 3 inches long; pinnules about 1/4 inch. The
construction of the ovarian receptacle in the present section of the
genus Plumularia is well exemplified in this species, owing to the
comparative simplicity of the elements of which it is composed.

2. P. hians, n. sp.

Cell cup-shaped, deep, cylindrical; mouth nearly vertical; margin with
three teeth on each side, the middle one the longest, acute, much
expanded, the other more rounded; a wide notch posteriorly. Rostrum,
arising from the rachis, as long as the cell, slender, tubular, adnate;
lateral processes very small, ovarian receptacles - - ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour bright brown, rachis shining, very dark brown; polypidom about six
inches high, simply pinnulate, pinnules about half an inch; thickly and
regularly disposed, alternate.

3. P. delicatula, n. sp.

Cell cup-shaped, rounded, mouth at an angle of 45 degrees; margin
dentate, with two lateral teeth of equal size and a central one in front
longer, all acute; entire posteriorly. Rostrum a little longer than the
cell, scarcely connected with the rachis, slender, and closely adpressed
and adnate to the cell below, wide and projecting upwards; lateral
processes large, rising above the margin of the cell, conical, tubular,
or canalicular.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour of rachis and pinnules, delicate yellowish white above; of rachis,
light brown, inferiorly; polypidom about two inches high, rising in
several straight simply pinnulated fronds from a common centre; pinnules
ascending about 1/4 inch.

4. P. aurita, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, tapering at bottom, constricted just below the top;
mouth at an angle of 45 degrees, circular; margin subcrenate, plicate,
with three folds on each side, with a wide shallow notch in front and
entire behind. Rostrum, slender, attenuated below, adnate up to the cell,
summit contracted, tubular; lateral processes very long, expanding,
rising far above the margin of the cell, conical, tubular.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

Colour bright brown; polypidom 2 to 3 inches high, consisting of straight
pinnate fronds, pinnae or branches not opposite, nor regularly alternate,
divaricate at rightangles.

5. P. brevirostris, n. sp.

Cell sub-tubular, curved; mouth expanded with two equal acute teeth on
each side, and a longer narrow and slightly incurved, central one in
front. Rostrum small, conical, projecting, about half the length of the
cell; lateral processes small, recurved at an angle, canalicular.

Habitat: Off Cumberland Isles, 27 fathoms.

Colour dirty white. In habit, and to the naked eye, very much like the
last; its growth, however, appears to be longer and less regular. The
difference in the cell is very great.

6. P. ramosa, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, deep, rounded at bottom; margin elevated on the sides,
expanding, with four teeth on each side, the first and second in front
much expanded, acute, incurved at the point; a long slender incurved
central tooth in front; margin entire behind. Rostrum not continued to
the rachis, adnate the whole length of the cell, wide and projecting,
narrowed to the point, which is tubular, opening oblique, longer than the
cell; lateral processes conical, short, tubular, closely adnate. Costae
of ovarian receptacle with short opposite tubular branches; NOT connected
by a membrane.

Habitat: Swan Island, Banks Strait, thrown on the beach.

Colour greyish brown; polypidom 4 to five inches high, much branched,
branches irregular, divaricate, rising in great numbers almost
immediately from the mass of radical fibres. A beautiful species, and the
ovarian receptacles very interesting.

7. P. divaricata, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, long, slightly contracted at bottom; mouth circular;
margin sub-expanded, dentate, with three nearly equal upright teeth on
each side, and a long, round pointed central tooth in front. Rostrum
narrow at bottom, closely adnate, scarcely rising higher than the central
tooth; lateral processes small, closely adnate.

Habitat: Bass Strait, 45 fathoms.

Colour dark brown, almost black when dry. In habit it is extremely like
the preceding species, from which, however, it is quite distinct. The
polypidom is five or six inches high, perhaps more; stem slender,
branches long, divaricate at rightangles, not opposite.

8. P. phoenicea, n. sp.

Cells cup-shaped, rounded, bent over in front, so that the mouth is
nearly vertical; margin with two folds, subcrenate, and with a broad, but
pointed lateral lobe; entire posteriorly. Rostrum, arising solely from
the cell, small, upper half free, projecting, tubular; lateral processes
long, cylindrical, or tapering, free, projecting.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, in 9 fathoms.

Colour bright buff, many of the branches having a piebald aspect, or
mottled with dark purple patches; when wetted these portions present a
beautiful crimson colour. Polypidom five or six inches high, rising with
a strong, tapering, longitudinally grooved stem, which is sometimes
sparingly branched, but more commonly simple. Stem and branches pinnate
or bipinnate, the pinnae and pinnules alternate. The latter are about 1/4
inch in length.

9. P. longicornis, n. sp.

Cells urceolate, deep, upper half curved abruptly upon the lower, so that
the mouth is vertical; margin subplicate, subcrenate, rising on each side
into a broad angular lobe, entire behind, and quite free from the rachis.
Rostrum, rising entirely from the cell, with a broad base, suddenly
contracting into a long slender tube, which projects in front a long way
from the cell; lateral processes very long, free, tubular, projecting
suddenly forwards and a little upwards and outwards.

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait, 9 fathoms.

Colour pale buff. Polypidom five or six inches high, consisting of a
strong straight, tapering stem, sometimes with a single ascending branch
given off near the bottom; stem and branches pinnate; pinnae 1 1/4 to 1
1/2 inches long; alternate, and arranged with the utmost regularity, of
uniform length, till near the summit, when they shorten rapidly, so as to
give the polypidom a rounded truncate end. The pinnules are excessively
fine and delicate, not more than 1/10 to 1/12 inch long, and very closely
set, so that the whole polypidom has the most exact resemblance to a
beautiful silky quill feather.

10. P. macgillivrayi, n. sp.

Cells campanulate, deep, rounded at bottom; margin subplicate, entire.
Rostrum large, rising from the cell, adnate the whole length of, and as
long as, the cell; the upper third constitutes a cup distinct from the
lower portion; lateral processes adnate, wide, short, curved upwards,
canalicular or tubular. Costae of ovarian receptacle connected by a
membranous expansion.

Habitat: Louisiade Archipelago, reefs at low water.

Colour bright brownish buff. Polypidom six to seven inches high,
consisting of a strong central stem, giving off opposite branches, at
regular intervals, and bifariously disposed. Pinnules about 1/8 inch
long, closely set.

b. Gymnocarpeae - ovicells naked.

11. P. effusa, n. sp.

Cells urceolate; deeply emarginate posteriorly, entire in front,
ventricose below; a small pedunculate infundibuliform process attached in
front to the projecting portion of the rachis on a level with upper
border of the cell. Ovicell - - ?

Habitat: Prince of Wales Channel, Torres Strait.

Colour buff. Habit very peculiar. The polypidom rises to a height of
seven or eight inches, with a long slender waving, but upright stem,
which is naked inferiorly, and above gives off numerous straight or
waving branches, again subdividing into other shorter straight ramules,
about an inch long. The branches and branchlets are both pinnulated; the
pinnules are not more than 1/10 to 1/12 inches long, extremely delicate


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25

Online LibraryJohn MacGillivrayNarrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade → online text (page 25 of 26)