John MacGillivray.

Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade online

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Online LibraryJohn MacGillivrayNarrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade → online text (page 23 of 24)
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of our own H. rotundata and its allies, was found under a stone at Port

Helix inconspicua. Tab. 2 fig. 3. a, b, c.

Testa perforata, depresso-convexa, laevigata, nitidiuscula, pallide
cornea, basi subcompressa; anfractus 6, planiusculi; spira obtusa;
apertura lunaris; peristoma rectum, simplex, margine columellari reflexo:
umbilicus minutus, subobtectus. Diam. maj. 8 - min. 7 - alt. 5 mill. (Mus.

A very inconspicuous ordinary-looking little shell, its upper surface
recalling the aspect of H. alliaria but with more convexity and no
lustre, and its base that of H. crystallina. It was found, apparently
gregarious, under dead leaves in an islet in Trinity Bay.

Balea australis. Tab. 2 fig. 9. a, b.

Testa dextrorsa, rimata, subcylindracea, turrita, decollata, dense
capillaceo-costulata, corneo-lutea, maculis obscuris flavidis; sutura
impressa; anfractus 11, convexiusculi; apertura pyriformis, columella
triplicata, plica inferior maxima, conspicua, elevata, acuta, spiralis;
peristoma continuum, solutum. Long. 18 - Diam. 4 - Apert 4 mill. (Mus.
Brit. & Geol.)

This very remarkable shell, the first of its genus discovered in
Australia, differs from all its congeners. It has exactly the aspect of a
Clausilia, but the mouth is not furnished with a clausium. It was found
under stones at Port Molle.

Pupina grandis. Tab. 2 fig. 10. a, b, c, d.

Testa ovato-subcylindrica, superne laevigata, inferne rugulosa,
sordide-rufa; spira obtusa; anfractus 6, secundus tumidus, obliquus,
ultimus super aperturam planatus; apertura rotundata; peristoma laete
aurantiacum, rimatum, crassum, dorsaliter canaliculatum, infra
columellari, profunde sinuatum et in canali contorto excavatum; canalis
alter minutus ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae; callus
columellaris expansus, appressus. Long. 30, Diam. 15, Apert. 7 mill.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.).

This, the giant of its genus, is perhaps the most remarkable land-shell
discovered during the voyage. It differs from all other Pupinae in having
an unpolished surface. It was found in the South-East Island of the
Louisiade Archipelago, under dead leaves chiefly about the roots of

Pupina thomsoni. Tab. 3 fig. 2. a, b.

Testa ovata, polita, nitidissima, translucens, hyalina, solidiuscula;
spira obtusa; anfractus 5, duo ultimi majores; apertura orbicularis;
peristoma album, crassum, solutum, canalibus duobus interruptum; canalis
superior ad partem superiorem et externam aperturae, inferior major,
basalis, marginibus disjunctis et in dorsum anfractus prolongatis. Long.
7 1/2, diam. 4 1/2, apert. 2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This remarkable and beautiful little Pupina is most nearly allied to the
P. bilinguis of Cape York. From that species (which is larger) it
differs, however, very materially, most especially in the position of the
inferior or basal canal of the aperture which is here placed like the
canal of a whelk, but in P. bilinguis is very small and placed high up,
cutting as it were the columella. The curious manner in which the margins
of the canals are prolonged on the back of the body whorl like parallel
and somewhat diverging walls is also a singular feature of this species,
which is dedicated to Dr. Thomson, surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and an
excellent botanist. It was found among dead leaves at the roots of trees
in Fitzroy Island.

Helicina stanleyi. Tab. 3 fig. 4. a, b.

Testa lenticularis, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, acute
carinata, fusco-carnea, spiraliter striata; spira obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2
leviter convexiusculi; basis imperforata, centraliter laevigata, alba;
apertura oblique sublunata, angulata; peristoma simplex, tenue. Diam.
maj. 6 1/2, min. 6, alt. 5 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

Found on the leaves and trunks of trees and bushes (especially Scaevola
koenigii) in the Duchateau Isles, Louisiade Archipelago. Dedicated to the
late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N.

Helicina louisiadensis. Tab. 3 fig. 5. a, b.

Testa depresso-globosa, superne inferneque convexa, orbicularis, obsolete
sub-angulata, pallide aurantiaca, sub lente spiraliter striata; spira
obtusa; anfractus 4 1/2, vix convexiusculi; basis imperforata,
centraliter sub-impressa; apertura lunata, inferne subangulata; peristoma
incrassatum, aurantiacum, reflexum. Diam. maj. 4 1/2, min. 4, alt. 3
mill. (Mus. Brit.)

On Round Island in Coral Haven, Louisiade Archipelago, under stones. This
pretty little Helicina is nearly allied to some Philippine species.

Helicina gouldiana. Tab. 3 fig. 3. a, b.

Testa depresso-globosa, superne sub-conica, orbicularis, obsolete
subangulata, flava seu rufa, spiraliter striata; spira prominens;
anfractus 5, planati; basis imperforata; apertura sub-lunata, inferne
angulata; peristoma incrassatum, subreflexum, album. Diam. maj. 6, min. 5
1/4, alt. 4 1/2 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

Under the bark of Mimusops kaukii, in the Two Isles, on the North-East
coast of Australia. Dedicated to the indefatigable illustrator of
Australian ornithology.

Ranella pulchella. Tab. 3 fig. 6. a, b.

Testa turrita, utroque alata, acute-caudata, alba; anfractus tumidi,
spiraliter striati, longitudinaliter noduloso-costati, costis crebris,
lateraliter varicosi, varices compressi, aliformes, crenulati, striati,
ad margines crenati; apertura ovato-rotunda, inferne longe-caudata;
peristoma solutum. Long. 20, diam. 14, apert. 4 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This beautiful shell was dredged in from 8 to 11 fathoms water, on a
bottom of sand and shells between Cumberland Island 1.i, and Point Slade
(Latitude 21 degrees South Longitude 149 degrees 20 minutes East).

The spiral striae that cross its whorls are grouped in pairs; their
interstices are raised, and more or less finely crenulated; as they pass
out on the expanded and wing-like varices they diverge, and the lobe-like
projections that scallop the margins of the wings are separated from each
other by each pair of diverging striae. The fine ribs that cross the
whorls are not present on the wings, nor on the back; they are nodulated
at their decussation with the raised striae. The wing-like varices of the
whorls overlap each other alternately on each side of the shell. The only
species to which it has affinity is the R. pulchra.

Scalaria jukesiana. Tab. 3 fig. 7.

Testa lanceolato-turrita, gracilis, alba, laevis, nitida,
longitudinaliter costata, costis lamellosis, reflexis, simplicibus,
nnmerosis (in ult. anfrac. 20); anfractus 11, tumidi; sutura profunde
impressa; varices nulli; apertura orbicularis, margine laevi. Long. 13,
Diam. max. 14, apert 3 mill. (Mus. Brit.)

This beautiful little Scalaria is deserving of particular notice on
account of the analogy and representation which it exhibits with the S.
clathratulus of the seas of the Northern Hemisphere. It is dedicated to
the author of the Voyage of the Fly.

New Genus - MACGILLIVRAYIA, Forbes.

Shell spiral, dextral, globular, thin, corneous, transparent (in the only
known species smooth or marked by obscure lines of growth) imperforate;
spire not produced (with a sinistral nucleus ?). Aperture oblong, entire,
angulated below; peristome incomplete, thin, even-edged.

Operculum semicircular, horny, thin, composed of concentric layers with
faint traces of a spiral structure at the centro-lateral nucleus, which
is on the columellar side; from it there runs a strait rib or process
continued nearly to the outer margin, and indicated externally by a
depression or groove.

Animal ample, provided with four very long and rather broad linear rugose
(or ciliated ?) tentacula; mantle produced into a long siphon; foot very
large, expanded, truncate in front, bearing the operculum near its
posterior extremity, but not accompanied by filamentous processes or
lobes. A float. (Mus. Brit. and Geol.)

This very remarkable mollusk was taken in the towing net off Cape Byron,
on the east coast of Australia, in latitude 28 degrees 40 minutes South,
fifteen miles from the shore. It was floating and was apparently
gregarious. Mr. Macgillivray states that it is furnished with a float in
the manner of Ianthina. The largest specimens measure rather less than
two lines in diameter. The shell is of a yellow horn colour (as is also
the operculum) thin and transparent. It bears a striking resemblance to
our much more minute Jeffreysia opalina. The four tentacula and the form
of the very peculiar operculum also seem to indicate considerable
affinity with the genus Jeffreysia of Alder, and an examination of the
remains of the tongue extracted from a dried specimen showed an
arrangement and form of the lingual denticles very closely resembling
that exhibited by Jeffreysia. On the other hand, the very distinct and
long siphonal tube delineated in Mr. Macgillivray's drawing, taken when
the animal was alive, would seem to refer this genus to some family
probably near to Cancellaridae. It is certainly entirely distinct in
every respect from any known Gasteropod. It is a form of very great
interest to the geologist, for in it we see the nearest representation of
certain palaeozoic (especially Lower Silurian) univalves hitherto
referred to Littorina, but which, judging from their associates and the
indications afforded by the strata in which they are found, were
assuredly either inhabitants of deep water or floaters in a great ocean
like the Pacific.

I have dedicated this most interesting creature to my friend Mr.
Macgillivray, its discoverer, whose researches have been productive of so
much new and valuable contributions to all departments of zoological

I have named the species M. pelagica. Tab. 3 fig. 8. a, b, c, d. (Mus.
Brit. and Geol.)

New Genus - CHELETROPIS, Forbes.

Shell spiral, turbinate, dextral, imperforate, spirally ridged or
double-keeled and transversely wrinkled; spire prominent, its nucleus
sinistral; aperture ovate, canaliculated below, its outer margin
furnished with two claw-like lobes, the one central and formed by a
prolongation of the margin between the keels of the body whorl, the other
smaUer and nearer the canal; peristome thickened, reflexed, forming a
conspicuous margin.

Operculum none ?

Animal unknown, but certainly floating, and probably pteropodous. This I
infer from its habits, and from the analogy of the shell with Spirialis.
(Mus. Brit. & Geol.)

The only known species, C. huxleyi (dedicated to Mr. Huxley, Assistant
Surgeon of the Rattlesnake, and now eminent for the admirable anatomical
researches among marine invertebrata which he conducted during the
voyage) is very minute, being not more than the 1/24th of an inch in
diameter. It is translucent and of a brownish-white hue. Its aspect is
that of a Turbo in miniature. The whorls are tumid, the spire prominent;
the body whorl is belted by two prominent keels, one of which is
continued on the whorls of the spire: between, above, and below these
keels are transverse membranous raised ridges, which in the central
division of the body whorl are curved forwards. This curvature
corresponds with the projection of the curious incurved claw-like lobe
that proceeds from thc central portion of the lower lip. Towards the base
of the aperture is a second and similar but smaller lobe, below which is
the short but broad and well-marked canal. The entire lip is marginated
by the thickened and reflected peristome. I believe this curious floating
shell will throw some light on the true nature and habits of several
palaeozoic types. It was taken in the towing net, gregarious, in the sea
off Cape Howe, the south-east corner of Australia. Tab. 3 fig. 9. a, b.


Tab. 2.

Fig. 1. Helix brumeriensis.
Fig. 2. Helix franklandiensis.
Fig. 3. Helix inconspicua.
Fig. 4. Helix iuloides.
Fig. 5. Helix divisa.
Fig. 6. Helix yulei.
Fig. 7. Helix dunkiensis.
Fig. 8. Helix louisiadensis.
Fig. 9. Balea australis.
Fig. 10. Pupina grandis.

Tab. 3.

Fig. 1. Helix macgillivrayi.
Fig. 2. Pupina Thomsoni.
Fig. 3. Helicina gouldiana.
Fig. 4. Helicina stanleyi.
Fig. 5. Helicina louisiadensis.
Fig. 6. Ranella pulchra.
Fig. 7. Scalaria jukesiana.
Fig. 8. Macgillivrayia pelagica.
Fig. 9. Cheletropis huxleyi.




Among the very numerous Insects and Crustacea, collected by Mr.
Macgillivray during the voyage of the Rattlesnake, the following have
been selected for illustration; references to and descriptions of some of
the Diptera, Homoptera, and Hemiptera, collected by him, have appeared in
the Catalogues of the British Museum drawn up hy Messrs. Walker and
Dallas, while the names and descriptions of others will appear in
catalogues in preparation. A fine species of the class Crustacea,
discovered by him, has been described and figured in the Illustrated
Proceedings of the Zoological Society. (Cancer [Galene] dorsalis, White.)


Chrysodema pistor, Laporte and Gory. Buprestidae, t. 6, f. 33.

Habitat: Australia (Cape Upstart). Mr. Macgillivray informs me, that the
specimens of this species were observed by him coming out of a dead tree

Pachyrhynchus stanleyanus.* Tab. 4 fig. 1, 2.

(*Footnote. In memoriam Owen Stanley, in classe Britannica Navarchi,
species haec distincta et peculiaris nominatur.)

Pachyrhynchus nigerrimus, maculis parvis squamosis plurimis

Habitat: Pariwara Islands, New Guinea. Four specimens.

Head between the eyes somewhat rugose, some of the rugose punctures with
pale greenish white scales; an abbreviated longitudinal impressed line
down the front. Beak short and thick (somewhat as in Pachyrhynchus
cumingii, Waterhouse). Thorax irregularly and somewhat coarsely
punctured, the sides somewhat wrinkled in front, the punctures scaled, a
triangular depression on the posterior part of thorax, the bottom is
covered with scales, at least in some specimens, and there are three
spots similarly scaled and placed somewhat transversely: the Elytra with
eight to ten punctured lines, running somewhat irregularly, especially
towards the sides, each elytra with ten, twelve, or more spots of scales,
arranged longitudinally in spots on the sides, and largest towards the
end. Underside of the mesothorax and metathorax with many greenish
scales. Legs thick, polished, and with scattered grey hairs proceeding
from the punctures.

I have named this somewhat mourning Pachyrhynchus after Captain Owen
Stanley and his father, the late venerable Bishop of Norwich and
President of the Linnean Society. Both of these gentlemen were fond of
natural history, especially the father, who was a good observer of the
habits of birds. The son, Captain Owen Stanley, was an accurate, though
not very practised draughtsman; and I recollect with pleasure his
pointing out to me, at one of the soirees at Brook Street, a volume of
sketches (coloured) made by him on one of his voyages, in which objects
of natural history were ably introduced. He encouraged natural history


Trigonalys compressus. Smith. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. n. ser. 1. p. - -
pl. 16. f. 2.

Sphex compressa. De Geer. Mem. 3.

Trigonalys bipustulatus. Smith (olim) Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 7 1851.

Habitat: Nest of Polistes lanio. Brazil.

Among the Hymenoptera, few genera have created greater dispute than the
anomalous genus Trigonalys of Westwood. Mr. Macgillivray one day brought
to the British Museum the nest of a Brazilian Polistes. My friend, Mr.
Frederick Smith, is well known for his profound knowledge of the
Hymenoptera, Exotic and British, which, though he has studied them ONLY
fourteen years, are better known to him, perhaps, than to any other
living Entomologist; the instant that he looked at the nest, he
exclaimed, "Why, here is Trigonalys!" and certainly a large, black-headed
creature, not very like Polistes, protruded from one of the cells. Mr.
Smith, on the 7th April, 1851, communicated this piece of information to
the Entomological Society of London, and in their Transactions his brief
memoir was lately printed. I cannot do better than give it in Mr. Smith's
own words. Mr. Smith, subsequently to the reading of the paper,
ascertained that the species had been described in the great work of De
Geer, a book of which it would be well to have a condensed new edition.
Mr. Smith says:

"John Macgillivray, Esquire, Naturalist to Her Majesty's Ship
Rattlesnake, lately presented to the British Museum the nest of a South
American species of Polistes, which he says is very abundant at St.
Salvador, where even in the streets it attaches its nest under the eaves
of houses; the species is the Polistes lanio of Fabricius, and in all
probability the Vespa canadensis of Linnaeus; a specimen of the species
is preserved in the Banksian Cabinet. On examining the nest, I found it
consisted as usual of a single comb of cells, having in the centre at the
back a short footstalk, by which the nests are attached in their
position; the comb contained sixty-five cells, the outer ones being in an
unfinished state, whilst twenty-two of the central ones had remains of
exuviae in them, and one or two closed cells contained perfect insects
ready to emerge; about half a dozen of the wasps had the anterior portion
of their bodies buried in the cells, in the manner in which these insects
are said to repose. In one cell I observed the head of an insect
evidently of a different species, it being black and shining. On
extricating it, I discovered it to be a species of Trigonalys; I
subsequently carefully expanded the insect, and it proved to be the
Trigonalys bipustulatus, described by myself in the Ann. and Mag. of
Natural History, volume 7 2nd Series, 1851, from a specimen captured at
Para by Mr. Bates, now in the possession of William Wilson Saunders,
Esquire. The insect was not enveloped in any pellicle, nor had the cell
been closed in any way; the wings were crumpled up at its side, as is
usual in Hymenopterous insects which have not expanded them, proving
satisfactorily that it had never quitted the cell, and that Trigonalys is
the parasite of Polistes.

"This discovery is one of much interest, proving the relationship of the
insect to be amongst the pupivora, to which family it had been previously
assigned by Mr. Westwood, see Volume 3 Ent. Transactions page 270. The
specimen is seven lines in length, entirely black, the head shining, the
thorax and abdomen opaque, and having two white maculae touching the
apical margin of the basal segment above; the wings are smoky, the
antennae broken off. Of one of them I found subsequently seventeen
joints - the perfect insect in the possession of Mr. Saunders having
twenty joints."


Drusilla myloecha, Tab. 4 fig. 3, 4.

This fine butterfly* was found flying in considerable plenty in the woods
of one of the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago; it forms a very
interesting addition to a genus, of which but few species are known, and
is allied to the Drusilla catops of Dr. Boisduval, described and figured
in the Voyage de l'Astrolabe. The upper sides of the wings of the
Drusilla myloecha are of pure white with a silky lustre, the front edge
of the fore wings margined with deep brown both above and below; in the
male there is a slender white line on the upper side running close to the
edge, and extending beyond the middle of it; the two discoidal veins in
the male are brown on the upper side, and the edge of the upper side of
the lower wings is brown. The under side of the lower wings has a dark
brown band at the base, widest close to the attachment of the wing and
narrowing to a large ocellus which it surrounds in the form of a narrow
brown ring; the black ocellus has a very small white pupil with a slight
bluish crescent on the inside, and is surrounded by a fulvous ring; thcre
is a second black ocellus nearer the hind edge than the middle, with a
small white pupil and a wideish fulvous ring, separated from the white of
the wing by a narrow brown ring; head, antennae, legs, and thorax in
front brown; palpi fulvous.

The figures are of the size of nature, and carefully drawn by Mr. Wing.

(*Footnote. Described (but not figured) by Mr. Westwood, in the
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, New Series, Volume 1
page 175 1851, from Mr. M.'s specimens in the British Museum. Mr. W. felt
anxious to describe this striking Drusilla.)

Eusemia mariana, Tab. 4 fig. 5.

E. alis coerulescenti-nigris; anticis albo-fasciatis et maculatis,
posticis croceo-maculatis.*

(*Footnote. Filiae meae "Marian Frances White," speciem hanc pulchram
d.d. descriptor.)

Upper wings black, with a slight bluish tinge; a wide band extends across
the wing before the middle; it is white with a slight yellowish tint, at
the lower edge of the wing it is abruptly narrowed; behind the middle of
the wing, and between it and the tip, are from five to six pale yellowish
white spots, the four or five outermost the smallest, and one or two of
them sometimes obsolete; between the base and the band a narrow bluish
grey line extends across the wing, and behind the band, at an equal
distance, there is another short, waved, bluish grey line running down to
the inner margin. The margins of the band and spots are bluish grey. The
lower wing is narrowly black at the base, with a transverse band of a
king's yellow colour; this is the widest on the inner edge, near its
outer end there is an angular black spot; the apical half of the wing is
black, with numerous king's yellow spots arranged in two lines, two spots
about the middle connected and notched with black. Head, thorax, and base
of abdomen black, rest of abdomen of a king's yellow colour.

Mr. Macgillivray took two specimens of this fine species. One flew on
board when the ship was to the north of Cape Weymouth; the other was
taken at Cape York: the figure is of the natural size.

Cocytia durvillii, Boisd. Monog. des Zygenides, t. 1, fig. 1.

This is an abundant species in the Louisiade Archipelago, flying on shore
in the daytime among trees (as D'Urville remarked it did in New Guinea);
and it frequently came on board the Rattlesnake, even when distant from
the shore two or three miles. It flies heavily like a moth, and is easily
caught. This beautiful insect is one of the finest found by Mr.
Macgillivray. Only three specimens are recorded: those discovered by
Admiral d'Urville, and described by Dr. Boisduval; Mr. M. brought home
two, deposited with the rest of his collection in the British Museum.


Ommatocarcinus macgillivrayi. Tab. 5 fig. 1.

Carapace more than twice as wide as long; the sides in front extended
into a long slightly bent spine. The frontal portion between the pedicles
of the eyes is narrow, much as in Macrophthalmus, it slopes down towards
the mouth, and is deeply notched at the sides for the reception of the
eyes; the fore-edge is doubly notched in the middle, there being a slight
tooth between the emarginations. The epistome not so prominent as the
lower margin of the orbit; the inner antennae, with the basal joint, long
(the others broken off). The eye-pedicles very long and cylindrical,
thickest at the base, slightly bent, somewhat thickened towards the end,
so long, that, when bent back, the eye extends a little beyond the end of
the spine. Mouth formed nearly as in Gonoplax, the third joint of the
jaw-feet wider than long. Abdomen seven-jointed, the first joint scarcely
visible, shaped much as in Gonoplax, but rather wider, the base of the
terminal joint longer than the sides. Anterior legs two and a half times
as long as the Carapace, measuring it from spine to spine, the arm long
and triangular, the upper portion more or less thickly covered with small
papillae, and having a nearly obliterated spine about the middle; the
wrist smooth, roundish, with a large blunt tooth on the inside; hands
somewhat flattened, widest at the base of the claws, with a broad ridge
on the inside, the edge of it rough with small papillae; the upper edge
of hand rough with small papillae; the claws lap over each other at the
tips, and are irregularly toothed on the inside; the fixed claw of the
right hand bent at the base, so as to leave a considerable space when the
other is closed upon it; upper part of arm, hand, and movable claw pretty
thickly spotted with red, epistome orbits and greater part of the upper
surface of carapace spotted with red, sides and hind part of carapace
white; upper edge of the orbit covered with small papillae; a tolerably

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Online LibraryJohn MacGillivrayNarrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By the Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During the Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea, the Louisiade → online text (page 23 of 24)