John Marshall Richard Brookes.

A new universal gazetteer, containing a descripton of the principal nations ... online

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see, which was pillaged by the Austrians in ICw.
It is seated on the Rusca, 150 m. S. by £. of
Belgrade. Long. 21. 36. £., lat. 42. 43. N.

PrUxwalk, a town of Prussia, in Brandenburg,
seated on the Domnitz, 13 m. £. N. £. of Perle-

jPrtmw, a town of Pran6e, capital of the de-
partment of Ardeche. It is seated on a hill, near
the confluence of three small rivers, 68 m. S. of
Lyons. Lon^. 4. 36. £., lat. 44. 45.

Prodda, a island in the gulf of Naples, near
that of Ischia, 8 m. in circumference, and very
fertile and populous. The capital, of the same
name, is a small fortified place, on a high craggy
rock, by the sea side. Long. 14. 8. £., lat. 4&
43. N.

ProctorsviUe, p.v. Windsor Co. Vt. 88 m. S.

Prodano, an island in the Mediterranean, near
the W. coast of the Morea, formerly called Sphae-
teria. It is 36 m. S. S. £. of Zante. Long. 21.
24. E., lat. 37. 15. N.

Prome, a city of Birmah, province of Ava. It
was formerly more considerable than at present,
having been grreatly reduced by frequent wars.
Much teak timber is sent hence to Rangoon. It
is seated on the Irrawaddy, 12Qm. N. W. of Pe-
gu. Long. 95. 0. £., lat. 18. 50. N.

Prospeet.jaX. Waldo Co. Me., on the Penob-
scot, 8 m. N. E. Belfast. Pop. 2,381 ; p.t. Prince
£dward Co. Va. 105 m. 8. W. Richmond.

Prospect Hill, p. v. Rensselaer Co. N. Y. ; p.v.
Fairiax Co. Va. ; p.v. Caswell Co. N. C.

Prosperous f a village of Ireland, in the coun^
of Kildare, 16 m. S. W. of Dublin. It has a con-
siderable manufacture of cotton.

Prosmtz, a town of Mcravia, in the circle of
Olmutz. 8 m. 8. S. W. of Olmutz.

Provence, a former province of Frahce, which
now forms the department of Var, Lower Alps,
and Mouths of the Rhone.

Providence, one of the Bahama Islands, and the
best of those planted by the English. It was
taken by the Spaniards, m 1782, but retaken the
next^ year. A light-house was erected, in 1804,
on an eminence overlooking Nassau, the chief
town. Long. 77. 20. W., lat. 25. 3. N.

Providence, an island in the Atlantic, which the
Buccaniers fortified, but afterwards abandoned.
It is 150 m. £. of the coast of Nicaragua. Long.
80. 44. W., lat. 13. 25. N.

Providence river, a stream of Rhode Island
formed by the union of two rivers just above the
city of. Providence. It fiows into Narraffanset
Bay, and is navigable from Providence to the sea
for ships of 900 tons.

Providence, city, chief of a county of the same
name in Rhode Island, is the largest place in Xha
state and the second city in New England for
population, wealth, and business. It stands at
the head of Narraganset Bay, which at this ex-
tremity becomes narrowed to the width Of a riv-
er. It is built on both sides of the river, the two
parts being connected by a bridge. The new
town on & W. of the river has all the bustle
and liveliness, and displays the flourishing ap-
pearance of a commercial city. The hill on the
opposite ude, or East Providence, is chiefly oc-
cupied by private mansions, beautifully situated,
and adorned with gardens and court yards. On
the summit of a stee|^ eminence stands the col-*

Digitized by




_ lOTrrtookJBf the oity. The t ti ^t ti ve ir-

re|(iilar, but there «re many beaatiful BitaatioiiB
and fine edificea in the citv. Here is a hand-
•ome arcade three atoriea Big^h, vaiih 96 rooiM
on each floor. Each front oonaiata of an Ionic
portico, with franite pillars. Providenoo has IS
chiirciies, a theatre, a public library, many tot*
ton and woolen nanufactories, paper milla, dje-
houset, &c. Its distance from the sea is 35
miles, but merchant ships of the Urges! siae can
come up to the wharves. Steam-boats pass be-

tween Providence and New York, through Lonff
Island Sound, during ail the open annson, and
nearly the whole of the summer travelling from
Boston to the S. pasves by this route. Providence
was founded by Ro^r Williams in 1G3G. It re-
tained the denommation and government of
a town until 1831, when a city charter waa

Brown University at this place was founded
IB 1764, and was first established at Warren : it
was removed to Providence in 1770. It has been
■upported solely by individual patronage, and
ita runds are not large. The college edinces are
two brick buildings, containing 100 rooms forstu*
denta^ and others for public purposes. The col-
lege IS delightfullv situated on an eminence in
the £. part of the town, which commands a
beautiful prospect. The libraries contain 12,000
volumes, including those belonging to literary
aocietiea. The officers are a President and d Pro-
feaaora. The board of truatees is composed of 36
members, of whom 22 must be Baptists; 5 Qna-
k#rs, 5 Episcopalians and four Congregationaliat#.
The Fellows, or Learned Faculty, are 12, of
whom 6, including the President, must be Bap-
tists. The number of students in 1831, was 95.
There are 3 vacations in May, September and
December, amounting to 13 weeks. Commence-
ment is in September.

Providence is a port of entry, and in. 1828
owned 20,232 tone of ahippinir- It is in lat. 41.
51. N., long. 71. 10. W. , 30 m."N. by W. Newport,
40 S. S. W. Boaton, 74 £. Hartford. Pop.

FrondeHte, p.t. Saratoga Co. N. T. 25 m. N.
Albany. Pop. 1,579; also townships in Essex
Co. N. J.; Luaeme, Bedford, Delaware and
MontgDmery Cos. Pa.; p. v. Mecklenburg Co.

Fromdence liifi, p.v. Chesterfield Co. Va.

Prondmeet a county of Rhode Island. Pop.
47/)14. Providence city is the capital.

PromneeUneni p.t. Biamstable Co. Maaa. on
Cape Cod, at the extremity of the peninaula. It ia
6U m. S. £. of Boaton in a straight line and 116
by land. It haa an excellent harbour but there
•IB no wharvBB. TIib hoo^ea «re of one atoiy

Bttd bMk «B pilBB driven inlo tlii ifead %i&
•paces betwBeB tlMin fbr the aand to drift thrasdi,
otherwiae they would b^ completely buried, ftt
iakabitaata live by fiahiny, aa the «ape prodaea
••thing bBt a acBOty ▼egetalton of caasK mm
aafficient for the pmrntMrmge of a few cows. rof.

/*remfi#, a town of Fraace, department qfStis*-
et-Marna, celebrated for itt mineral watfn. It
haa a considerable trade in com, and some wooin
rtMnulkctaraa. and in aeBted on the Vooxie, 60 a.
8. E. of Paria.

Pntek. See Brmek,

PruMm, or Pnuia. See Bmrsm.

jPrBMui, a large eoontnr of Enrope, neeuffisf
a great part of the N. cvf (xennany, and exlrndiaf
with little interraption from the eonfiaet J
Lithuania to thoae of the Netherlands, it if i
very fertile country, pmdnciiig a great detl rf
flax, hemp, and oom^ There are a great noahfr
of doroeatic animala ; and the aea, tSe rivert, ui
lakes, supply abondaaoe of liah. Game •bosa^
and elks, wild aaaea, and uri, are foopd is tk
foresta : these laat are of a huge siae, and tow
aonie reaemblanoe to beevea ; their hides t« «•
treroely thick and atrongv »n^ ^W aie lold to
foreigners at a great price. One or the w"*J**
markable productioDa of thia coontry is J^
amber, which ia foond along the frcmA.
There are two large lakca, befides the tiftn Va-
tula and Pregel. The inhahiUnta are iew«l7
of a good conatitntion, laboriooa, and roM
There i

• are a great number of mechmnicf ; bst tbe
^ „. pal bumneaa ia huabandry, with the fredijf
of cattle. The prewnt monarchy of rnm
cnnaiaU of two dtatiaict parU aeparsted ^ «•
German SUtea, and contains I06,77» sQ^ai. o*"^
ritory, and a pop. «f 12,562^178. Tbf tr^
amounto to 166,000 men. The i^^^'JJ'JS'
000,000 dollars: the pobUc debt I20fi00^
The government is an abeolote »*>'»*'*"^;^ \n
religion of the royal family ia pfotestaat, w «•

creeda are tolerated. j #« tte

In the 13lh century Pruaaia b«^<^?^. *? jj
knights of the Teutonio order. In 14o4, tW^
since denominated PoliBb, or W. Prussia, ttrm
ed to Caaimir IV. king of Poland, and '«? "^
porated into the dominiona of the '^P'^Ivj ^^
the same time the knif^hta were <^^^p^
hold the remaining part, called I^"**^'"' fcoe ai.
aia, as a fief of the crown of Poland. .»»^*^
bert, the grand master, betrayed the lO'^fT^.
his fraternity, and concluded a ^^f/^^J^u
tnund, king of Poland, by which E. ^J^ ^^ (o
erected into an hereditary duchy. »"*^ .P , - ,tii
him as a Polish fief. Havinff adopted ^^ ^^.
of Luther, he married a princess ol i^" ^
and tranamitted this rich •n***"**"^!?:.! fra«
BcendanU: one of whom, Frederic *^"'""1 <«,
the firat duke that threw oflF his ^^P^^Tl^
Poland. The foundation &f the rrvmu^ ^

. •.vi:.u.j w.. 1.:^ betwfeo i^f^.^1

Frederic. »■

archy waa eatabliahed by him, ^l^\'^0i

1688. His son and aucceasor.
aasumed the title of King of Prussit, —^.^^j^
soon after acknowledged by ^}l^\\ckn^-
powers, except Poland, which did ooi ^
ledge it till 1764. In 1742 Frederic U- JJ^.
the duchy of Silesia from the ^^.^^^Uatoi*
and by hia wonderful victories, and w*-^ ^^g^^
wonderful reaourcea by which he f'Pr ^ tb«
aional defeats, he became the •<*«>'/*"^Vdf <f
oge. In 1772 he compelled the P«'^f!^i4iei <
him Weatem Pruaaia, txctpUHJ^^ti
DBntiicBiidThoni. Bm cuitlTatad tm

Digitized by





Koet, philoBopher, and legiaiator^ and expending
itg^ f u/pj9 in U^e inip,royeinent of the country.
He >)ras *ucceeaed by hi^ nephev^, Frederic Wil-
liam W.f in 1^86, who forcibly annexed to his
kia^om Dantzic apd Tborn^ with several con-
teidexable province^, which he styled Southern
li'ru jjia. H*" b^d also a share in toe general con-
tent a'^&iuAt Frapice, in the early part of the revo-
lution ; but made peace \yith that country in
April, 1795; and died at Berlin in 1797.

^if sop, Fre(;i,eric William Ul., continued on
an^icable tejrms with France, till the dissolution
of the Germanic body in ld06, and the coQsequcnt
formation of the Confederation of the Rhine,
when, tjjt^i ijking himself aggrieved, he declared
war against Fraose. This war was of short du-
ration, but of most disastrous consequence to
Prussia, ^y the peace of Tilsit, the whole of
the Polish dominions belonging to Prussia, with
a (ew efqeptioos, were transferred to anotl^er
prince ; .&%4^ t^ie king of Prussia had further to
ten auuce his rig^t to all the territories, without
«*xceptioj[;i, situated between the Elbe and the
iLUine; to thosie belonging to Sxxony and the
U9u^ .pf Aijihait on the right bank of the Gibe ;
ttiftd, (listly, tp the circle of Rotbus, in Lower Lu-
sitla, which was ceded to Saxony. Thus was
Pr^i^ia reduced to the lowest rank fimoug the
powers pf Europe. On the memorable retreat of
the French armies from Russia, and the arrival
of the Russians within the territories of Prussia,
she, however, threw off her alliapce with France,
joined Russia in the war, and made such extraor-
dinary efforts to retrieve her lost character, by
the magnitude of her armies and the courage
which she maintained in the field, that on the
conclusion of the wa,r all the counti;ies which h<^d
been wrested from her by the treaty of Tilsit were

The kingdom is now divided into 10 provinces,
namely, ET Prussia, W. Prussia, Brandenburg,
Pomerania, Westphalia, Cleves and Berg, Silesia,
Posen, S'lxony, and Lower Rhiue ; which are
subdivided into 3d governments. For military
purposes, the kingdom is divided into five great
parts, viz. Prussia, Brandenburg and Pomerania,
Silesia and Prussian Poland, Saxqny, and finally
Westphalia with the Lower Rhine. Bertin is the
capital of all Prussia.

JPrussia, Proper^ an extensive division of the
Prussian states, between the northern frontier of
Poland aad the Baltic. It comprises the provin-
ces of E. and W. Prussia, divided formerly by
the Vistula, and now by a line a few m. to the E.
of that river. E. Prussia li<*s between 19. 20. and
24. 15. of E. long, and 52. 32. and 56. 3. of N. lat.,
and h'ls a superficial extent of 15,000 sq. m. with
8r>J),0i)0 inhabitants. It is divided into the gov-
ernments of Konigsberg and Gumbinnen. W.
Pxu99ia is a less extensive ccmntry, its area being
10,000 sq. m. its population 5(X>,090. It is divided
into the governments of Dantzic and Marien-

Frutkf a river tjiat rises in Marmarasch, in
Hungary, crosses part of the palatinate of Lem-
burg. flows through Moldavia, and enters the
Danube above Leni, iu Bessa^bin.

Pruijm, a towp of the Prussian province of
Lpwer Rhine, with a pripcely abbey ; seated on
the river Pruvm, 30 m. S. S. E. of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Prxt^misltay a town of Austrian Poland, capital
of a circle of its nanif, with ^ castle ; seated on
1^ ii>er Sta, 64 m. W. by Q. oPLtmber|f,

PrtSbram, a town of Bohemia, in the etrele of
Beraan, with a silyer mine and an iron fouadeijr ,
fieated near the river Muldau, 3d m. 8. S. W. oT
Pskoff or Pleskoff a ^ovemmenf of Runia, !▼•
- ing between those of Livonia and Smolensko. It
comprises an area of 22,000 sq. m. with 700,000

P^kof, the capital of the above govemmenti
and an archbishop's see*, with a strong castle. It
is seated on the river Welika, at its entrance into
the lake Tchudskoi, 80 m. S. of Narva and 170
S. by W. of Petersburgh. Long. 27. 52. E., lat.

PucculoBf a town of Bengal, 40 m. N. W. of

Puckholif a town of Hindoostan, in the proyinoe
of Lahore, 86 m. S. W. of Cashmere and 145 N.
W. of Lahore. Long. 75. 5. E., lat. 33. 46. N.

Pudday a river of'Hindoostan, which rises In
the S. W. part of Agimere, divides the provinces
of Cutcb and Guzerat, and runs into the gulf of

Pudoffd,^ k town of Russia, in the government
of Olonetz, situate on the E. coast of the lake of
Onezkoe, 103 m. £. of Olonetz. Long. 36. 30.
E., lat. 61. 36. N.

Pueblay a town of S^ain, in Galicia, seated near
the Atlantic, 21) m. S. S. W. of Compostella.

Puebla de los Angdot, a city of Meaioo, capita]
of a province of its name. The streets are broad
and straiffht, and the buildings in general of stone,
lofly and elegant. In the centre of the city is a
large square, adorned on three sides with uniform
porticoes, where are shops filled with rich com-
modities, and on the other with the cathedral,
which has a beaotiful firont, and two lofly towers.
Besides the cathedral, there are several other
churches and convents, well built and finelj
adorned. A small river runs through the town,
and the adjacent valley produces vines and au
sorts of European fruits, ft is 80 m. £. S. £. of
Mexico. Long. 99, 2?. W., lat. 19. 30. N.

Puebla Jfuopat a town of Mexico, in tJie proy*
ince of Veragua, seated near the Pacific Ocean,'
100 m. W. of St. Jago. Long. 83. 0. W., lat. 8.
34. N.

Puebla de Safuihriay a town of Spain in the proT-
ince of Leon, 45 m. S. W. of Astorga.

Puewte, a town of Spain, in Navarre, on tho
river Agra, 8 m. S. S. W. of Pamplona.
Puerto BellOf Puero Rico, &c. See Porio.
Puglia^ the ancient Apulia, containing the three
provinces of Capitanata, Bari, and Otranto, on
the E. side of the kingdom of Naples.
Puvfttowtiy p.v. Chester Co. Pa.
Puaskiy a county of Greorgia. Pop. 4,899.
Hartford is the capital ; a county of Kentucky.
Pop. 9,522. Somerset is the capital ; a county '
of Arkansas. Pop. 2,395. Little Rock is the
capital ; also a p.v, Giles Co. Tenn. *

Pufhely, a town of Wales, in Caemarvonshire,
seated on an inlet of Cardigan Bay, between two
rivers, 16 m. S. of Caernarvon and 243 N. W. of

Puh Condareioee Condor e; and so with other
islands that have sometimes Pulo [Island] prefixed.
PuUicatCy a town of Hindoostan, in the Carna*
tic, on the sea-coast, and at the 8. end of a larc*
lake to which it gives name, 23 m. N. of Madras.
Pufteney, p.t. Steuben Co. N. T. 30 m. 8. 0»>
nandoigua. Pop. 1,790,

Pultene^viUSf p.v. Wayne Co. N. T. on W»

Digitized by





Jhiknty, a township of Belmont Co. Ohio, on
tho Ohio.

PtdUnukf a town io the interior of Poland,
where in 1807 ft balUe was fought between the
French and Rtiaaians, in which hoth tides claim-
ed the victory. It is seated on the Narew, 30 m.
N. of Warsaw.

PuUowa. See Potjiva.

Puna J an island in the PaciBc Ocean, 35 m.
lon^ and 12 broad, lying at the entrance of the
bay of Guayaquil. It has an Indian town of the
tame name, on its S. side. 11.5 m. N. of Paita.

Punch HaUfti village of Caroline Co. Mary*

Punhete^ a town of Portugal, in Estremadura,
bt the conflux of the Zezere with tiie Tajo, 6 m.
N. W. of Abrantes.

Punta (Ul Guda^ the capital of St. Michael, one
of the Azores, with a strong ossUe. It is situate
on the S. side, and conUins 10,000 inhabitants.
The streets are regular and of convenient width,
fuid the churches, religious houses, and public
edifices may be deemed elegant. There is no
harbour in the vicinity of the town, and vessels
usually anchor at a distance from the shore in an
open road. Long. 25. 42. W., lat. 37. 47. N.

Putuettiwny, p. v. Jetferson Co. Pa. 70 ro. W.
E. Pittsburg.

ptirheck^ Istf. of, a rougk and heatfiy tra6t ill
DurseUhire, to the S. of Pool Bay. It is insulated
by the sea and rivers, and is famous fur its stone
quarries, the principal ot which lie at its eastern
extremity, near Swanoage, whence the stone is
exported : it is of the calcareous kind, but dis-
tinguished into numerous sorts, the finest uf which
deserves the name of marble, and is used for
chimney-pieces, heartlis, &«. ; while the coarser
kinds are made use of in paving. Tobacco-pipe
clay is dug up in several parts of this island, tne
finest near Corfe CiAtle, of which much is export-
ed, particularly for the Staffordshire potteries.

PurehenUf a town of Spain, in the province of
Granada, 70 m. E. of Gxanada. Long. 2. 25. W.,
Ut. 37. 11). N.

PurjU&y a village in Essex, Eng. situate on the
Thames, 4 in. W. of Grays-Thurrock. It has ex-
tensive lime-works, and a large magazine for gun-

Purification^ a town of Mexico, in the province
of Xalisco, 1)0 m. S. by E. of Compostella. Long.
105. 30. W., lat. 19. 58. N.

Putmerend, a strong town of the Netherlands,
in N. Holland, 10 m..N. by £. of Amsterdam.

Parneahf a town ot' Uengal, capital uf a fertile
and populous district of iis name ; seated on the
Scraw, 125 m. N. N. W. of Moorshedabad.

Puryttbutgf t. Beaufort Dis. S. C on the Savan-
nah, 20 m. above Savannah, D4 m. S. W.
Charleston. It i^as established by. a colony of
Swiss, to introduce the cultivation of silk.

PusckiaoQ, a town of Switzerland, in the can-
ton of Grisons, 3 m. N. from a lake to which it
flives name. It is 17 m. W. S. W. of Bormio, and
So E. of Chiavenna.

Puiala, vT Pateli^ mountain of Thibet, near the
banks of the Burramnooter, 7 m. E. of Lassa. On
its summit is the palace of the grand lama, the
high priest of Thibet.

Put in Bay, a harbour in Ohio at the West end
of Lake Erie, formed by the largest of the Bass
Islands, 14 m. N. W. Sandusky. It has 2entran-
•ce, and is deep enough for the largest vessels,
and sheltered from every wind. Here the Ameri-
msk fleet nnder Commodore Perry rendezvoused in

Ca|lillf0B tll9

September 1813 when he

Putfiiz, a town of Prussia, in the proTiBc* «f
Brandenburg, with an old castle, 11 m. M. N. E»
of Perleberg.

Putnam f a county of New ToiiL. Pup. IS^OI.
Carmel is the capital ; a county of Ohio. rap.
230. Sugar Grove is the capital ; a comxtj of
Georgia. Pop. 13,653. Eatonton ie the t»mtai^

Putnam^ p.t. Washington Co. It. Y. on LaJcr
Chsmplain. Pup. 718 ; p.t. Moskingam Co. Ohio.

Putney f a village in Surrey, Eng. seat*^ on the
Thames^ over which is a wooden Drid^,4 m. W.
S. W. of London. On Putney heath ia an obt-lisk,
erected in 1786, in commemoration of Mr, Hart-
ley's invention of fire-plates, for eecunnj^ boald-
ings from fire ; and on its borders axe several ele*
gant mansions.

Putney^ p.t. Windham Co. Vl on the Ccmoce-
ticut. 33 m. S. W indsor. Pop. 1^510.

Puttan Somnauth, or Pulton, a town of Hindooe-
tan, near the southern extremity of the Gtxment
Peninsula. Somnauth is one of the twelve image*
of Seeb which are said to have descended fram
heaven to earth ; and the great fame of iCs teni'
pie attracted the cupidity, while it stiniolated the
bigotry, of Sultan Mahmood, of GhiznL A<:eoid-
ing to Mahomedan authors, the image waa de-
stroyed, but the Hindoos assert that 3ie rod re-
tired into the ocean ! The symbol placed in the
temple is deemed peculiarly propitious to those
who desire offsprin|f. It is visited by pilgrinsi
from every quarter, who pay a trifling doty to
the Nabob for permission to perform their deToiSooa
at this favourite shrine. The Bombay Presidency
is stated to have used its influence with the Jnnag-
har State, in 1816, toscH:ure ^greater freedom ih
pilgrimage to Puttan. It stands near the0e8,95m.
S. of Noanagur. Long. 69. 40. E., lat. 21. 2. N.

Puy, a city of France, capital of the depart-
ment of Upper Loire, and a bishop's see. 1^
cathedral is famoua for a prodigious quantity id
relics; and Our Lady of Puy is celebrated in the
annals of superstition. Puy has manufactures of
blankets, lineu, lace, silk, stuffs, and stoneware.
It is seated on the mountain Anis, near the river
Loire, 45 m. N. E. of Meiidoand 65 S. £. of Qer-
mont. Long. 3. 58. E., lat. 45. 58. N.

Puy de Dfmie, a department of France, contain-
ing part of the former province of Auvergne. It
has Its name from a mountain, situate tu the W.
of Clermont, the capital of the department.

Puy M ^njoUf a town in the department of
Ma ine-et- Loire, 10 m. S. S. W. of Saumnr.

Pay/* EveguCfA town in the department of Lot.
16 m. W. by N. of Cahors. ^

Puy la Roque, a town in the department of
Tem-et-Garonne, 18 m. S. S E. of Cahors.

PuyMoistnn, a town in the department of Low-
er Alps, 15 m. S. of Digne.

Puueerdaf a town of Spain, iq Catalonia, cap-
ital of the county of Cerdagna, seated at the foot
of the Pyrenees, near the source of the Segra, 47
m. S. ofPerpignan and 78 N. bv W. of
Barcelona. It was taJien by the French* in 1794.
Long. 1 60. E., lat. 42. 36. N.

Puyzaurenn, a town of France, department of
Tarn, 28 m. S. by W. of Alby. *'*'*^°^ «

PuttuoU^GT PoKMuoto, tL Celebrated, hut now
inconsiderable city of Italy, on the bay of Na-

Sles Here are the remsins of the temple ef
upiter Serapis, an interesting monument of an-
tiquity, being different from the Human and
Greek templM, and bnilt in the manner of tht

Di*gitized by


QUA 61^


Asiatic ; probably by the Egyptian and Asiatic
merchants settled at Pazzuoli, wliich was the

S'eat einpariuin of Italy, till the Romans built
alia and Antiurn. It has been converted into a
Christian cathedral, and so much modern work
added that at present only the front of the ancient
edifice is visible. Man^' other remains of temples,
amphitheatres, and other public building in this
city, afford convincing proofs of its former mag-
nificence. The ruins of Cicero's villa, near this
place, are of such extent as to ^ive a high idea of
the wealth of that great orator; U m. W. of Naples.
Pyramids J a range of ancient and stupendous
figryptian monuments, extending northwards from
Cairo, but on the opposite or west side of the
Nile. They are continued almost uniaterrupted-
Itr for about 2.) leagues, upon a plain occupying
the lower slope of a ridire pf hills, which runs
parallel to the Nile. This plain is elevated about
8'J'feet above the ground inundxted by the river
and consists of hard rock, forming a proper sup-
port for the immense weight of the structures
erected upon it. The pyramids are distinguished
by their form, which the name expresses^ and
still more by their £rreat dimensions. The three
largest are in the neighbourhood of the town of
Giseh, and are named from their founders. The
following are their names and dimensions.
Feet hisrh. Ft. sq. at base.
Cheops 499 693

Cephrenes 3()8 655

Mycerinus 162 280

The pyramids, at first view, present the ap- .
pearance of solid masses ) and it seems to have
been the intention of the founders, that the few
openings which they contain, should remain per-
petually closed. The ingenuity of successive
ages has traced the openings of the great pyramid,
which were so studiously concealed. The exte-
rior opening is 60 feet above the base, and leads
into a passage 66 paces long. Beyond are succes-
mve galleries, one 120 feet, another 170, and an-
other 180 feet long. The principal chamber, at
the end of the longest gallery, is 36 feet long, 16
broad, and 18 high. At the farthest extremity is
the sarcophagus, for the reception of which this

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