John Marshall Richard Brookes.

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country by the freeholders of forty shillings a
year and upwards, or renters of jClO per annum
and upwards. There is also a legislative council,
consisting of not less than fifteen members. The
legal establishment consists of a court of King's
Bench, Common Pleas, and court of Appeal ; and ,
the civil and criminal law is administered by a
chief jnsticd and two puisne judges : tlie chief
justice is also president of the legislative council.
The ecclesiastical affairs of this country are under
the superintendence of a catholic bishop resident
mt Quebec, and an assistant bishop, nine vicars-
general, and about 200 cures, who are supported

chiefly cmt of grants of land made tmder the
French government, and an assessment of one
tWenty-sixth part of all grain produced on the
lands held by catholics. The protestant estab-
lishment consists of a lord bishop, also residei/t at
Quebec, nine rectors, and several curates or cler-
gymen supported in part cut of tlie civil list, and
an appropriation of one-seventh of all the lands
held by protestants. The protestant bishop has
also a seat in the legislative council by virtue of
his appointment : no distinction is otherwise made
on account of religious profession, catholic and
protestant bein^ alike eligible to a seat in the ex
ecutive or legislative council and assembly, as
well as to all other civil or military appointments.
Numerous tribes of native Indians still inhabit all

the western and interior parts of this vast coun-
try, though theu: number has been much reduced
since 17c0, about which period the small-pox
raged with such destructive fury as to entirely
depopulate several hundred thousand square miles
of territory. Since the abatement of that dreadful
catastrophe, and the conciliatory measures of the
Canadian government towards- them, although
they still withhold themselves as much as ever
from the society t>f the settlers, they have main-
tained a much more social intercourse, with but
few attempts at open hostility ; and it is the In-
dian population who contribute so essentially to
the traffic in furs. The principal towns in Lower
Canada are Quebec, Montreal, and Trois Rivieres.
The pine forests of this region are inhabited by
vast numbers of martens, who live in the lofty

tops of the trees. Their fur is highly esteemed,
and great numbers of them are hunted for their
skins. This animal destroys great quantities of
small quajdrupeds and birds. He frequently makes
his nest in the hollow of a tree, but commonly
seeks for a squirrel's nestj drives away or kills
the owner, and takes possession.

The wolverene inhabits the northern parts of
Canada and America generally, quite to the Arc-
tic Sea, and it is probable that its visits extend
beyond the continent towards the Pole, as a skull
of this animal was found on Melville Island by
Capt. Parry. It is an inhabitant alike of the
woods and barren grounds, and is capable cff en-
during the severest cold. The motions <^ the
wolverene are necessarily, glow, and its gait

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heavy, bat the acateness of its sight, and power
of smelling are an ample compensation ; as they
are seldom or never killed without being found
iat, there is good reason for believing that thej
rarely suffer much from hunger. This animal is
surprisingly strong, and an ovfrmatch for any
quadruped near its own size ;— indeed its sharp
claws and teeth enable it to oil'er a very effectual
resistance even to the bear.
Among the birds may be mentioned the wild
igeon, spottcd^roU8e,and the smallest humming
ird known. The raven, a bird found in every
quarter of the world, is also very common here.


He seems to bear the cold of the northern regions
with as much indiflerence as the beat of the tor-
rid 2one. It is remarkable, that wherever these
birds abound, the common crow seldom makes
bis appearance. * '

Canadaj Upper, in its most Comprehensive
sense, comprises a tract of country extending from
the Ottawa J or Grand River, which divides it from
Lower Canada at its junction with the St. Law-
rence, in the longitude of 74. 30. W. and 45. of
JN. lat. to the north-west extremity of Ijake Win-
nipeg, in the latitude of 59. N. and the 98th of
W. ionff. bounded on the south by the chain, of
lakes which discharge their waters into the sea
by the great river St. Lawrence, and on the north
by the Ottawa River, in a north-west direction to
the longitude of about 82., when it borders by un-
defined limits on the Hudson's bay and north-
west territories. However, like Lower Canada,
the part under cultivation, and which at present
more particularly merits .attention, lies within
comparatively narrow limits, in a south-west di-
rection, along the north bank of the St. Lawrence,
and north shoves of Lakes Ontario and Erie, from
the Ottawa River before-mentioned at its en-
trance into the St. Lawr^ice to the straits of Erie
and St. Clair River, between the Lakes £rie uid
Huron, in the longitude of 82. 30. W. It is about
570 miles from N. £. to S. W. and 40 to 50 in
breadth, including about 10.000.000 of acres of as
fertile land as any in all North Ameiica. The
south-west extremity extending to the 43d degree
of latitude, it is not subject to such severity of
winter as the lower prervince ; numerous streams,
offotding the most advantageous site for the erec-
tion of mills, fall into the lakes, and two consid-
erable rivers in the eastern district fall into the
Ottawa, and two others run in a south-west di-
rection, falling into Lake St. Clair, between the
strait of Erie and the St. Clair River. The
southernmost of these rivers is called the Thames,
with a London on its banks, destined perhaps^ at
some future time, to rival in population and im-
portance its namesake in Britain. Upper Canaxia
M divided, for judicial and local purposes, into
eight districts, which aire again simdivided into
the 23 following counties, tuing them in ofder
from the soath-west : y'a.

1. Essex, 13. Hastings,

2. Kent. 14. Lennox,

3. Suffolk, 15. Addington,

4. Middlesex, 16. Frontinac,

5. Norfolk. 17. Prescot,

6. Oxford, 18. Russell,

7. Lincoln, 19. Leeds,

8. York, 20. Grenville,

9. Durham, 21. Dundas,

10. Carleton, 22. Stormont,

11. Prince Edward, 23. Glengary.

12. Northumberland,

These counties are further subdivided into aboot
160 townships. Nearly one-third of the lands
were granted in free and common soccagc prior
to 1825, about 500,000 acres of which are already
under cultivation, one-third more being reserved
for the crown and clergy, leaves about 4,000,000
of acres of fertile land, in the immediate vicinity
of settlements already formed, for future grants ;
in addition to which, millions of acres in the rear,
northward, covered at present with the finest tim*
ber of oak, hickory, beach, walnut, maple, pine,
&c. (Sec. present a rich field for exertion, and the
supply of future ages. The population of this
province has increased, and continues increasing
m a greater ratio than the lower one. The inhab-
itants, which in 1783 did not exceed 10,000, in
1614 amounted to 95,000, and in 1825 to double
that number. Its civil and religions institutions
are similar to those of the sister pcovince, with
the exception that being settled since the expul-
sion of the French^ there are no feudal tenures or
lands held in seignorage, which is the case with
all those granted to the original French settlers
in the lower province. The inhabitants also of
Upper Canada being emigrants from the United
States, Scotland, and England, are principally
protestants, and as such there are no special
enactments or reservations for the catholics. The
executive council of this province consists of six
members, the legislature of not less than seven,
and the house ofassembly of twenty-five. Upper
Canada participates in common in the commerce
of the lower province, in addition to which it has
also the advantage of interchanging its surplus

Sroductions with the United States, as either one
irection or the other may best promote its inter-
est. As long, however, as the English govern-
ment are enabled to afford the same protection to
Upper Canada, and under the same circumstan>
ces as prevailed in 1826, and more especiallv
should the English government qualify their
present policy of excluding grain of foreign
growth importation into England, the interest of
Sie Canadians will unquestionably lie on the side
of England, and the Canadas anord the fairest
field for agrisnltural exAtioh of any country in
the worlds indc^pendent of its abundant supply of
grtiin and animal food, the forests supply abun>
dance of every variety of game and fowl, and the
rivers and lakes everv variety of fish comnion to
inland waters ; and, by due attention to culture,
the gardens may be made to yield every variety
of delicious fnuts.

The Canadas, in a general sense, may be con-
sidered a level countoy, beautifully undulated,
but no where attaining an elevation exceeding
300 to 500 feet above the level of the waters (9
the great chain of lakes. A ridse of mountains
skirts the northern boundaries of both provinces,
from the 74th to the 98th deg. of west longitude :
the altitudes have not been correctly ascertained^
but they seem to claim the character only of a

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cKain of broken btUt, rather than monntaini.
But little discovery of inincralt has aa jet been
made : coalf , eopper, and iron, have been found,
and u population extends itaelf, and when neces-
sity requires them, the mineral substances will
most probably not prove deficient. The two prin-
cipal towns are York and Kingston.

Canajokarie, p.t. Mont|romcry Co. N. Y. Its
vicinity abounds witli apple-trees, from which it
makes cider of an excellent quality. It stands on
a creek of the same name, between the Mohawk
River and the Erie Canal, 25 m. N. K. of Coop-
erstown,and 53 W. N. W. of Albany. Pop. 4,348.

Canandaigua\ a lake in tlie western part of the
State of New York, which discharges its waters
into Lake Ontario. It is 20 miles lon^, and from
2 to 3 miles wide. The banks are high and va-
rieffated, and ornamented with many beautiful

€kauukdairu4iy p.t. Ontario Co., on the outlet of
the above l&e. It is one of the pleasantest towns
, in the country. The principal street runs alonff
the ridge of a hill which rises from the north end
of the lake ; it is handsomely planted with trees,
and the houses have an unc6mmonly neat ap-
pearance, being generally painted white, with
green blinds. In the centre of the town is a large
square. In the neighbourhood are many beauti-
ful wardens. Canandaigua'has a very flourishing
traoe, and a steam-boat plies upon the lake. It is
208 m.W. of Albany. Pop. 5,162

CaiMMorB, a town of Hindoostan, in Malabar,
defended by a fortress, with other works after the
European fashion. It is the head-i]uarters of the
province. This town was taken in 1790 by the
British, in ^hose possession it remains. U has
several good houses, and carries on a good trade
with other parts of the peninsula, and with Ara-
bia and Sumatra. The country furnishes a lar^
2uantity of pepper, cardamoms, sandal wood, coir,
barks* fins, &c. : the imports are horses, benzoin,
camphor, almonds, opium, sugar, and piece goods.
It is governed by a native sovereign, who pays an
annual tribute of 14,000 rupees to the English
East India Company. It is seated on a small
bay, one of the best on the coast, 56 m. N. N. W.
of Calicut Long. 75. :». E. lat. 11. 53. N

Camari, a province on the west coast of Hin-
doostan, lately subject to the regent of Mysore, on
whose defeat and death, in 1799, it came into the
hands of the British. It is 180 miles in length,
between the Concan and Malabar, and from S& to
80 in breadth. The soil is fertile, and it produces
abundance of rice, betel-nuts, and wild nutmegs.
The principal port is Mangalore.

CanarieSf or Canmry JsTandSy anciently called
the Fortunate Islands, are thirteen in number,
lying in the North AtlAtic Oeean, off the west
coast of North Africa, between the latitudes of
28. and 30. N. Seven of them are eonsiderable,
namely, Palma, Ferro, Gomera, Teneriflfe, Ca-
nary, Fuerte-ventura, and Lanaserota, each of
tekuk see : the other six are very small, Graciosa,
Rocca, Allegranza, St. Clare, Inferno, and Lobos.
They were formerly inhabited by a brave and in-
dependent race of people called Gaunches. Fuerte-
ventura and Lanzerota, beinf the least populous,
were taken possession of by John de Betancourt,
a Norman, hkovX the commencement of the 15th
eentury, in behalf of John, the then king of Cas-
tile : but it was not till towards the close of that
eentury that the Spaniards, .under whose sove-
reigiity they still remain, obtained complete pos-
^ssiou of the whole group, .after the most deter-

mined resistanee of the natives; the whole of
whom, during the IGth century, fell victims to
the cruelty of the Spaniards, either by the swotd
or Uie inquisition, which was established in these
islands in 1532.

CanarUy Grandy one of the principal of the above
islands, lying between the east siae of Teneriffe
and the south end of Fuerte-ventura. Next to
Teneriffe, it is the most fertile and productive of
the ffroup . The surface near the coast is beau-
tifally diversified with hill and dale and well
watered with streams issuing from mountains
which lie towards the centre of the island. The
vine in all its varieties flourishes in this island in
the utmost luxuriance. It is here that the most
delicious malmsey wine or sack is made, and it
was from hence that the English obtained their
sackf so celebrated in the time of Shakspeare.
Under reciprocal arrangements and due excite-
ment of protection and reward, this island would
produce nearly all the fruits and vegetables com-
mon to the tropic^; but under the prescriptive
and bigoted policy of Spaii^ nothing depending
on human exertion prospers, and, though the Ca-
nary Islands are less eicposed to its despotism than
any other part of the Spanish dominions, every
thing languishes. The extent of this island is
about 30 m. firom north to south, and 28 in breadth,.
Palmas, or Canary, as it is sometimes called, the
chief town^s situate on the coast towards the north-
east end of the island, in the latitude of 28. 43. N.
and 17. 46. W. long, having a tolerable harbour
for vessels of 100 to 200 tons burthen, sheltered
by a promontorv jetting for about two miles into
the sea fVom the norai-east extremity of the
island. Palmas was formerly the capital and seat
of government, both civil and ecclesiastical, of the
whole group of islands,- but the governor now re-
sides at Santa Cruz on Teneriffe ; the bishop con-
tinuing at Palmas, the population of which is es-
timated at about S3,000, and the remainder of the
bland at about the same number.

Caneafe, a town of France, in the department of
Ille and Vilaine, seated on a bay of its name, and
celebrated for oysters. The English landed here
in 1758, and proceeded by land to bum the ships
at St. Malo. It is nine miles east of St. Male,
and 40 N. N. W. of Rennes. Fop. about 3,(K)0.

CandahoTj or KandakaTy a- province of Afgha-
nistan, lying between the 31st and 34th degree
of north latitude, and the 65th and 70th of east
long. ; the chief city, of the same name, is situate
on the frontier of the Persian province of Sigis-
ten. in the lat. of 33. N. and 65. 30 of E. long.
During the entirety of the Persian and Mogul
empires, it was considered the most important
barrier between the two territories, and it was for-
merly the capital and seat of government of the
whole Afghan territory,, which is now at Cabul.
It is however still an im{A)rtent place, both as a
fortress and of commercial intercourse See Jlf-

Cand^sk. a province of the Deccanof Hindoos-
ten, subject to the Poonah Mahrattas : bounded on
the N. by Malwa, E. by Berar, south by Dowlate-
bad and Baglana. The soil is fertile, though
mountainous, and produces abundance of cotton
Burhampour. which surrendered to the British in
1803, is the capital.

CaruUs. a town of France, in the department of
Indre and Loire, at the confluence of the Vienne
with the Loire, 30 m. W. S.W. of Tours.

Candia, an island in the Mediterranean, for-
nerly Crete, lying to the south of the Archipela-

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CAxX ' 1

, It is ISO miles long, from west to east, and

broad, and ]>eryaded by a chain of mountains.
The Bc\l is fertile ; and it abounds in fine cattle,
sheep, swine, poultry, and game'. The chief pro-
ducts are com, wine, oil, wool, silk, and honey.
It was taken by the Turks in 1669, aJfter a war of
25 years. It was invaded by the Venetians, in
16lfe, without effect. Mount Ida, so famous in
history, is in the middle of this island ; beside the
capital of the same name, the other principal
towns are Canea, Retimo, Nuovo, Le^ortino, and
Setia. Total population about 280,000, in nearly
an equal proportion of Greeks and Turks.

Candla, the capital of the island of the same
name, and the see of a Greek archbishop. Thoush
populous formerly, little of it remains beside tJie
walls and the market place ; and the hacrbour is
now fit for nothing but boats. It is seated on the
north side of the island, about 240 m. S. S. W. of
Smyrni, Long. 25. 18. E. lat 35. 19. N. top.
about 13,000.

Candiuj p.t. Rockingham Po. N. II., 36 ra. fr.
Fortsnijuth. Pop. 1,362.

CtmiUeinas hies, two islands in the Southern
Ocean, near Sandwich Land. Long. 27. 13. W.
lat: 57. 10. S.

CamfoTy p.t, Tioga Co. N. Y. 177 m. W. Alba-
ny. Pop. 2,653.

Candy, formerly a kingdom, comprising the
greater part of the intcriorof the island of Cey-
lon ; the chief town, of the same name, is situate
nearly in the centre of the island, on the banks of
a river called the Malivaganga, which falls into
the sea by several channels on the cast side. The
town consists principally of one street about two
miles in length ; the prmcipai buildings being the
former king s palace and Uic temple of Boodh.
It surrendered to a British force in Masch 1815,
and was annexed with the whole of the Island
Ceylon, to the British dominions. Candy is about
70 m. E. N. E. of Colombo, and 85 S. W. of Trin-

Caneaj a strong town in the island of Candia,
with a j^ood harbour. The environs are adorned
with olive -trees, vineyards, gardens, and brooks,
bordered with myrtle and laurel roses. It was
taken from the Venetians by the Turks, in 1645,
after a defence of two months, in which the vic-
tors lost 25,000 men. It is seated on the north
coast of the island, 63 ri. W. by N. of Candia.
Long. 24. 7. E. lat. 35. 27 N.

Caneadeay p.t. Alleghany Co. N. York. Pop.

CaiuUcy a town of Piedmont, at the south ex-
tremity of Asti, 12 m. S. S. E. of the town of
Asti. Pop. about 3,000.

Canett. (See CaifnUe.)

CunetOy a town of Italy, in the Mantuan, seve-
ril times taken and retaken by the "French and
Austrians. It is seated on the Oglio, 20 m. W.
of Mantua.

Canfield, p.t. Trumbull Co. Ohio.

Cansa, a town of the kingdom of Congo, on
the river Zaire, 280 m. N. E. of St. Salvador.
Long. 17. 10. E. lat. 2. 10. S.

Cannano, a town of Naples, in Principato Cite-
riore, 40 m. E. by 8. of Salerno.

Cangoxima, a 8tro;iv seaport of Japan, on the
m^-st southern verge of the isle of Ximo, or Kiusiu.
with a commodious harbonr. At the entrance or
the haven is a light-house, on a lofty rock ; and
at the foot of the rock is a convenient road fbr
shippincr. Here are large and sumptuous ma^-
unes I Klonging to the emperorj some of which

50 CAN

are nroof against fire. Iiong. 1^9. 15. £. lat. 38

Canimay a town of European Turkey, in Alba
nia, near the entrance of the Gull of Venice, 8 m.
8. E. of Avlona.

Canisekay a strong town of Lower Hangvy. It
was taken, in 1600, by the Turks, who held it till
1690, when it was taken by tlie Anstrians, ^flera
blockade of two years, and ceded to the'emperor
by the peace of Carlowitz. It is seated on tho
bank of a small lake, 12 m. N. of the Drtve River,
and 85 m. S. S. W. of Raab. Long. 17. 10. E.
lat. 46. 30. N.

Canisteoy p.t. Steuben Co. N. Y., 2G0 m. 8. W.
Albany. Pop. 620.

CanMLy one of the Hebrides of Scotland, 8. W.
of the Isle of Skye. It is four miles long and one
broad; the hieh parts producing excellent pasture
for cattle, ana tlie low is tolerably fertile. Here
are many basaltic columns. On the 8. £. side
of Canna is Sand Island, separated by a narrow
channel ; and between them is a well Ireqnented
harbour. Long. 6. 38. W. lat. 57. 13. N.

CaftneSy or Cagnesy a small seaport at the 8. E.
extremity of France, distinvaisbed as the place
of debarkation of Napoleon from Elba, on the Ist
of March, 1815. It is about 6 m. S. W. of Nice.

Canofnay a town of Italy, in the Milanese, on
the lake Maggiore, 35 m. N. N. W. of Milan.

Hanogey a town of Hindoostan, in the province
of Agra. It is said to have been the capital of
all l&ndoostan, under the predecessor of Foros.
who fought against Alexander ; and that in the
6th century it contadned 30,000 shops in which
betel-nut was sold. It is now reduced to the size
of a middling town, and seated on the Calini,near
its conflux with the Ganges, 110 m. £. by S. of
Agra. Long. 80. 13. E. fit. 27. 3. N.

Canonaburgy p.t. Washington Co. Pa. 18 m. 8.
W. Pittsburg. Here is a Seminary, founded in
1802, called Jefferson CoUe^. It has 7 instruct-
ers, 120 studente, and a library of 2,500 vols.
There are 2 vacations in May and October. Com-
mencement is in September, The town has an •
elevated and pleasant situation.

Canosay a town of Naples, in Terra di Bari,
which stands on part of the site of the ancient
Canusium, one of the most magnificent citiea of
Italy. Between Canosa and the river Ofiinto aie
stillsome traces of the ancient town of Cannc,
in the plain of which was foucht the oelebrated
battle between Hannibal and we Romans, where-
in the latter lost 45,000 men. Canosa is 4 m.
W. by N. of Trani.

Carundy a town of Hindoostan, in Golconda,
capital of a circar of the same name, seated on
the south bank of the Toonibndra River, 110 ro.
8. 8. W. of HydrabaA Long. 78. 7. E. Ut
15. 48. N.

Canourgue, a town of France, in the departs
ment of I^zere, with a trade in cattle and woolen
stuffs, seated near the Lot, 13 m. S. W.of Mende.

CaneOy a seaport at the S. £. extremity of Nova
Scotia. Near the town is a fine ftihery for cod.
Long. 60. 55. W. lat. 45. 20. N.

CansOy Gut ofy a strait about 25 m. in length
and from a half to a mile wide, between the east
end of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, leading'
firom the Atlantic Ocean through Chedabncto
Bay into St. George's Bay, in Uie Gulf of St.

Canstadtf a town of SuabiaL in the kingdom of
Wurtemburg, with a manufacture of. printed
cottonv. In the neighboiirhood ara knim me

Digitized by





difeinal sprintrB, It is seated on the Neckar, three
m. N. E. of Statt^d.

Cantata an interior department in the south of
France, including ^art of the late province of
Auvcrgne. It is go called from a mountain, neaur
tlie centre of the department, whose summit is
always coven^d with snow. The capital is St.
Flour. Pop. about 250,000.

CantazarOf a town of Naples, in Calabria Cite-
riore, near the sea, 26 m. S. W. of St. Severino.

Canterbury, a city of Kent, Eng. capital of the
county, and the see of an archbishop, who is pri-
mate of all England. It was the Durovcmum
of the Romans, and founded before the Christian
era. The cathedral, a Ia£ge structure, was once
famous for the shrine of Thomas a Beckct, a tur-
bulent priest, who was murdered here in 1170,
and afterwards made a saint. In this cathedral
are interred Henry IV. and Edward the Black
Prince. The city has likewise 14 parish church-
es ; the remains of many Roman antiquities ;
and an ancient castle, with walls and a deep
ditch ; and a grammar-school founded by Henry
VI 11- It is a county of itrelT, «roverned by a roaj'-
• or; and \a noted for excel I*.*- 1 Srawn. The adja-
cent country produces abuidxnce of hops. It is
seated on the river Stour, 5^) m. E. S. E. of Lon-
don, on the high road to Do/er, from which it is
distant 17 m. Pop. in 1821, 12,754.

CantiThunf, p.t. Merrimack Co. N. H. 9 m. from
Concord. Pop. 1,(>63. H*^!* is a village of Sha-

Cauterfntnfj p.t. Windl i i Co. Conn. 40 m. E.
Hartford. Pop. 1,881. Here are some manufac-
torit^s of cotton and -woolc^i. Also a town in Kent

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