John Merle Coulter.

A textbook of botany for colleges and universities (Volume 1, pt 2) online

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Online LibraryJohn Merle CoulterA textbook of botany for colleges and universities (Volume 1, pt 2) → online text (page 1 of 44)
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S01 949073 X



This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEEKS
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE
CENTS a dav thereafter. It is due on the
day indicated below: ^-, ^

7183




TEXTBOOK OF BOTANY

FOR

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES



'T MEMBERS OF THE BOTANICAL STAFF OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

JOHN MERLE COULTER, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR OF PLANT MORPHOLOGY

CHARLES REID BARNES, Ph.D.

LATE PROFESSOR OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

HENRY CHANDLER COWLES, Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PLANT ECOLOGY



VOL. I. MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY



NEW YORK •:• CINCINNATI •:• CHICAGO

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY



Copyright, 19 io, by
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.



A TEXTBOOK OF BOTANY, VOL. I.

w. p. 6



PREFACE

The study of plants has assumed so many points of view that every
laboratory has developed its own method of undergraduate instruc-
tion. No laboratory attempts to include all the phases of work that
may be regarded as belonging to botany; and therefore each one
selects the material and the point of view that seem to it to be the
most appropriate for its own purpose. During the last ten years
the Hull Botanical Laboratory at the University of Chicago has been
developing its undergraduate instruction in botany to meet its own
needs. Freed from the necessity of laying special stress upon the
economic aspects of the subject, and compelled to prepare students
for investigation, it seemed clear that its selection must be the funda-
mental facts and principles of the science. Its endeavor has been
to help the student to build up a coherent and substantial body of
knowledge, and to develop an attitude of mind that will enable him
to grapple with any botanical situation, whether it be teaching cr
investigation. It has been thought useful to present this point of
view in the present volume. The material of course is common
to all laboratories, but its selection, its organization, and its presenta-
tion bear the marks of individual judgment.

The three parts of the book represent the three general divisions
of the subject as organized at the Hull Botanical Laboratory. They
are felt to be the fundamental divisions which should underlie the
work of most subdivisions of botanical investigation. For example,,
a study of the very important subject of plant pathology must pre-
suppose the fundamentals of morphology and physiology ; paleobotany
is, in part, the application of morphology and ecology to fossil plants ;
and scientific plant breeding rests upon the foundations laid by
morphology, physiology, and ecology. In our selection for under-
graduate instruction, therefore, we believe that there has been in-

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IV PREFACE

eluded the essential foundation for most of the varied work that is
included to-day under botany.

We recognize that the presentation of the three great subjects here
included is very compact, but the book is not intended for reading
and recitation. The teacher is expected to use it for suggestive
material and for its organization ; the student is expected to use it
in relating his observations to one another and to the general points
of view that the book seeks to develop. There is a continuity of
presentation in each part, so that random selection may miss the
largest meaning. For example, in the part on morphology, the thread
upon which the facts are strung is the evolution of the plant kingdom,
and each plant introduced has its peculiar application in illustrating
some phase of this evolution. When certain groups are selected for
laboratory study, therefore, the intervening text should be read.

It is important to call attention to the fact that the book has been
prepared for the use of undergraduate students. It does not repre-
sent our conception of graduate work, which should include much
that is omitted here. For example, the graduate student should
be introduced to the original sources of information, which would
involve an extensive citation of literature far beyond the needs of the
undergraduate. Still less has this book been written for our profes-
sional colleagues, who will notice what they may regard as glaring
omissions. Such omissions must be taken to express a deliberate
judgment as to what may be omitted with the least damage to the
undergraduate student. The motive is to develop certain general
conceptions that are felt to be fundamental, rather than to present
an encyclopedic collection of facts. This purpose has demanded
occasionally also a greater apparent rigidity of form in general state-
ments than is absolutely consistent with all the facts ; but it was a
choice between a clear and important conception for one with no
perspective and a contradiction of large truths by isolated facts, result-
ing in confusion. For the same reasons, the extensive terminology
of the subject has been kept in the background as much as possible.
Definitions usually are made an incident to the necessary introduc-
tion of terms. It is assumed that in so far as the definite application
of a term may not seem clear, the student will find a compact defini-
tion in the current dictionaries.



PREFACE v

For the benefit of the teacher and of our professional colleagues,
it should be stated that much attention has been given to the avoid-
ance of any phraseology that might involve a teleological implication.
It has not been possible to avoid such phrases in all cases without
introducing clumsiness of expression or breaking the continuity of
some important series of structures or events. It should be kept in
mind, therefore, that all teleological implications of language that
remain are disavowed.

It seems hardly necessary to say that most of the material presented
in the book has been worked over by classes repeatedly. Some new
matter has been developed incidentally in all the parts in connection
with ordinary laboratory and field work ; and especially in Part III
have many scattered observations and some new points of view been,
included. There has been no intention to include any formal con-
tribution, but merely to present in general outline some of the material
worked over by undergraduates, some of the results of investigation
already published in 'contributions from the laboratory, and some ob-
servations and conclusions that hardly seemed to justify separate pub-
lication. Provision has been made for students with more interest
or more time than usual to get a somewhat larger view, by including
in smaller type further details of structure, additional illustrative
material, and suggestive theories. Most of the illustrations are origi-
nal, in the sense that they have been prepared especially for this
book or have appeared in our own contributions. Those that have
been copied or adapted are credited ; the former usually being indi-
cated by " from," the latter by " after."

The three authors are individually responsible only for their own
parts, and, while they had the advantage of mutual criticism, it could
not be expected that they would agree absolutely at every point.
This will explain any lack of harmony that may be discovered in the
three parts. A morphologist, a physiologist, and an ecologist look
at the same material from different angles, and lay emphasis upon
different features ; but all their points of view should be included
in any general consideration of plants. It is for this reason, also,
that the parts contain a certain amount of repetition, which is abso-
lutely necessary when the same structures or functions are being
considered from different points of view.



VI PREFACE

The selection and preparation of the illustrations for Part I were
under the efficient direction of Dr. W.J. G. Land, and most of the
original drawings of the book were made by Miss Anna Hamilton,
an artist to whom great credit is due. We owe certain original illus-
trations to the cooperation of our colleagues, who are named in con-
nection with the figures ; and also some of the drawings in Part III
to Miss Anna M. Starr. In addition to the mutual criticism of the
authors, Dr. C. J. Chamberlain, Dr. William Crocker, and Mr.
George D. Fuller made helpful suggestions in reading the proof.
For such errors as remain, after all our efforts to eliminate them, the
authors themselves assume full responsibility. In correcting them, we
shall welcome the help of the wider circle of users to whom the book

now goes.

JOHN M. COULTER.

CHARLES R. BARNES.

HENRY C. COWLES.
The University of Chicago.



CONTENTS



Part I. Morphology



HAPTER






PAGE


CHAPTER


PAGE


. Thallophytes ••■•



Online LibraryJohn Merle CoulterA textbook of botany for colleges and universities (Volume 1, pt 2) → online text (page 1 of 44)