John Milton.

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weight lifted and the distance through which it is lifted. Therefore, if
we must handle these weights we should be careful not to hoist them to
unnecessary heights," or to lift a larger load than necessary.

In expanding briefly upon the last three paragraphs quoted from
Mr. Lockett*s paper, it will be found that in studying the economy of
steam in a treating plant attention should first be given to those <f actors
in the installation >yhich develop the greatest consumption of steam.
This statement is made upon the assumption that the boiler plant itself
has been brought to the highest state of efficiency.

Heating of the oil in the storage and working tanks comprises one
of the heaviest duties upon the steam plant. This is, therefore, a prime

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American Wood Preservers' Association 65

Our aim, therefore, should be that the load created in heating oil,
preparatory to admitting same to the retorts, should be the minimum.
We find that the customary method of heating this oil is by the use of
coils or heating pipes in the oil storage and working tanks. This re-
quires heating the entire volume of the contents to the temperature at
which oil is required for use in treatment. Many operators, probably,
have overlooked the self-evident losses that are bound to occur in this
method and that the efficiency of the work is low.

This low efficiency is due to the following conditions :

First : The radiating surface of a storage or working tank is large.
The tank is customarily located in an open atmosphere, where there is
a continuous change of air in contact with the shell of the tank. Heat
is, therefore, rapidly carried away.

Second : The principle of heating a liquid by the use of steam is to
pass this liquid over the^ surface which separates said liquid from the
vapor. It is self-evident that the more the liquid is agitated over such
heating surface the more economical will be the transmission of heat
to the liquid. Reviewing the actual conditions usually encountered
in the heating of working and storage tanks, we find that the volume
of liquid is large as compared with the actual heating surface of the
coils. This results in a condition by virtue of which the individual
molecules come in contact with the heating surface very slowly.
The operation usually depends upon the natural circulation, due to a
portion of the oil being hot while the rest of it is cold. A long time
is, therefore, required to produce the necessary temperature in the
entire volume of oil. This condition would not be of vital impor-
tance if no radiation losses occurred. It is a well-known fact that
while this slow process of heating takes place there is a rapid loss
due to radiation, which loss is proportionate to the time required to
raise the temperature of the oil and increases as the temperature of
the oil increases. Reduced to a few words, we find that the greater
the difference between the temperature of the oil and the atmosphere
the greater is the number of the B. T. U. carried off in the atmosphere.

Third: Invariably the quantity of oil in the tank is greater
than the quantity of oil required in the retort. It results, therefore,
that a considerable proportion of the energy used in heating this
surplus oil is lost. Moreover, by virtue of this surplus, the condition
conducive to making the losses covered in the first and second conditions
just named are increased. To sum up, therefore, the load, or duty, of
the boilers is greater than is required.

In considering a remedy for these large losses it might first be
suggested that we cover the tank with an insulating material. It is
found that on account of its size this expedient is expensive. There
is no question but what this remedy would be found to save money

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66 Eleventh Annual Meeting

for the operator, but it may be considered a makeshift. It is only
partly productive of results and at its best does not eliminate some
of the aforesaid losses.

Let us now consider the real principle of the process. In reviewing
what is being done in these modern days in the heating of water and
other liquids in different processes of manufacture we may find that
present practice of treating plants is an antiquated method of trans-
mitting heat and one that has in many modern plants in other lines
been cast aside as being too uneconomical to be considered. If this
is uneconomical for their use, it may be for a treating plant.

The modern method for heating large quantities of water or other
liquids used in manufacture is by the use of closed heaters, the
primary principle of which is to break up the liquid into small
volumes and passing it through a series of tubes surrounded by
steam. This causes all molecules of the liquid to come into rapid
and continuous contact with the heating surface. The liquid is heated
during the process of delivering it to the machine or whatever purpose
for which the hot liquid is used. These tubes are nested close
together. The outside radiating surface is reduced to a minimum.
This permits the outside of the heating device to be insulated at a
smill cost. The heater is located inside the building. This also assists
in reducing the radiation loss.

Such a type of heater has the advantage of heating only the
quantity of oil required in the retort. ,The heating process takes
• place, as stated, while the oil is passing from the tank to the retort.
This may be made to occur at the desired rate, employing the same
pump that is now being used or a gravity flow.

By the use of two of these heaters exhaust steam may be used
in one. The oil is thus preheated before passing to the second or
live steam heater, where the final temperature is attained. It is like-
wise possible to arrange, by the use of thermostatically controlled
valves, to heat the oil to the required temperature. These automatic
valves are controlled by the temperature of the outgoing oil, so that the
minimum amount of live steam is admitted.

These heaters are also more efficient as transmitters of heat.
They not only break up the liquid into small volumes but require less
steam by having the tubes of thin steel or brass.

This t)rpe of heater has shown, in other lines of business, a large
economy as compared with the older method of heating large quantities
of liquid in tanks. Inasmuch as the efficiency has been ^so great in
other lines of manufacturing it would appear to merit our serious
consideration in its application to treating plants. The principle upon
which this method is based is not a patented one. In fact, the theory
is quite simple.

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American Wood Preservers^ Association 67

The interest of the writer was drawn to this method by an
installation for heating water in laundries. He .has since learned
that it is being used quite extensively in heating crude oil for loading
in and out of tanks and vessels. The writer understands that the
time required to unload a 50,000-barrel tank of Mexican crude oil by
this method is less than half of what was necessary under the old
method. A number of these installations have been made on tank
steamers, as well as storage tanks, apparently with unqualified success
physically, as well as affording marked economy of cost.

MR. J. H. WATERMAN : Mr. President, I think on plant opera-
tion there are two points that ought to be emphasized and I do not
know that they have touched on them. I would say one is how well
you can do the work. That does not mean overdoing it, but to see that
the work is well and thoroughly done. The other point, you are not
getting any efficiency out of your plant unless you have material in
the retort and the door is closed and you are operating. I have been
over this country quite a little and ofttimes I find retort doors wide
open and nobody seems excited. If our retort doors are open there
is a man that is very much excited around Galesburg. We want first
something doing in the retort or coming out or something in the
retort being treated, and you would be surprised if you keep a record of
the time your retorts are idle the percentage of loss you have.

Another point I want to make on treating is with reference to the
storage of treated material at the plant. I do not believe anybody stores
very much treated material at a plant, do they? We do not. You
want to be careful, because the insurance man will go after you pretty
hard if you store very much. I see my friend Mr. Rex, from the way
he expresses himself without saying anything, evidently stores a large
amount of treated material.

I want to say one word on this steam proposition. I was asked
to write a discussion on this, and I presume you people will all feel
that for once my judgment was good when I refused to do it, but T
have a criticism to make. In places in his paper Mr. Lockett talks
about creosoting plants as though there was not any other plant in
the United States that treated timber. There are plenty of plants, or
there are some that treat timber, or rather ties, with zinc. I would
suggest before this is printed that he strike out that word and say
"treating plants." In other ways I want to compliment Mr. Lockett
very highly on all of the paper.

MR. C. M. TAYLOR: Mr. President, I would like to see Mr.
Crawford's remarks carried a little further, and in that connection

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68 EiyEvENTH Annual Meeting

it is rather remarkable that we have as President this year a man who
as a plant operator is second to none and who in his plant operations
handles the points brought up by Mr. Crawford in a very nice way.
He has his operating department and his chemical department. The
operating department covers the plant operation. The chemical depart-
ment is the department which checks the plant operation. In other
words, I doubt if there is any plant in the United States that has a
closer inspection of treated material than those plants operated by
our President. I think we should all take due notice of his methods
of operating and of his methods of surmounting the difficulties
brought out by Mr. Crawford.

THE PRESIDENT: Gentlemen, we have made most excellent
progress in our program this morning, and in order not to delay or
to lose the advantage that we have gained and in order also to give
everybody full opportunity to discuss a paper that they did not
expect until this afternoon we are now going to take a recess, and I
hope that each of you will make a special effort to get back in your
seats so we can start the session promptly at 2 o'clock. I hope we
will have a full discussion of this subject.

An adjournment was then taken until 2 o'clock P. M.

January 19.

The convention came to order at 2 o'clock P. M.

THE PRESIDENT : We will now continue the discussion on the
report of Committee No. 4 and"Mr. Lockett's paper.

MR. W. W. LAWSON : I want to ask this Committee to modify
the recommendation regarding the minimum amount of dry chloride
of zinc that is to be injected per cubic foot which reads: "Since estab-
lished records, supplemented with laboratory tests, indicate that one-
half pound of dry chloride of zinc per cubic foot of timber is essential
to insure proper protection against decay, the use of smaller quantities
is not considered standard practice." There is one railroad company
that for more than twenty years has had its ties treated with one-
quarter pound of dry chloride of zinc per cubic foot of timber, and I
think the results generally have been satisfactory.

MR. F. D. MATTOS: Mr. President, I would like to state in
regard to that the Southern Pacific Company only specifies one-
quarter pound per cubic foot of fused zinc chloride, and we are getting
good results. We do not, however, adhere to one-quarter pound, our
absorption ranging from one-quarter to three-tenths pound per cubic
foot. We aim to weaken the strength of our solution so that we can

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American Wcmdd Preservers^ Association 69

treat to refusal and keep the absorption as near one-quarter pound
per cubic foot as possible. Douglas fir ties are what we are receiving
for treatment.

MR. F. J. ANGIER: I would like to ask Mr. Mattos if he has
any records to show what life is obtained from a quarter-pound zinc
chloride treatment.

MR. F. D. MATTOS : Of course, we do not season our ties. In
some cases they are put in track immediately after treatment, and we
get an average life of about ten years. We have had cases where they
lasted even longer than that, and on the Portland Division ties are being
taken out that have been in from 12 to 15 years.

MR. F. J. ANGIER: Have you any records available that you
could give us?

MR. F. D. MATTOS : Not with me.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Taylor, will you give us your idea?
You have handled zinc a long time.

MR. C. M. TAYLOR : I hardly have anything I can offer which
would be of any value to a person considering the use of zjnc chloride
because I have no definite results. The Southern Pacific have always
been held up as people who have had wonderful results with % pound
zinc chloride to the cubic foot, and I doubt whether anyone else in the
United States has had anything like the results with ^ pound per
cubic foot treatment that they have had, and I do not think we alto-
gether feel that they have taken everything into cons,ideration in work-
ing up a ten-year life from V4. pound treated ties. The zinc ties we
have had the best use out of were treated by Mr. Chanute, but the rec-
ords of those ties are not available. There is no question but that you
can get your money back in treating ties with zinc chloride in most lo-
cations, but our service tests are not of a character that we can come
out in the Association and say that 3^ou are going to get definite results
in every location where it is used, but there ought not to be any hesi-
tancy in using zinc chloride in a great many localities in the United
• States.

MR. W. W. LAWSON : I do not wish to be understood as recom-
n'ending the adoption of V4, pound of dry chloride of zinc per cubic
foot of timber as standard practice for all. However, I do not want
the use of this amount condemned, for in many places it has proved
to be sufficient to prevent decay until the ties were worn out mechani-

MR. F. D. MATTOS : Mr. President, I think the life of ties
treated with zinc chloride depends entirely upon the class of ma-
terial you get to treat. I believe if you treat loblolly pine or any of
those spongy, sappy woods the zinc chloride is more apt to leach out.

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70 Eleventh Annual Meeting

We have some zinc chloride treated ties that were placed in our experi-
mental track that have been in nine years and they are still there.

MR. WM. J. TOWNSLEY: Mr. Chairman, may I have a mo-
ment ?

Somebody has tried to lay down an arbitrary rule that a given
quantity of chloride of zinc is enough. It may be too much even
though it be the minimum quantity. That is to say, it may be used in
timber that is going to be used under conditions where practically no
preservative is necessary. On the other hand, that timber may be used
under conditions quite adverse, whei-e two or three or even four times
as much chloride of zinc would be none too much. In one case (Mr.
Taylor just referred to it) the Union Pacific had good results with %
pound treatment. Did I misunderstand you?

MR. C. M. TAYLOR : Southern Pacific.

MR. J. H. WATERMAN : The Union Pacific uses % pound too.

MR. WM. J. TOWNSLEY: They did use % pound for a time
after the consolidation of the two systems, and -then came back to four-
tenths, while I believe the Southern Pacific still adheres to % pound.
I know of one plant at one time operating on a 6 per cent, solution,
injecting all the timber would take, and I have seen the operation re-
port showing that a number of charges had taken 1.8 pounds of dry
chloride of zinc per cubic foot. Their instructions were to put in all
it would take. That was without any question a waste of chloride of
zinc. If each plant operator could know for a certainty where and
under what conditions the ties he treats are going to be used he could
regulate his treatment according to conditions, but as he cannot in the
majority of cases know these things he is obliged to (at least he ought
to) put in enough preservative, no matter whether chloride of zinc or
a mixture, to protect the timber efficiently against the most adverse
conditions that may be encountered. It seems to me, speaking purely
as a chloride of zinc man, that it is impossible to say arbitrarily that %
pound is the proper amount or that four-tenths, five-tenths or six-tenths
is the proper amount to be used under all conditions, but that the quan- .
tity must be determined by the character of the wood and the service
that is expected from the timber treated.

THE PRESIDENT : Is Mr. Maitland of the Union Pacific in the

MR. G. F. MAITLAND: Yes, sir.

THE PRESIDENT: I would like to hear from you, Mr. Mait-

MR. G. F. MAITLAND : We are using 0.4 pound of zinc chloride
per cubic foot of timber. While the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific
were under the same management we used % pound in accordance
with Southern Pacific practice. However, after the two systems were

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American Wcx)d Preservers' Association 71

separated, we went back to our former practice of using 0.4 pound of
zinc chloride per cubic foot.

THE PRESIDENT: I would like one report in here. I do not
know whether Mr. Lawson will takfe exceptions to it, but Mr. Mattos,
who is Superintendent of the West Oakland plant of the Southern
Pacific System, is treating Douglas fir ties cut out of large trees, and I
believe it is safe to say that 85 per cent, are heartwood.

MR. F. D. MATTOS : Yes, I guess it is more than that. There
is little or no sapwood, and what we aim to do is to work as low a
strength solution of zinc chloride as we can, that is to say, from a 2.2
per cent, to about 2.6 per cent, and treat to refusal, and in this way
get the solution diffused throughout the tie. We find in working a solu-
tion of this strength that in treating Douglas fir ties our absorption is
from ^ to 0.3 pound of fused zinc chloride per cubic foot. Our aver-
age absorption for the year 1914 was 0.28 pound per cubic foot at West
Oakland and 0.26 pound per cubic foot at our Los Angeles plant.

THE PRESIDENT: What per cent, solution do you use, Mr.
Mattos ?

MR. F. D. MATTOS : Anywhere from 2.2 to about 2.6, depending
upon the class of timber from a point of resistance.

THE PRESIDENT: Now that has everything to do with what
you are going to use. We all know that the heartwood of the timber
does not take the penetration like the sapwood. Anybody who uses 75
per cent, or 85 per cent, heartwood could very easily and rightfully use
a much less amount of zinc per cubic foot and be in safety than those
of us that are using more porous wood and a larger per cent, of sap-
wood. I, personally, would prefer a little stronger solution for that
class of timber. A portion of our timber is similar to Mr. Mattos', that
is, it is longleaf t)ine, and I would say that it was 85 per cent, heart-
wood. We use on that timber only 3 1-2 to 4 per cent, solution and
treat the timber to refusal, as is the case in Mr. Mattos* practice. While
safety to use a little stronger solution in the all-heart timber. I hope
Mr. Lawson, if he has any objection to that, will make it plain, because
I do not want in any way to influence anything here.

MR. J. H. WATERMAN: What do you average per cubic foot?

THE PRESIDENT : We average 0.4 in longleaf timber ; in this
sawn-heart timber we average 0.4 to 0.5. In the loblolly and shortleaf
and the timbers of that nature we run as high as 0.65 pound of dry
zinc to the cubic foot.

MR. W. W. LAWSON : I vTOuld like to ask Mr. Rex if he would
use the same strength of solution for treating both longleaf and loblolly
pine ties ?

THE PRESIDENT: No, sir. We feel as though any timber
should be treated to refusal regardless of the fact whether it is sap,

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72 ' Eleventh Annual Meeting

heart, hardwood or softwood, and we regulate our strength of solu-
tion so that we get it somewhere near an average of 0.5 pound. As I
say, in the one case it is 0.4 and in the other case 0.65, but we use a
solution that will give us as near 0.5 pound as we can well work it.

MR. W. W. LAWSON: Do you have in mind about what per
cent, solution you use on the soft loblolly pine ties?

THE PRESIDENT: From 1% to 2.

MR. W. W. LAWSON : It seems to me that the present method
of measuring the treatment of ties by a specified amount of dry chloride
of zinc per cubic foot is wrong. I think that the strength of the solu-
tion should govern the treatment. Take, for instance, our .Southern
pines. The longleaf pine is naturally more resistant to decay than lob-
lolly pine, yet the universal practice has been to use a stronger solution,
higher in toxic value, on the wood that is resistant to decay than that used
on the wood whick decays very quickly if not preserved. Longleaf pine
ties, averaging 15 per cent, of sapwood, treated with 1% pounds of
chloride of zinc per tie, will have practically all of the chloride of zinc
in the 15 per cent, of sapwood, while loblolly pine ties, 100 per cent,
sapwood, treated with the same amount of chloride of zinc per tie, will
have that zinc distributed throughout the tie, thus giving the longleaf
tie more zinc per unit of wood actually treated than is given the same
unit in the loblolly. This is certainly not logical, and because it has been
followed zinc-treated loblolly pine ties have not given the life expected.

THE PRESIDENT : May I call on Mr. Ford of the Rock Island ?

MR. C. F. FORD: I do not believe I have anything to say, Mr.

THE PRESIDENT: You can tell what your practice is, can
you not, Mr. Ford?

MR. C. F. FORD: It is our practice to use 0.5 pound of zinc
chloride per cubic foot of timber. This applies to cross ties, switch
ties or bridge timbers. In the treatment of cross ties, switch ties or
bridge timbers we use a 4 per cent, solution. In the treatrtient of
pine ties we use a 2 per cent, solution.

THE PRESIDENT : Mr. Steinmayer, we would like to hear from

MR. O. C. STEINMAYER: Mr. President, as to the remarks
made by the previous speaker in regard to the strength of the solution
and the apparent inconsistency in the suggestion to use a strbnger
solution for heartwood timber and a weaker solution where the wood
is mostly sap, I think he has failed to take into consideration that one
of the objections to zinc chloride is it leaches very badly. Consequently
in the heartwood ties, in which most of the penetration is on the out-
side where this leaching first occurs, you will have to protect that wood
-with a greater amount of zinc chloride, necessitating a stronger solu-

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American Wood Preservers' Association 73

tion, in order to make it as resistant to decay as the center or untreated

MR. AUGUST MEYER : If I understand Mr. Lawson's question
rightly, I may answer this by saying that the strength of a zinc chloride
solution must be governed entirely by the absorptive power of the wood
which it is desired to treat ; for instance, if Mr. Lawson wants to treat
shortleaf pine, cypress or other very easy treating wood, which absorbs
from 35 to 40 per cent, by volume of solution and 0.5 pound dry zinc
chloride per cubic foot is required, he will, of course, use a solution
which will give him 0.5 pound of dry zinc chloride per cubic foot after
the wood has been treated to refusal. On the other hand, if Mr. Law-
son wants to treat beech, red oak, tamarack or other similar refractive
wood, which absorbs only from 18 to 24 per cent, by volume of solution,
he will, of course, be obliged to use a much stronger solution than he
would use for the easier treating woods in order to get the proper
amount of dry zinc chloride per cubic foot.

THE PRESIDENT : Mr. Bacon, have you some remarks to offer

MR. W. L. BACON : Our practice on the Northwestern during my
experience, covering a period of ten years, has been to inject an aver-
age of 0.4 pound of zinc chloride per cubic foot. This we did for five
years (1903 to 1908), the process used being the Wellhouse, changing
in 1908 to the Card process (zinc-creosote mixture). We followed the
practice of injecting the same amount of zinc chloride as with the
former or Wellhouse process. At the present time, using the Burnett

Online LibraryJohn MiltonPolitische hauptschriften. Uebersetzt und mit anmerkungen versehen → online text (page 7 of 49)