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CEITICAL MISCELLANIES



Ex Libria
C. K. OGDEN

CEITICAL
MISCELLANIES



BY

JOHN MOELEY



VOL. Til.



iLontion

MACMILLAN AND CO.

AND NEW YORK
1888

All rights reserved



First printed 1 886
Reprinted iS88.



DA

^>3



r LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CAUFCT^mA
SANTA BARB.\T>A



CONTENTS OF VOL. III.



ON POPULAR CULTURE.

Introduction ........

Importance of provincial centres ....

Report of the Midland Institute ....

Success of the French classes

Less success of English history ....

Value of a short comprehensive course

Dr. Arnold's saying about history ' traced backwards '

Value of a short course of general history

Value of a sound notion of Evidence

Text-books of scientific logic not adequate for popular

objects . .

A new instrument suggested

An incidental advantage of it

General knowledge not necessarily superficial .
Poj)ular culture and academic organisation
Some of the great commonplaces of study
Conclusion



PAGE

1

2
4
5
6
8
9
10
16

21
21
23
25
25
29
34



THE DEATH OF MR. MILL.

Peculiar office of the Teacher ....

Mill's influence in the universities and the press



37
39



VI



CONTENTS.



His union of science with aspiration

And of courage with patience .

His abstinence from society

Sense of the tendency of society to relapse

Peculiar trait of his authority .

The writer's last day with him



I'AOE

40
42
45
46
47
48



MR. MILL'S AUTOBIOGEAPHY.

The spirit of search ....

Key to Mill's type of character and its value

Sensibility of his intellect

Yet no reaction against his peculiar education

Quality of the Autobiography

One of its lessons — /jt/ifivqao airi<TTeiv

Mill's aversion to the spirit of sect .

Not a hindrance to systematisatiou .

Criticism united with belief .

Practical difficulties in the union of loyalty with tolerance

Impressiveness of Mill's self-effacement .

His contempt for socialistic declamation .

Yet the social aim paramount in him

Illustrated in his attack on Hamilton

And in the Logic ....

The book on the Subjection of Women

The two crises of life ....

Mill did not escape the second of them .

Influence of Wordsworth

Hope from reformed institutions

This hope replaced by efforts in a deeper vein

Popular opinion of such efforts

Irrational disparagement of Mill's hope .



53
54
56
57
58
60
60
61
63
64
65
68
69
71
72
75
77
78
79
79
80
81
82



CONTENTS.

Mill's conception of liappiness contrasted with his father's
Remarks on his withdrawal from society ....
It arose from no moral valetudinarianism



vn

PAQB

84
88
91



THE LIFE OF GEORGE ELIOT.



On Literary Biogi'aphy .
As a mere letter-writer will not rar
masters ....

Mr. Myers's Essay .
Letter to Mr. Harrison .
Hebrew her favourite study
Limitless persistency in application
Eomola .....

Mr. R. W. Jklackay's Progress of the Intellect
The period of her productions, 1856-1876
Mr. Browning. .....

An resthetic not a doctrinal teacher
Disliked vehemence ....

Conclusion ......



k amonjf the famous



93

96
100
107
112
113
114
120
124
125
126
130
131



ON PATTISON'S MEMOIRS.

His influence 133

Industry and spirit his best credentials .... 135

Youth 136

139
140
142
145
161
169



Went as a fresliman to Oriel in 1832 . . . .
Affected by a profound weakness of will and character
The motto of his life — ' Quicquid hie operis fiat pcenitet '

Newman

Mr. Goldwin Smith .......

Life of Milton



Vlll



CONTENTS.



Coutributes live biographies to the new edition of thi:

Encyclopcedia Britannica 171

Delivers a lecture on Books and Critics, 1877 . . .171
In 1871 and 1872 published editions of the Essay on 3Ian

s.n(\. The Satires and Epistles of Pope . . .172



HAREIET MAETINEAU.



mtrortuctory


.






. 175


Early days






. 178


Literary ordeal






. 180


Success of the Tales on Tolitifal Economy






. 181


Her feeling, not literary, but truly social






. 182


London Society (1832) ....






. 184


Character of her judgments on Men








. 187


The Whigs








. 188


Carlyle's influence ....








189


Interest in American slavery .








192


Her first novel ....








194


The Atkinson Letters








196


Her new religious opinions








197


Eastern travels ....








199


Retirement to the Lakes ....








200


Her manner of life








202


Translation of Comte ....








204


Her right estimate of literary work








205


Her Biogi-aphic Sketches








208


Characteristics








210



W. R GEEG : A SKETCH.



Characteristics

Born at Manchester in 1809



213
215



CONTENTS.

Mathew Henry Greg .......

Goes to the Edinburgh University in the winter of 1826-

1827
Sir William Hamilton
Mother died, 1828 .
The Apprentice House
De Tocqueville
Goes abroad

Genius of the Nineteenth Century
Starts in business on his own account at Bury, 1833
Marries the daughter of Dr. Henry in 1835
Moves to the Lakes
Sir George Cornewall Lewis
Offered a place on the Board of Customs, 1856
Letter to James Speddiug, May 24, 1856
Marries again in 1874 the daughter of Mr. James Wilson
Death of his brother-in-law, Walter Bagehot (1877) .
Letter to Lady Derby
Died November 1881
Enigmas of Life, l%7b
Letter to Lord Grey, May 28, 1874
Conclusion



IX

PAGE

217



220
221
224
225
229
231
232
235
236
238
244
244
245
246
247
247
248
252
255
256



FEANCE IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.



M. Taine as a man of letters .

Political preparation needed for the historian

M. Taine's conception of history

Its shortcomings .....

Chief thesis of his book ....

The expression of this thesis not felicitous

Its substance unsatisfactory

Cardinal reason for demurring to it



261
262
265
266
268
269
272
275



X CONTENTS,

PAGE

Adaptation of the literary teaching of the eighteenth

century to the social crisis ...... 277

Wlij"^ that teaching prevailed in France while it withered

in England 280

Social Elements. The French Court . . . .282

The Nobility 283

^r. Taine exaggerates the importance of literature . . 286

Historic doctrine could have saved nothing . . . 287

Lesson of the American Revolution .... 288

Conclusion 289

THE EXPANSION OF ENGLAND.

Politics and History 291

In relation to the eighteenth century .... 294

Mr. Green and his Ilistonj of the English PcopJr . . 297

The secession of the American colonies .... 300

The mechanical and industrial development of England . 301

The Americans and Independence 303

The moral of I\Ir. Seeley's book 305

Organisation in time of war ...... 306

Sir Henry Parkes on Australia ..... 307

Mr. Archibald Forbes and the Australian colonies . .313
Proposals made by the Earl of Dunraven regarding the

colonies ......... 316

The formation of an imperial Zollverein or Greater Customs

Union 318

Sir Thomas Farrer's Fai7' Trade v. Free Trade . . 318

The colonies to be represented in the British Parliament . 319

Lord Grey 320

Mr. W. E. Forster's address on our Colonial Empire . 321

The Newfoundland Fishery dispute .... 329

The Germanic Confederation ...... 331

Conclnsion ......... 334



CONTENTS.



XI



AUGUSTE COMTE.









PAGE


Introduction 337


Influence of Saint Simon






340


Marriage






343


Serious illness ....






345


Official work






347


Completion of Positive Philosoi)hy .






349


J. S. Mill






350


Question of Subsidy






352


Money






353


Literary method ....






354


Hygitnc cirihralc ....






356


Madame de Yaux ....






356


Positive Polity ....






358


Death






359


Comte's philosophic consistency






360


Early writings . , . .






361


Law of the Three States .






363


Classification of sciences .






366


The double key of Positive Philosophy






368


Criticism on Comte's classification .






369


Sociological conceptions .






371


Method






371


Decisive importance of intellectual development




373


Historical elucidations .....




374


Their value and popularity ....




. .374


Social dynamics in the Positive Polity


.




. 375


The Positivist system






376


The key to social regeneration


.




377


The Religion of Humanity






377



xn



The Great Being
Remarks ou tlio Religion
The worship and discipline
The priesthood
Women .
Conclusion



CONTENTS.






rAGi;




378




37S


le . . . . .


3S0




381




382


e » « » !


383



ON POPULAR CULTURE.



AN ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE TOWN HALL, BIRMINGHAM
(OCTOBER 5, 1876), BY THE WRITER, AS PRESIDENT
OP THE MIDLAND INSTITUTE.

The proceedings which have now been brought satis-
factorily to an end are of a kind which nobody who
has sensibihty as well as sense can take a part in
without some emotion. An illustrious French philo-
sopher who happened to be an examiner of candidates
for admission to the Polytechnic School, once confessed
that, when a youth came before him eager to do his
best, competently taught, and of an apt intelligence,
he needed all his self-control to press back the tears
from his eyes. Well, wdien we think how much
industry, patience, and intelligent discipline ; how^
many hard hours of self-denying toil ; how many
temptations to worthless pleasures resisted ; how
much steadfast feeling for things that are honest and
true and of good report — are all represented by the
young men and young women to whom I have had
the honour of giving your prizes to-night, we must
all feel our hearts warmed and gladdened in generous

VOL. III. ^ B



2 ON POPULAIl CULTURE.

sympatliy with so much excellence, so many good
liojies, and so honourable a display of those qualities
which make life better worth having for ourselves,
and are so likely to make the world better worth
livini^ in for those who are to come after us.

If a prize-giving is always an occasion of lively
satisfaction, my own satisfaction is all the greater at
this moment, because your Institute, which is doing
such good work in the world, and is in every respect
so prosperous and so flourishing, is the creation of
the people of your own district, without si;bsidy and
without direction either from London, or from Oxford,
or from Cambridge, or from any other centre what-
ever. Nobody in this town at any rate needs any
argument of mine to persuade him that we can only
be sure of advancing all kinds of knowledge, and
developing our national life in all its plenitude and
variety, on condition of multiplying these local centres
lioth of secondary and higher education, and encourag-
ing each of them to fight its own battle, and do its
work in its own way. For my own part I look with
the utmost dismay at the concentration, not only of
population, but of the treasures of instruction, in our
vast city on the banks of the Thames. At Birming-
ham, as I am informed, one has not far to look for
an example of this. One of the branches of your
multifarious trades in this town is the manufacture
of jewellery. Some of it is said commonly to l)c
wanting in taste, elegance, skill ; though some of it
also — if I am not misinformed — is good enough to



ON POPULAR CULTURE, 3

be passed off at Rome and at Paris, even to connois-
seurs, as of Roman or French production. Now the
nation possesses a most superb collection of all that
is excellent and beautiful in jewellers' work. When
I say that the nation possesses it, I mean that London
possesses it. The University of Oxford, by the way,
has also purchased a portion, but that is not at pre-
sent accessible. If one of your craftsmen in that
kind wants to profit by these admirable models,
he must go to London. What happens is that he
goes to the capital and stays there. Its superficial
attractions are too strong for him. You lose a clever
workman and a citizen, and he adds one more atom
to that huge, overgro"\vn, and unwieldy community.
Now, why, in the name of common sense, should not
a portion of the Castellani collection pass six months
of the year in Birmingham, the very place of all others
where it is most likely to be of real service, and to
make an effective mark on the national taste 1 ^

1 Sir Henry Cole, C. B., \viites to the Times (Oct. 13) on this
suggestion as follows : — ' In justice to the Lords President of
the Council on Education, I hope you will allow me the oppor-
tunity of stating that from 1855 the Science and Art Depart-
ment has done its very utmost to induce schools of art to receive
deposits of works of art for study and popular examination, and
to circulate its choicest objects useful to manufacturing industr}^
In corroboration of this assertion, please to turn to p. 435 of
the twenty-second Report of the Department, just issued. You
will there find that ui)wards of 26,907 objects of art, besides
23,911 paintings and drawings, have been circulated since 1855,
and in some cases have been left for several months for exhibi-
tion in the localities. They have been seen by more than



4 ON POrUJAU CULTUllE.

To pass on to the more general remarks whicli you
arc accustomed to expect from the President of the
Institute on this occasion. When I consulted one of
your townsmen as to the subject which he thought
would be most useful and most interesting to you,
he said : ' Pray talk about anything you please, if it
is only not Education.' There is a saying that there
are two kinds of foolish people in the world, those
who give advice, and those who do not take it. My
friend and I in this matter represent these two in-
teresting divisions of the race, for in spite of what he
said, it is upon Education after all that I propose to
offer you some short observations. You will believe
it no affectation on my part, when I say that I shall
do so with the sincerest Avillingness to be corrected by
those of wider practical experience in teaching. I
am well aware, too, that I have very little that is new
to say, but education is one of those matters on which

6,000,000 of visitors, besides having been copied by students,
etc., and the localities have taken the great sum of £116,182
for showing them.

'The Department besides has tried every efficient means to
induce other public institutions, which are absolutely choked
with superfluous specimens, to concur in a general principle of
circulating the nation's works of art, -but without success.

' The chief of our national storehouses of works of art actually
repudiates the idea that its objects are collected for purposes of
education, and declares that they are only ' things rare and
curious,' the very reverse of what common sense says they
are.

' Further, the Department, to tempt Schools of Art to acquire
objects permanently for art museums attached to them, offered
a grant in aid of 50 per cent of the cost price of the objects.'



ON POPULAR CULTURE. 5

much that has already been said will long bear saying
over and over again.

I have been looking through the Eeport of your
classes, and two things have rather struck me, which
I will mention. One of them is the very large attend-
ance in the French classes. This appears a singularly
satisfactory thing, because you could scarcely do a
hard-working man of whatever class a greater service
than to give him easy access to French literature.
Montesquieu used to say that he had never known a
pain or a distress which he could not soothe by half
an hour of a good book ; and perhaps it is no more
of an exaggeration to say that a man who can read
French with comfort need never have a dull hour.
Our own literature has assuredly many a kingly name.
In boundless riches and infinite imaginative variety,
there is no rival to Shakespeare in the world ; in
energy and height and majesty Milton and Burke
have no masters. But besides its great men of this
loftier sort, France has a long list of authors who
have produced a literature whose chief mark is its
agreeableness. As has been so often said, the genius
of the French language is its clearness, firmness, and
order; to this clearness certain circumstances in the
history of French society have added the delightful
qualities of liveliness in union Avith urbanity. Now
as one of the most important parts of popular educa-
tion is to put people in the way of amusing and
refreshing themselves in a rational rather than an
irrational manner, it is a great gain to have given



6 ON POPULAR CULTURE,

them the key to the most amusing and refreshing set
of books in the world.

And here, perhaps, I may be permitted to remark
that it seems a pity that Eacine is so constantly used
as a school-book, instead of some of the moderns who
are nearer to ourselves in ideas and manners. Racine
is a great and admirable writer ; but what you want
for ordinary readers who have not much time, and
whose faculties of attention are already largely ex-
hausted by the more important industry of the day,
is a book which brings literature more close to actual
life than such a poet as Eacine does. This is exactly
one of the gifts and charms of modern French. To
put what I mean very shortly, I would say, by way
of illustration, that a man who could read the essays
of Ste. Beuve with moderate comfort would have in
his hands — of course I am now speaking of the active
and busy part of the world, not of bookmen and
students — would, I say, have in his hands one of the
very best instruments that I can think of ; such work
is exquisite and instructive in itself, it is a model of
gracious writing, it is full of ideas, it breathes the
happiest moods over us, and it is the most suggestive
of guides, for those who have the capacity of exten-
sive interests, to all the greater spheres of thought
and history.

This word brings me back to the second fact that
has struck me in your Eeport, and it is this. The
subject of English history has apparently so little
popularity, that the class is as near being a failure as



ON POPULAR CULTURE. 7

anything connected "\vith the Midland Institute can
be. On the whole, whatever may be the ability and
the zeal of the teacher, this is in my humble judg-
ment neither very surprising nor particularly morti-
fying, if we think what history in the established
conception of it means. How are we to expect
workmen to make their way through constitutional
antiquities, through the labyrinthine shifts of party
intrigue at home, and through the entanglements of
intricate diplomacy abroad — ' shallow village tales,' as
Emerson calls them 1 These studies are fit enough
for professed students of the special subject, but such
exploration is for the ordinary run of men and women
impossible, and I do not know that it would lead them
into very fruitful lands even if it were easy. You
know what the great Duke of Marlborough said : that
he had learnt all the history he ever knew out of Shake-
speare's historical plays. I have long thought that if
we persuaded those classes who have to fight their
own little Battles of Blenheim for bread every day,
to make such a beginning of history as is furnished
by Shakespeare's plays and Scott's novels, we should
have done more to imbue them with a real interest
in the past of mankind, than if we had taken them
through a course of Hume and Smollett, or Hallam
on the English Constitution, or even the dazzling
Macaulay. What I for one should like to see in such
an institution as this, would be an attempt to com-
press the whole history of England into a dozen or
fifteen lectures — lectures of course accompanied by



8 ON POPULAR CULTURE.

catechetical instruction. I am not so extravacrant as
to dream that a short general course of this kind
would be enough to go over so many of the details
as it is desiral)le for men to know, but details in
popular instruction, though not in study of the writer
or the university professor, are only important after
you have imparted the largest general truths. It
is the general truths that stir a life-like curiosity
as to the particulars which they are the means of
lighting up. Now this short course would be quite
enough to present in a bold outline — and it need not
be a whit the less true and real for being both bold
and rapid — the great chains of events and the decisive
movements that have made of ourselves and our in-
stitutions what we and what they are — the Teutonic
beginnings, the Conquest, the Great Charter, the
Hundred Years' War, the Eeformation, the Civil
Wars and the Eevolution, the Emancipation of the
American Colonies from the Monarchy. If this course
were framed and filled in with a true social intelli-
gence — men would find that they had at the end of
it a fair idea — an idea that might be of great value,
and at any rate an idea much to be preferred to tliat
blank ignorance which is in so many cases practically
the only alternative — of the large issues of our past,
of the antagonistic principles that strove with one
another for mastery, of the chief material forces and
moral currents of successive ages, and above all of
those great men and our fathers that begat us — the
Pyms, the Hampdens, the Cromwells, the Chathams



ON POPULAE CULTURE. 9

— yes, and shall we not say the Washingtons — to
Avhose sagacity, bravery, and unquenchable ardour for
justice and order and equal laws all our English-speak-
ing peoples owe a debt that can never be paid.

Another point is worth thinking of, besides the
reduction of history for your purposes to a compre-
hensive body of rightly grouped generalities. Dr.
Arnold says somewhere that he wishes the public
might have a history of our present state of society
traced backwards. It is the present that really interests
us ; it is the present that we seek to understand and
to explain. I do not in the least want to know what
happened in the past, except as it enables me to see
my way more clearly through what is happening
to-day. I want to know what men thought and did
in the thirteenth century, not out of any dilettante or
idle antiquarian's curiosity, but because the thirteenth
century is at the root of what men think and do in
the nineteenth. Well then, it cannot be a bad
educational rule to start from what is most interesting,
and to work from that outwards and backwards. By
beginning with the present we see more clearly what
are the two things best worth attending to in history
— not party intrigues nor battles nor dynastic affairs,
nor even many acts of parliament, but the great
movements of the economic forces of a society on
the one hand, and on the other the forms of re-
ligious opinion and ecclesiastical organisation. All
the rest are important, but their importance is sub-
sidiary.



10 ON POPULAR CULTURE.

Allow me to make one more remark on tin's
subject. If a dozen or a score of wise lectures would
sufllcc for a general picture of the various phases
through which our own society has passed, there
ought to be added to the course of popular instruction
as many lectures more, which should trace the
history, not of England, but of the world. And the
history of the world ought to go before the history
of England. This is no paradox, but the deliberate
opinion of many of those Avho have thought most
deeply about the far-reaching chain of human progress.
When I was on a visit to the United States some
years ago — things may have improved since then — I
could not help noticing that the history classes in
their common schools all began their work with the
year 1776, Avhen the American colonies formed them-
selves into an independent confederacy. The teaching
assumed that the creation of the universe occurred
about that date. What could be more absurd, more
narrow and narrowing, more mischievously misleading
as to the whole purport and significance of history 1
As if the laws, the representative institutions, the
religious uses, the scientific methods, the moral ideas,
which give to an American citizen his character and
mental habits and social surroundings, had not all
their roots in the deeds and thoughts of wise and
brave men, who lived in centuries which are of course
just as much the inheritance of the vast continent of
the West as they are of the little island from whence
its first colonisers sailed forth.



ON POPULAE CULTUEB. 11

Well, there is something nearly as absurd, if not
quite, in our common plan of taking for granted that
people should begin their reading of history, not in
1776, but in 1066. As if this could bring into our



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