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OLIVER CROMWELL

BY JOHN A\ORLEV




OLIVER CROMWELL



OLIVER CROMWELL

BY
JOHN MORLEY, M.P.



FULLY ILLUSTRATED WITH CAREFULLY AUTHEN-
TICATED PORTRAITS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
GALLERIES, AND WITH REPRODUCTIONS OF
CONTEMPORANEOUS PRINTS IN THE BRITISH
MUSEUM AND THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.




NEW YORK
THE CENTURY CO.

1900



Copyright, 1899, 1900, by
The Century Co.



The DeVinne Press.



il^K






NOTE

Everybody who now writes about Cromwell must,
apart from old authorities, begin by grateful acknow-
ledgment of his inevitable debt to the heroic labors of
Mr. Gardiner, our great historian of the seventeenth
century; and hardly less to the toil and discernment
of Mr. Firth, whose contributions to the "Dictionary
of National Biography" show him, besides much else,
to know the actors and the incidents of the civil wars
with a minute intimacy commonly reserved for the
things of the time in which a man actually lives.

If I am asked why, then, I need add a new study of
Oliver to the lives of him now existing from those two
most eminent hands, my apology must be that I was
committed to the enterprise (and I rather think that
some chapters had already appeared) before I had any
idea that these giants of research were to be in the
biographic field. Finding myself more than half way'
across the stream, I had nothing for it but to persevere,
with as stout a stroke as I could, to the other shore.

Then there is the brilliant volume of my friend of a
lifetime, Mr. Frederic Harrison. By him my trespass
will, I know, be forgiven on easy terms; for the wide



rX -■*» -~, ,-,_ |_j5_ , am



compass of his attainments as historian and critic, no
less than his close observation of the world's affairs,
will have long ago discovered to him that any such
career and character as Cromwell's, like one of the
great stock arguments of old-world drama, must still
be capable of an almost endleae range of presentment
and interpretation.

J. M.



CONTENTS



Boot? ®ne

CHAPTER PAGE

9



I Early Life

II The State and its Leaders

III Puritanism and the Double Issue

IV The Interim ......

V The Long Parliament ...

VI The Eve of the War . . . .

VII The Five Members — the Call to Arms

Boof? Uwo



I Cromwell in the Field 115

II Marston Moor 130

III The Westminster Assembly and the Con-

flict OF Ideals 144

IV The New Model 163

V The Day of Naseby 176

JBoo\i Ubree

I The King a Prisoner 195

II The Crisis of 1647 ...... 209

III The Officers as Politicians . . . . 21Q



CONTENTS



CHAPTER

IV The King's Flight

V Second Civil War — Cromwell at Preston
Final Crisis — Cromwell's Share in it



VI



VII



The Death of the King



PAGE

241

253
262



JBoof? jfour



I The Commonwealth .

II Cromwell in Ireland

III In Scotland

IV From Dunbar to Worcester .

V Civil Problems and the Soldier

VI The Breaking of the Long Parliament

VII The Reign of the Saints



277
286
300
310
318
329
342



3Book 3f tve








I First Stage of the Protectorate . . . 355


11 A Quarrel with Parliament .




• 372


Ill The Military Dictatorship






• 381


IV The Reaction






• 393


V A Change of Tack .






. 401


VI Kingship ....






• 415


VII Personal Traits






. 426


VIII Foreign Policy .






• 434


IX Growing Embarrassments






• 449


X The Close






• 459


Index






• 473



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



OLIVER CROMWELL Frontispiece.

From the portrait by Samuel Cooper, in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge,
England.

Facingpage
TITLE-PAGE OF THE SOLDIERS' POCKET-BIBLE. A COPY
OF WHICH WAS CARRIED BY EVERY SOLDIER IN

CROMWELL'S ARMY... i

From an original copy in the possession of the Rev. T. Cromwell Bush.

ROBERT CROMWELL, FATHER OF OLIVER 12

From the onginal portr;
of the Earl of Sandwich



From the onginal portrait by Robert Walker at Hinchinbrook, by permission
- ■ " ■ of S: • • •



ELIZABETH CROMWELL, MOTHER OF OLIVER 12

From the original portrait by Robert Walker at Hinchinbrook, by permission
of the Earl of Sandwich.

ELIZABETH, DAUGHTER OF SIR JAMES BOURCHIER, AND

WIFE OF OLIVER CROMWELL 16

From the portrait by Sir Peter Lely in the collection of the Rev. T. Cromwell
Bush.



KING CHARLES I 24

From a photograph by 1
Dyck at Windsor Castle.

QUEEN HENRIETTA MARIA 32

From a photograph by
Dyck at Windsor Castle.



From a photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl of the origmal portrait by Van
sde.



From a photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl of the original portrait by Van



WILLIAM LAUD, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 48

From the portrait at Hinchinbrook, by Stone, after Van Dyck, by permission
of the Earl of Sandwich.

SIR HARRY VANE 64

After a portrait by Sir Peter Lely.

JOHN HAMPDEN 64

After an old print in the collection of the Art for Schools Association.

JOHN PYM 64

After a portrait by C. Janssen in the South Kensington Museum.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Facing page

EDWARD HYDE, FIRST EARL OF CLARENDON 72

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the portrait by Gerard Soest in
the National Portrait Gallery.

GEORGE DIGBY, EARL OF BRISTOL 72

After a portrait by Van Dyck.

LUCIUS GARY, VISCOUNT FALKLAND 72

From the original portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs. Frank-
land-Russell- Astley.

JOHN SELDEN 72

After a portrait by Lely, engraved by Vertue.

THOMAS WENTWORTH, EARL OF STRAFFORD 76

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the c
trait Gallery of the original portrait by Van Dyck.



Froma photograph by Walker & Boutall o£the copy in the National Por-
ofth( ' ■ ■



THE TRUE MANER OF THE SITTING OF THE LORDS
AND COMMONS OF BOTH HOWSES OF PARLIAMENT
UPON THE TRYAL OF THOMAS EARLE OF STRAFFORD,

LORD LIEUTEN.\NT OF IRELAND. 1641 80

From a contemporary' print in the British Museum of a copperplate designed
and engraved by Hollar.

WILLIAM JUXON, D.C.L 88

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the original portrait in the
National Portrait Gallery.

JAMES USSHER. D.D. (AGE 74) 88

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the original portrait by Sir Peter
Lely in the National Portrait Gallery.

WILLIAM LENTHALL. SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF

COMMONS •. 104

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the original portrait in the
National Portrait Gallery.

RALPH, LORD HOPTON, OF STRATTON, K. B 108

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the original portrait in the
National Portrait Gallery.

ROBERT DEVEREUX, EARL OF ESSEX 120

From a miniature by Cooper at Windsor Castle, by special permission of
Her Majesty the Queen.

WILLIAM CAVENDISH, DUKE (PREVIOUSLY EARL) OF

NEWCASTLE 128

After the portrait by Van Dyck.

THOMAS. THIRD LORD FAIRFAX 136

From the miniature at Windsor Castle, by special permission of Her
Majesty the Queen.

FERDINAND, SECOND LORD FAIRFAX 136

From the obverse and reverse of a medal in the British Museum.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Facing page

GEORGE, LORD GORING 140

From the miniature at Windsor Castle, by special permission of Her Majesty
the Queen.

SIR WILLIAM WALLER 164

From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the original portrait in the
National Portrait Gallery.

JAMES GRAHAM, FIFTH EARL AND FIRST MARQUIS OF

MONTROSE 172

Drawn by George T. Tobin after a portrait by Van Dyck (ascribed also to
William Dobson), by permission of the Countess of Warwick.

SIR JACOB ASTLEY, AFTERWARD LORD ASTLEY 180

From a print in the British Museum.

PRINCE RUPERT 184

From the original portrait by Van Dyck at Hinchinbrook, by permission of
the Earl of Sandwich.



JOHN PAWLET, MARQUIS OF WINCHESTER.
Drawn by George T. Tobin after a print in the British Mus
trait by Peter Oliver.

SIR EDWARD COKE ig6

From a photograph by W;
National Portrait Gallery.



From a photograph by Walker & Boutall of the portrait by C. Janssen in the
" ■ ' ■" ' " iller



BRIDGET CROMWELL (MRS. IRETON, AND LATER MRS.

FLEETWOOD) 200

From a miniature by Crosse at Windsor Castle, by special permission of Her
Majesty the Queen.

ALGERNON SIDNEY 204

From the original miniature by John Hoskins, at Montagu House, by permis-
sion of the Duke of Buccleuch.

CORNET GEORGE JOYCE 216

From the original portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs. Frank-
land- Russell-Astley.

GENERAL HENRY IRETON t. 228

From the portrait by William Dobson at Hinchinbrook House, by permission
of the Earl of Sandwich.

SIR MARMADUKE LANGDALE, FIRST LORD LANGDALE 236
From a print in the British Museum.

JAMES. FIRST DUKE OF HAMILTON 244

From the original portrait at Hamilton Place.

ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, FIRST MARQUIS OF ARGYLL.. 248
From the original portrait in the collection of the Marquis of Lothian at

Newbattle Abbey, Dalkeith.

THE TRIAL OF CHARLES I 264

From Clarendon's " History of the Civil War," in the British Museum.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Facingpage



JOHN BRADSHAW 268

From Clarendon's " History of the Civil War," in the Hope collection,
Bodleian Library, by permission of the University of Oxford.

CHARLES I 272

From a carbon print by Braun, Clement & Co. of the original portrait by
Van Dyck in the Louvre (detail).

JAMES BUTLER, TWELFTH EARL AND FIRST DUKE OF

ORMONDE 284

From a pastel portrait by Sir Peter Lely in the Irish National Portrait
Gallery, by permission of the Director.

DAVID LESLIE, FIRST LORD NEWARK 304

From a print in the British Museum of a portrait by Sir Peter Lely, in the
collection of the Duke of Hamilton.

GENERAL JOHN LAMBERT 308

From the original portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs.
Frankland-Russell-Astley.

MAJOR-GENERAL CHARLES FLEETWOOD 316

From a miniature on ivory in the collection of Sir Richard Tangye.

GENERAL GEORGE MONK, FIRST DUKE OF ALBEMARLE 324
From a miniature by S. Cooper at Windsor Castle, by special permission of
Her Majesty the Queen.

MASK OF OLIVER CROMWELL, SAID TO HAVE BEEN

TAKEN DURING LIFE 332

From the collection of Mrs. Frankland-Russell-Astley at Chequers Court.

JOHN MILTON 356

From the original miniature by Samuel Cooper at Montagu House, by per-
, of the Duke of Buccleuch.



RICHARD CROMWELL 368

From a miniature by J. Hoskins at Windsor Castle, by special permission
of Her Majesty the Queen.

HENRY CROMWELL 376

From the portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs. Frankland-
Russell-Astley.

JOHN THURLOE, SECRETARY TO OLIVER CROMWELL 388
From the portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs. Frankland-
Russell-Astley.



GEORGE FOX



Drawn by George T. Tobin from the original portrait by Sir Peter Lely at
Swarthmore College.



SAMUEL DESBOROUGH

From the original portrait in possession of Miss Disbrowe.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Facingpage
ELIZABETH CROMWELL, DAUGHTER OF SIR THOMAS
STEWARD OF ELY, WIFE OF ROBERT CROMWELL,
AND MOTHER OF OLIVER CROMWELL 428

From the original portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs, Frank-
land-Russell-Astley.

JOHN CLAYPOLE 430

From the portrait at Chequers Court, by permission of Mrs. Frankland-
Russell-Astley.



CARDINAL JULES MAZARIN 444

From a carbon print by Braun, Clement & Co. of the portrait by Phillipe de
Champaigne at ChanliUy.

MARY CROMWELL (LADY FAUCONBERG) 454

From the original portrait by Cornelius Janssen at Chequers Court, by per-
mission of Mrs. Frankland-Russell-Astley.

FRANCES CROMWELL (MRS. RICH, AFTERWARD LADY

RUSSELL) 460

From the original portrait by John Riley, by permission of the Rev. T.
Cromwell Bush.

ELIZABETH CROMWELL (MRS. CLAYPOLE) 464

From a miniature by Crosse at Windsor Castle, by special permission of
Her Majesty the Queen.

OLIVER CROMWELL AT THE AGE OF FIFTY-ONE 468

Drawn by George T. Tobin from the portrait by Sir Peter Lely in the Pitti
Gallery, Florence.



OLIVER CROMWELL



THE I

iSOUL DIERS^

^ Poeket Bible : |

*| Contaiulng the moftCif not all)thorc ^

i places contained in holy Scripture, l<3>

'®g which doc {hew the qualifications of hts |3>

^ inner man, that is a fit Souldter to fight |3>

"^^ the Lor<3s Battels, bcth before he fight, ^

'^i inthefight.andafccrthcfigiit; ^

J| Which Scriotures are reduced to (e- 1*

,j^ vcrall heads, and fitly applyed to the 5*

tjji Sooldiers fevcrall occafion?, and fo may '^

^M. Tupply the tt'ant of the whole Bible-, ^

^1 M'hich a Souldicr cannot conveniently W'

^ cavry about him: ^

•©1^ And may bee alfo ufefull for any ^

«| Chriftian to meditate upon, no\sria |_
<S, thi; mifti-abk time cf Wane. y'^

^f Impr imatur, £<!/?». Calamp |»

<©S Jc/!i8. This Book of the Law flnll not rfcpait out S
^§ of tliy moutIi,but thou flnlt mcditstc tlicrcin Jay W^
^ and night, tint tlioti nuift obfcn-c tc doeaccoi- ^O
^ dlngtoailthitis-wyttcn therein, for tlicntlioM |j<j>
** llult mikc thy way proQ>crous, and havC gooi'- ipw

<4 ^ • f'

•4 Printed at Ijmdon by C£, and iLW. for "iP*
4 %:3^«^-C- 1^43. §>



TITLE-PAGE OF THE SOLDIERS' POCKET-BIBLE,
COPY OF WHICH WAS CARRIED BY EVERY
SOLDIER IN CROMWELL'S ARMY.



OLIVER CROMWELL



PROLOGUE



THE figure of Cromwell has emerged from the
floating mists of time in many varied semblances,
from blood-stained and hypocritical usurper up to
transcendental hero and the liberator of mankind. The
contradictions of his career all come over again in the
fluctuations of his fame. He put a king to death, but
then he broke up Parliament after Parliament. He
led the way in the violent suppression of bishops, he
trampled on Scottish Presbytery, and set up a state
system of his own ; yet he is the idol of voluntary con-
gregations and the free churches. He had little com-
prehension of that government by discussion which is
now counted the secret of liberty. No man that ever
lived was less of a pattern for working those constitu-
tional charters that are the favorite guarantees of
public rights in our century. His rule was the rule
of the sword. Yet his name stands first, half warrior,
half saint, in the calendar of English-speaking democ-
racy.

A foreign student has said that the effect that a
written history is capable of producing is nowhere seen
more strongly than in Clarendon's story of the Rebel-
lion. The view of the event and of the most conspic-



2 OLIVER CROMWELL

uo'js actors was, for; many generations fixed by that
famous Avork. ' Not' always accurate in every detail,
<;nd hardly'pretendjrig; tb be impartial, yet it presented
the great drama with' a* living vigor, a breadth, a grave
ethical air, that made a profound and lasting impres-
sion. To Clarendon Cromwell was a rebel and a
tyrant, the creature of personal ambition, using relig-
ion for a mask of selfish and perfidious designs. For
several generations the lineaments of Oliver thus por-
trayed were undisturbed in the mind of Europe. After
the conservative of the seventeenth century came the
greater conservative of the eighteenth. Burke, who
died almost exactly two centuries after Cromwell was
born, saw in him one of the great bad men of the old
stamp, like Medici at Florence, like Petrucci at Siena,
who exercised the power of the state by force of char-
acter and by personal authority. Cromwell's virtues,
says Burke, were at least some correctives of his crimes.
His government was military and despotic, yet it was
regular; it was rigid, yet it was no savage tyranny.
Ambition suspended but did not wholly suppress the
sentiment of religion and the love of an honorable
name. Such was Burke's modification of the dark
colors of Clarendon. As time went on, opinion slowly
widened. By the end of the first quarter of this cen-
tury reformers like Godwin, though they could not
forgive Cromwell's violence and what they thought
his apostacy from old principles and old allies, and
though they had no sympathy with the biblical religion
that was the mainspring of his life, yet they were in-
clined to place him among the few excellent pioneers
that have swayed a scepter, and they almost brought
themselves to adopt the glowing panegyrics of Milton.
The genius and diligence of Carlyle, aided by the
firm and manly stroke of Macaulay, have finally



PROLOGUE 3

shaken down the Clarendonian tradition. The re-
action has now gone far. Cromwell, we are told by
one of the most brilliant of living political critics, was
about the greatest human force ever directed to a
moral purpose, and in that sense about the greatest man
that ever trod the scene of history. Another powerful
writer, of a different school, holds that Oliver stands
out among the very few men in all history who, after
overthrowing an ancient system of government, have
proved themselves with an even greater success to be
constructive and conservative statesmen. Then comes
the honored historian who has devoted the labors of a
life to this intricate and difficult period, and his verdict
is the other way. Oliver's negative work endured,
says Gardiner, while his constructive work vanished;
and his attempts to substitute for military rule a better
and surer order were no more than "'a tragedy, a glor-
ious tragedy." As for those impatient and impor-
tunate deifications of Force, Strength, Violence, Will,
which only show how easily hero-worship may glide
into effrontery, of them I need say nothing. History,
after all, is something besides praise and blame. To
seek measure, equity, and balance is not necessarily
the sign of a callous heart and a mean understanding.
For the thirst after broad classifications works havoc
with truth ; and to insist upon long series of unqualified
clenchers in history and biography only ends in con-
fusing questions that are separate, in distorting per-
spective, in exaggerating proportions, and in falsify-
ing the past for the sake of some spurious edification
of the present.

Of the historic sense it has been truly said that its
rise indicates a revolution as great as any produced by
the modern discov^eries of physical science. It is not,
for instance, easy for us who are vain of living in an



4 OLIVER CROMWELL

age of reason, to enter into the mind of a mystic of the
seventeenth century. Yet by virtue of that sense even
those who have moved furthest away in behef and
faith from the books and the symbols that Hghted the
inmost soul of Oliver, should still be able to do jus-
tice to his free and spacious genius, his high heart, his
singleness of mind. On the political side it is the
same. It may be that "a man's noblest mistake is to
be before his time." Yet historic sense forbids us to
judge results by motive, or real consequences by the
ideals and intentions of the actor who produced them.
The first act of the revolutionary play cannot be
understood until the curtain has fallen on the fifth.
To ignore the Restoration is to misjudge the Rebellion.
France, a century and more after, marched along a
blood-stained road in a period that likewise extended
not very much over twenty years, from the calling of
the States-General, in 1789, through consulate and
empire to Moscow and to Leipsic. Only time tells
all. In a fine figure the sublimest of Roman poets
paints the struggle of warrior hosts upon the plain,
the gleam of burnished arms, the fiery wheeling of the
horse, the charges that thunder on the ground. But
yet, he says, there is a tranquil spot on the far-off
heights whence all the scouring legions seem as if they
stood still, and all the glancing flash and confusion of
battle as though it were blended in a sheet of steady
flame.^ So history makes the shifting things seem
fixed. Posterity sees a whole. With the states-
man in revolutionary times it is different. Through
decisive moments that seemed only trivial, and by
critical turns that seemed indifferent, he explores dark
and untried paths, groping his way through a jungle
of vicissitude, ambush, strategem, expedient; a match

1 Lucretius, ii. 323-332.



PROLOGUE 5

for Fortune in all her moods; lucky if now and again
he catch a glimpse of the polar star. Such is the case
of Cromwell. The effective revolution came thirty
years later, and when it came it was no Cromwellian
revolution; it was aristocratic and not democratic,
secular and not religious, parliamentary and not mili-
tary, the substitution for the old monarchy of a terri-
torial oligarchy supreme alike in Lords and Commons.

Nor is it true to say that the church became a mere
shadow of its ancient form after the Restoration. For
two centuries, besides her vast influence as a purely
ecclesiastical organization, the church was supreme
in the universities, — those powerful organs in English
national life, — she was supreme in the public schools
that fed them. The directing classes of the country
were almost exclusively her sons. The land was
theirs. Dissidents were tolerated; they throve and
prospered; but they had little more share in the gov-
ernment of the nation than if Cromwell had never
been born. To perceive all this, to perceive that Crom-
well did not succeed in turning aside the destinies of
his people from the deep courses that history had pre-
appointed for them, into the new channels which he
fondly hoped that he was tracing with the point of his
victorious sword, implies no blindness either to the
gifts of a brave and steadfast man, or to the grandeur
of some of his ideals of a good citizen and a well-gov-
erned state.

It is hard to deny that wherever force was useless
Cromwell failed ; or that his example would often lead
in what modern opinion firmly judges to be false direc-
tions; or that it is in Milton and Bunyan rather than
in Cromwell that we seek what was deepest, loftiest,
and most abiding in Puritanism. We look to its
apostles rather than its soldier. Yet Oliver's large-



6 OLIVER CROMWELL

ness of aim, his freedom of spirit, and the energy that
comes of a free spirit; the presence of a burning Hght
in his mind, though the Hght to our later times may
have grown dim or gone out ; his good faith, his valor,
his constancy, have stamped his name, in spite of some
exasperated acts that it is pure sophistry to justify,
upon the imagination of men over all the vast area of
the civilized world where the English tongue prevails.
The greatest names in history are those who, in a full
career and amid the turbid extremities of political
action, have yet touched closest and at most points the
wide, ever-standing problems of the world, and the
things in which men's interest never dies. Of this far-
shining company Cromwell was surely one.



BOOK ONE



II itJUItiMm



Book ®ne

CHAPTER I

EARLY LIFE

I WAS by birth a gentleman, living neither in any
considerable height nor yet in obscurity." Such
was Cromwell's account of himself. He was the de-
scendant in the third degree of Richard Cromwell,
whose earlier name was Richard Williams, a Welsh-
man from Glamorganshire, nephew and one of the
agents of Thomas Cromwell, the iron-handed servant
of Henry VHI, the famous sledge-hammer of the
monks. Cromwell's sister was married to Morgan
Williams, the father of Richard, but when the greater
name was assumed seems uncertain. In the deed of
jointure on his marriage the future Protector is de-
scribed as Oliver Cromwell alias Williams. Hence
those who insist that what is called a Celtic strain is
needed to give fire and speed to an English stock, find
Cromwell a case in point.

What is certain is that he was in favor with
Thomas Cromwell and with the king after his patron's
fall, and that Henry VHI gave him, among other
spoils of the church, the revenues and manors belong-
ing to the priory of Hinchinbrook and the abbey of
Ramsey, in Huntingdonshire and the adjacent coun-
ties. Sir Richard left a splendid fortune to an eldest
son, whom Elizabeth made Sir Henry. This, the
Golden Knight, so called from his profusion, was the

9



lo OLIVER CROMWELL

father of Sir Oliver, a worthy of a prodigal turn like
himself. Besides Sir Oliver, the Golden Knight had
a younger son, Robert, and Robert in turn became the
father of the mighty Oliver of history, who was thus
the great-grandson of the first Richard.

Robert Cromwell married (1591) a young widow,
Elizabeth Lynn. Her maiden name of Steward is
only interesting because some of her stock boasted
that if one should climb the genealogical tree high
enough, it would be found that Elizabeth Steward and
the royal Stewarts of Scotland had a common ancestor.
Men are pleased when they stumble on one of Fortune's
tricks, as if the regicide should himself turn out to
be even from a far-off distance of the kingly line. The
better opinion seems to be that Steward was not Stew-



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