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were not Puritan. New tributaries had already swol-
len the volume and changed the currents of that broad
confluence of manners, morals, government, belief, on
whose breast Time guides the- voyages of mankind.
The age of rationalism, with its bright lights and
sobering shadows, had begun. Some ninety years
after 1688 another revolution followed in the England
across the Atlantic, and the gulf between Cromwell
and Jefferson is measure of the vast distance that the
minds of men had traveled. With the death of Crom-
well the brief life of Puritan theocracy in England ex-
pired. It was a phase of a movement that left an in-
heritance of some noble thoughts, the memory of a
brave struggle for human freedom, and a procession



472 OLIVER CROMW'ELL

of strenuous master spirits, with ]\Iilton and Crom-
well at their head. Political ends miscarry, and the
revolutionary leader treads a path of fire. It is our
true wisdom to learn how to combine sane and equit-
able historic verdicts with a just value for those eternal
qualities of high endeavor, on which amid all changes
of fashion, formula, direction, fortune, in all times and
places the world's best hopes depend.



i



I



INDEX



INDEX



Adwalton, 134

Agitators (army representatives),

213-215, 222, 237
Agreement ofthe People (1647), 221,

225; (1648), 225; (1649), 225,

359. 424

American Constitution, Instrument
of Government compared with,
362-3

Anabaptism, Cromwell's relation to,
412

Andrews, Dean of Limerick, 33

Anglican Church —

Arminianism in, 52; assumptions
of, 22 ; Charles I's devotion to,
201-2 ; Cromwell's attitude to-
ward, 368, 41 1 ; ecclesiastical
courts, 57; endowments of, cov-
eted, 170; episcopacy, abolition
of, proposed, 145 ; excluded from
toleration, 362, 367 ; forbidden by
ordinance, 368, 371 ; influence of,
after the Restoration, 5 ; reform of,
attempted (1641), 88-91; West-
minster Assembly, non-attend-
ance of Anglicans at, 147

Anne of Denmark, 25

Archers, 116

Areopagitica, 159

Argyle, Marquis of, Hamilton vic-
torious over, 238 ; Cromwell's bar-
gain with, 246; defeat of, 312

Arminianism denounced at Synod
of Dort, II; Pym's attitude to-
ward, 39; doctrines of, 52-54;
parliamentary declaration against,
59

Armor, disuse of, 1 16

Arms, 116-118

Army, the —

Agitators, 213-215, 222, 237;
agreement of the people issued
by (1647), 221, 225; Case of the



Army Stated issued by, 225 ; con-
trol and numbers of, regulated by
Instrument of Government, 361,
378; control retained by Crom-
well, 379; debates of, 222-3, 224-
232; depression of, 239 ; disband-
ment of, attempted, 212-214, 223 ;
heads of the proposals of, 225,
359 ■> legislative incapacity of, 348-
349; London, march on (1648),
259 ; mutiny in, 237 ; New Model,
composition of, 170-3; contem-
porary estimates of, 177; parlia-
ment threatened by, 217-18;
remonstrance presented to Par-
liament by (1648), 25 1; sickness
of, in Ireland, 293; temper of,
after Naseby, 222

Artillery, 117-18

Assassination of Cromwell plotted,
385, 406-8



Baillie, Robert, cited on Strafford's
trial, 80; on Independents, 154;
on confiscation of Church endow-
ments, 170; on the New Model,
177; Major-General William, at
Marston, 137, 143; ordered to
surrender to Cromwell, 245

Barebones's Parliament. See Little
Parliament

Basing House, storming of, 190-1

Baxter, Richard, ecclesiastical views
of, 90 ; two interviews with Crom-
well, 430-1 ; cited on religious
ferment in 1644, '47; on the New
Model, 172, 222; on Cromwell's
ecclesiastical settlement, 369-70

Beard, Dr., 11

Behemoth, cited, 54

Berwick, pacification of, 65 ; Crom-
well's recovery of, 246



475



476



INDEX



Bible, jhe, Cromwell's acceptance
of, 50-52 ; Walton's polyglot ver-
sion of, 429

Biddle, John, Cromwell's protection
of, 403-4

Blake, Admiral, naval successes of,
198, 321, 323; ability of, 431;
sent by Cromwell to Mediterra-
nean, 438; death of, 443

Bossuet, cited on Queen Henrietta
Maria, 27-9; on universal his-
tory, 355

Bourchier, Elizabeth, wife of Crom-
well, 13

Bradshaw, John, president at
Charles's trial, 264, 269-70; with-
stands Cromwell at the dissolu-
tion of Long Parliament, 336-7;
in first parliament of Protectorate,
373; withstands Cromwell's com-
pulsion of parliament (1654), 377;
Cromwell's efforts against, 397;
remains of, desecrated, 464; en-
ergy and capacity of, 338

Bramhall, John, Cromwell's opinion
of, 90

Bristol, royalist capture of, 134 ;
capitulation of, to Fairfax, 1S8;
Nayler at, 403

Brook, Lord, death of, 130

Bunker Hill, Marston Moor com-
pared with, 168

Burke, Edmund, Cromwell esti-
mated by, 2 ; Cromwell and Ire-
ton compared with, 225-33

Burnet, Gilbert, cited on Cromwell's
Latin, II-I2 ; on Henrietta Maria,

31
Burton, Henry, 6l-2, 146
Butler, Bishop, opinion on Charles's

trial, 268-9



Calvinism, Arminianism crushed
by, II ; scope of, 47-48, 55

Cambridge, Cromwell at Sidney
Sussex College, 11 ; his represen-
tation of, in Short Parliament, 66 ;
in Long Parliament, 74; his ac-
tivity in (1642), 119

Carlyle, Thomas, estimate of Crom-
well, 2-3 ; contrast of French
Jacobins and English sectaries,
221 ; estimate of Charles's execu-
tion, 272-3 ; enthusiasm for action



without rhetoric, 286 ; description
of Dunbar, 307

Carnwath, Lord, at Naseby, 184

Case of the Army Stated, 224-5

Catholicism —

Court, at, 25, 43 ; Cromwell's re-
ply to manifesto of prelates, 294-5 5
France, predominant in, 43, 439,
446 ; Holland, in, 43 ; Ireland, in,
95, 283-4, 405 ; Ormonde's Kil-
kenny treaty, 284 ; Laud's attitude
toward, 37; persecution of, 412-
413; toleration denied to, 158,
362,367,412

Cavalry tactics, 115, 118, 126-7, 137-
140, 182

Chalgrove Field, 131

Chancery, Court of, abolition of,
349; Cromwell's attempted re-
form of, 365

Charles I —

Chronological Sequence of Career.
Attempts religious coercion in
Scotland, 64; persecutes Sir John
Eliot, 66, 86, 286 ; dismisses Short
Parliament, 68 ; abandons Straf-
ford, 84; declares adherence to
Church of England, 93 ; returns
from Scotland, 100 ; approaches
parliamentary leaders, 102 ; im-
peaches five members, 103 ; raises
royal standard, 106; gains military
successes, 134; storms Leicester,
176; Xaseby, 180, 184; escapes
from Oxford, 195 ; surrenders to
the Scots, 196; considers terms
of settlement, 201 ; at Holmby,
208; removed from Holmby, 214,
215; escapes from Hampton Court
to Carisbrooke Castle, 233-4;
concludes secret treaty with the
Scots, 236; negotiates with par-
liamentary leaders at Newport,
24S-50; transferred to Hurst
Castle, 259 ; conveyed to Wind-
sor, 261; trial, 266-70; execu-
tion and burial, 270-2; Crom-
well's judgment of the execu-
tion, 272 ; Fox and Carlyle on
the execution, 272-3 ; popular
sentiment aroused by the execu-
tion, 351

Personal Characteristics. — Ap-
pearance, 248-9 ; artistic taste, 12,
26 ; blindness to events, 204-5 ;



INDEX



477



determination, 188-201, 220, 234;
devotion to the queen, 27, 206 ; to
the Church, 201-2
General Traits, 23, 24, 25-7, 69,
133, 188, 201, 202, 220, 270

Charles II — Sent to France, 207;
Scottish negotiations with (1650),
301 ; advance from Stirling to
Worcester, 314; flight, 317; con-
nives at plot to assassinate Crom-
well, 382 ; royalist's interview
with, at Cologne, 385 ; restora-
tion of, 468

Chatham, estimate of Cromwell,
432

Chillingworth, William, 38, no,
191

Church, national (see also Angli-
can Church) — Cromwell's im-
portance in history of, 412 ; estab-
lishment and endowment of,
provided by instrument of gov-
ernment, 362 ; government of, de-
bated, 152-4; iconoclasm in, 91 ;
Presbyterian system introduced
into, 155-6; separation of, from
State advocated by Milton, 366

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of,
banishment of Strafford advocated
by, 83 ; Charles's overtures to,
102; return of, from exile, 468;
character of, 91 ; cited — on Crom-
well's characteristics, 2, 88; on
Essex, 173; on Independents
and Presbyterians, 212 ; on bur-
ial of Charles I, 271 ; on Drog-
heda massacre, 291 ; on Crom-
well's deliberation regarding
kingship, 420

Claypole, John, opposes bill regard-
ing major-generals, 406; mar-
riage of, to Elizabeth Cromwell.
428

Clonmel, siege of, 293

Coke, Sir Edward, 12, 16, 2X, 66,
362

Colchester, siege of, ill, 242

Coleman's defense of Erastianism,
154

Cologne, royalist interview with
Charles II at, 385

Committee of both kingdoms, 169,
176, 237

Commonwealth, proclamation of,
278



Cony, case of, 387; popular sym-
pathy with, 394

Cotton, Sir Robert, 21, 67

Council of State, establishment of,
278 ; Cromwell's report to, on
Ireland and Scotland, 284-5;
promptitude and efficiency of,

314,321-3

Court of High Commission, illegali-
ties of, 61 ; abolition of, 85

Crawford, Lawrence, rebuked by
Cromwell, 121

Cromwell —

Bridget (daughter of Oliver), mar-
ried to Ireton, 200; to Fleetwood,
428 ; Elizabeth (daughter of Oli-
ver), married to Claypole, 428;
death of, 462; Elizabeth (wife of
Oliver), 13-14; Frances (daugh-
ter of Oliver), 429 ; Henry, Sir
(grandfather of Oliver), 9-10;
Henry (son of Oliver), Cromwell's
instructions to, in Ireland, 297;
representative of Ireland in Little
Parliament, 344; correspondence
with Thurloe, 379, 393-4, 405 ; fi-
nancial straits of, in Ireland, 456 ;
suspicious of combination, 457;
comment on Cromwell's position
in London, 419; opinion on the
kingship, 421 ; estimate of the
situation in 165S, 457-8 ; ability
of, 374, 428 ; Henry, incident of
the scarlet cloak, 406 ; Mary
(daughter of Oliver), married to
Fauconberg, 429 ; intercedes for
Hewitt, 455; Oliver — Chrono-
logical Sequence of Career. — De-
scent and family, 9-10; early
life, lO-ll, 12-13 ' marriage, 13 ;
religious gloom, 14-15 ; member
for Huntingdon, 16; first speech
in Parliament, 17; removal to S.
Ives, 17; to Ely, 18; dispute
over Huntingdon charter, 18;
death of eldest son (1639), 19;
member for Cambridge in Short
Parliament, 66; in Long Par-
liament, 74; service on parlia-
mentary committees, 88 ; Edge-
hill, 119-20; conversation with
Hampden on choice of officers,
120-1 ; obstruction in Ely Ca-
thedral, 123-4; Marston Moor,
136-43 ; proposes abolition of



478



INDEX



episcopacy, 145 ; attacks Lord
Manchester, 164-6; appointed
lieutenant-general under Fairfax,
174; Naseby, 176-183; thanked
and rewarded by parliament, 192 ;
negotiates with the army for dis-
bandment, 213, 223; threatens
parliament with military force,
217-18; army debates, 224-32;
operations in South Wales, 242 ;
Preston, 244-5 5 Charles's trial,
266-70; Irish campaign, 286-99;
thanked and rewarded by parlia-
ment, 301; Dunbar, 304-9; ill-
ness, 310; advance to Perth, 313 ;
to Worcester, 314-15; battle of
Worcester, 315-77; thanked and
rewarded by parliament, 319;
dissolution of Rump Parliament,
334-7; made Lord Protector
(1653), 358; legislative activity,
364-71 ; compulsion of first par-
liament of Protectorate, 376-7;
plot to assassinate, 385 ; purge
of parliament (1656), 399; plots
to assassinate, 406-8; refuses
kingship, 422 ; again installed as
Lord Protector (1657), 423-4;
dissolves second parliament
(1658), 453 ; illness and death,
462-3 ; remains desecrated, 464-5
Personal Characteristics, etc. —
Affection, 426-8, 462 ; appear-
ance and manner, 74-6, 223 ;
Bible, attitude toward, 50-2 ;
broadmindedness, 6, 228 ; cau-
tion, 77, 107, 210, 258, 319,
439, 466 ; compassion and ten-
derness, 77, 245, 347, 426-8;
constructive statesmanship, de-
ficiency of, 380, 456; courage
and fortitude, 6, 18, 77, 210, 304-
305 ; education, views on, 12-13 >
furtherance of, 366, 429 ; energv,
6, 78, 88, 174, 310, 319, 448;
faith, 18, 50-2, 77, 303, 305,
355, 462-3 ; finance, incapacity
for, 399; force, distrust of, 223,
469 ; form and dogma, indiffer-
ence to, 228, 324, 358, 367;
geniality, 429-30 ; honor, 6 ; hope-
fulness, 176, 305, 319, 440; im-
petuosity and passionateness, 18,
76-7, 210, 336, 432; jesting,
love of, 77, 209 ; legal apprehen-



sion, incapacity ot, 399 ; military
excellence, 465, et passim ; mod-
eration, 221, 320, 384; moral
unity, 319; music, love of, 429;
mysticism, 303; national senti-
ment, 255, 303; order and gov-
ernment, instinct for, 365, 388,
417, 469; persistency and pa-
tience, 6, 107, 174, 266, 440, 461,
466; popularity with his troops,
209; public opinion, attitude to-
ward, 468; reserve, 77, 253; sa-
gacity, 107, 219, 432; lack of
sagacity, 346; speech, style, and
manner of, 374; sport, love of,
429; toleration, 122, 162, 186,
189, 198, 347; unity, desire for,
224, 228 ; Oliver, Sir (uncle of
Oliver), 10; Richard, Sir (great-
grandfather of Oliver), 9 ; Richard
(son of Oliver), Cromwell's ad-
monition to, 51; character and
tastes of, 428, 468; Richard
(uncle of Oliver), 17; Robert
(father of Oliver), 10, 15 ; Thomas,
9,470
Culpeper, 102



" De paucitate credendorum," 150

De Retz, cited, 219, 339, 415

Deane, Admiral, 321-3

Declaration of Right, 471

Denmark, Anne of, 25 ; Cromwell's
treaty with, 435

Derby House Committee, 163, 246

Desborough, John, republican form
of government advocated by, 327;
anxiety of, regarding elections,
394; introduces bill regarding
major-generals, 406 ; opposes
Cromwell's acceptance of king-
ship, 421

D'Ewes, Henrietta Maria described
by, 30-31

Diggers, 281-2, 325

Dort, Synod of, 11, 52, 56

Drogheda massacre, 288-291

Dunbar, Cromwell's position at,
304-6; battle of, 307-9; Crom-
well's estimate of, 52, 311-12

Dunes, battle of the, 460

Dunkirk, treaty for cession of, 444 ;
capture of, and cession to Eng-
land, 459-60



INDEX



479



Durham, college at, founded by
Cromwell, 429

Edgehill, 119-20, 136

Education, Cromwell's views on,
12-13; ^'s furtherance of, 366,
429

Ejectors and triers, 368

Elector Palatine, 103, 189

Eliot, Sir John, Cromwell contrasted
with, 12; resolutions of, put in
defiance of Charles, 17; imprison-
ment and death of, 66, 286

Elizabeth, Queen, Henry Cromwell
knighted by, 9 ; policy of, 24, 34,
447; Ireland under, 94; duplicity
of, 203

Ely, Cromwell's removal to, 18;
his defense of, 1 77-8 ; his obstruc-
tion in the cathedral, 123-4

Engagers, 245, 300

Episcopacy. See Anglican Church

Erastianism, 153-4

Essex, Earl of, advocates Straf-
ford's execution, 83 ; unsuccessful
against Oxford, 134; successful
at Gloucester, 135 ; escapes from
Plymouth, 163; Scotch commis-
sioners' debate with, on Crom-
well's conduct, 166 ; resignation
of, 173; characteristics of, 131 ;
contemporary estimate of, 107-8

Exeter, capture of, by Fairfax, 191

Exeter, Lord, inquiry of, on horse-
racing, 391

Faction, 90

Fairfax, Sir Thomas, at Marston
Moor, 137, 140-41 ; appointed
parliamentarian commander-in-
chief, 170, 197; petitions for
Cromwell's appointment as lieu-
tenant-general, 174; ajipreciation
of Cromwell, 178; at Naseby,
178-80, 182-3; Bristol capitulates
to, 188; successes of, in Devon,
191; at Colchester, in, 246;
treatment of mutineers, 282 ;
withdraws from prominent posi-
tion, 301-2 ; energy and ability
of, 134, 180,242; scrupulousness
of, 302 ; otherwise mentioned,
135,217,234,264,271,315

Falkland, Lord, Cromwell con-
trasted with, 12; abstains from



voting on Strafford's attainder,
83 ; court parly supported by,
91-2; Charles's overtures to, 102;
death of, 130 ; estimate of, 130

Fauconberg, Lord, marriage of, to
Lady Mary Cromwell, 429; sent
by Cromwell to Calais, 459-60

Fifth Monarchy men, 280, 348,408

Fleet —

Cromwell supported by, 383;
mutiny in, 237 ; organization of,
by Council of State, 321 ; parlia-
mentarians supported by, no;
West Indies expedition, 436-8

Fleetwood, Charles, advanced views
of, 198 ; negotiates with the army
for disbandment, 213; battle of
Worcester, 315-16; opposes
Cromwell's acceptance of king-
ship, 421 ; married to Bridget
Cromwell, 428; tries to dissuade
Cromwell from dissolving parlia-
ment, 453 ; otherwise mentioned,
298, 304, 321, 456

Fox, Charles, on execution of
Charles I, 272

Fox, George, Nayler a disciple of,
402-3; Cromwell's regard for, 410

France —

Commonwealth recognized by,
321 ; convention of 1793 compared
with the Rump's proposed con-
stitution, 333; Cromwell's rela-
tions with, 439-41 ; Fronde, the,
contrasted with the civil war,
209; Protestantism in, 157

Gainsborough, cavalry victory at,

124-6
Gardiner, S. R., cited, 3, 179, 436
Gerard, Cromwell's assassination

plotted by, 382
Glamorgan treaty, 206
Gloucester, siege of, 135
Gloucester, Duke of, 327, 459
Godwin, W., estimateof Cromwell, 2
Goffe, Col., 227, 230, 395
Goring, Lord, 137, 140-I, 177
Gowran, surrender of, 292-3
Grand Remonstrance, the (1641),
demands of, lOO-l, 145-6; In-
strument of Government con-
trasted with, 362
Grantham, cavalry skirmish near,
124



48o



INDEX



Guizot, cited, 340, 441, 465
Gustavus Adolphus, influence of,

on military tactics, 115
Gustavus Vasa, position of, com-
pared with Cromwell's, 372-3

Hallam on Long Parliament, 85-6
Hamilton, James, Duke of, 238,

241-5

Hammond, Col., Cromwell's letters
to, 254-5

Hampden, John, claims of, 23 ;
ship-money case decided against,
62-3 ; Strafford's attainder op-
posed by, 83; watches Charles
in Scotland, 92 ; impeached by
Charles, 103 ; proposes parlia-
mentary control of militia, 105 ;
Cromwell's advice to, about offi-
cers, 120-I ; death of, 131 ; Crom-
well contrasted with, 12; other-
wise mentioned, 16, 19, 61, 122,
362

Harrison, Major, Charles conveyed
to Windsor by, 260-I ; march on
Worcester, 315; at dismissal 01
Long Parliament, 334-6; mem-
ber of Little Parliament, 344;
convention inspired by, 345 ; im-
prisonment of, 385, 422 ; sus-
pected of designs on Cromwell,
408 ; extreme views of, 329, 343 ;
Cromwell's regard for, 408 ; other-
wise mentioned, 252, 271

Haselrig, Sir Arthur, impeached by
Charles, 103 ; in first parliament
of Protectorate, 373; withstands
Cromwell's compulsion of parlia-
ment, 377; influence of, feared
by Whalley, 394

Heads of the Proposals of the Army,
225, 359

Healing Question, the, 397

Henderson, Alexander, 149-50

Henrietta Maria, Queen, charac-
teristics and influence of, 25,
29-31 ; correspondence of, with
Charles, 202-3, 205-6

Henry of Navarre, 25, 30, 203

Herbert, George, Laud's influence
on, 38

Herbert, Lady, on Naseby field,
184-5

Hewitt, Dr., case of, 455

Hinchinbrook, 9, 15



Hitch, Mr., Cromwell's dispute
with, 123-4

Hobbes, 54, 73, 133

Holland —

Arminianism in, 52-3; Catholic
influence in, 43 ; Cromwell's
treaty with, 435 ; hostility be-
tween English parliament and,
280, 322-3, 442 ; Wagstaff"e's
flight to, 384 ; war with, 323

Holies, Denzil, Speaker detained
by, 17; impeached by Charles,
103; hostihty of, to Cromwell,
166-7; Presbyterians led by, 247

Holmby, Charles I at, 208; his re-
moval from, 214-15

Hopton, Ralph, Lord, no, 134, 191

Horncastle fight, 126-7

Howe, John, devotional feats of,

431

Hull, Charles I refused entry of,
106; Fairfax's withdrawal to,
134; siege of, raised by New-
castle, 136

Humble Petition and Advice, na-
ture of, 362,424-5; introduction
of, 416

Huntingdon, Cromwell member for,
16; charter dispute, 18

Hurst Castle, 259

Hyde. See Clarendon

Lidependents (see also Puritan-
ism) —

Cromwell supported by, 162 ; in-
tolerance of, 414; Irish policy of,
294; Long Parliament reinforced
by, 198; numerical inferiority of,
279; Presbyterians opposed by,
153, 161-2, 198, 201, 204, 366;
contrasted with, 212

Instruments of Government —
Adoption of, 358; American con-
stitution compared with, 363 ;
army, control and numbers of,
regulated by, 361-2, 378-9;
Cromwell's contravention of, 390;
fundamentals of, 363, 377-8;
provisions of, 360-2, 424; re-
modeling of, 416; toleration af-
firmed by, 362, 367

Inverkeithing, 313

Ireland —

Catholicism in, 95, 283-4, 405 ;
Charles I's proposed abandon-



INDEX



481



ment of, 202 ; Cromwell's settle-
ment of, 287, 297-9, 317; danger
to England from, 207; Henry
Cromwell Lord Deputy of, 428 ;
incorporation of, with England
originated by Long Parliament,
344, 365; land settlement scheme
for, 365; O'Neill's importance in,
283 ; Ormonde's policy in, 283-4 ;
rebellion of 1641, causes of, 94-6 ;
scope of, 96-8 ; representation of,
in English parliament, 344; par-
liamentary influence of, 405 ;
Rinuccini's aims in, 283 ; Straf
ford's rule and policy in, 20, 32-3,
61, 95; his unpopularity in, 81,

95

Ireton,Henry,atNaseby, 180-1,183,
199 ; at Marston, Gainsborough,
and Edgehill, 199; negotiates with '
the army for dislvandment, 213;
Heads of the Proposals of the
Army framed by, 225 ; debates
measures with extremists in the
army, 225-231 ; remonstrance of
the army drawn up by, 251 ; dese-
cration of remains of, 464; ad-
vanced views of, 198; character
and ability of, 199-200 ; otherwise
mentioned, ill, 198, 271, 321

Irish — camp-followers slain at
Naseby, 184, 286; defeat of, un-
der Montrose, 187; English con-
trasted with, 219; transportations
of, to Jamaica, 297

Ironside, origin of nickname, 139

Jamaica, Irish transportation to,

297; seizure of, 438, 447
Jefferson, Cromwell contrasted with,

471
Jesuits, influence of, 42 ; proposed

rigorous legislation against, 412
Jews, position of, under Cromwell,

413
Johnson, Dr., on Laud's execution,

'55
Joyce, Cornet, 214-15
Juxon, bishop of London, 57, 83

Killing no Murder, 406
Kirk sessions, powers of, 57
Knox, John, 55

Lambert, John, at Dunbar, 307-8 ;
in Scotland, 312-13; march on



Worcester, 315 ; member of Little
Parhament, 344; Instrument of
Government prepared by, 357;
resents parliamentary attack on
major generals, 405; opposes
Cromwell's acceptance of king-
ship, 418, 421; dismissed by
Cromwell, 422; opposes aggres-
sion in West Indies, 436 ; military
talent and ability ol, 263, 315.
374; extreme views of, 329;
otherwise mentioned, 242, 336,
344, 430, 457

Langdale, hir Marmaduke, 1S0-2,
242-4

Lansdown, royalist victory at, 134

Laud, archbishop of Canterbury,
Sidney Sussex College denounced
by, 1 1 ; Scotch policy of, 20, 64 ;
Arminianism approved by, 52 ;
chief justice censured by, 58;
flight of, from Lambeth, 69;
Strafford's case estimated by,
84; Prynne victimized by, 286;
execution of, 155, 191 ; charac-
teristics of, 37-9; estimate of,
by historians, 35-6; Bramhall
compared with, by Cromwell, 90

Lecturers, Cromwell's plea for, 18

Leicester, storming of, by Charles I,
176

Leighton, Alexander, 61-2, 90

Lenthall, William, Speaker of the
House of Commons, withstands
Charles's violation of parliamen-
tary privilege, 103-4; joins the
army, 217; Cromwell's confer-
ences with, 263 ; Cromwell ac-
companied by, on entering Lon-
don, 319; monarchy advocated
by, 326-7 ; protests against dis-
solution of the Rump Parliament,
337; his view of Cromwell's
Chancery ordinance, 365

Leslie, David, Cromwell supported
by, at Marston Moor, 137-9, 141,
143; Montrose defeated by, 187;
Cromwell opposed by, in Edin-
burgh, 304; at Dunbar, 304-7;
at Stirling, 312

Levelers, 225, 230, 231, 281-2, 325

Leven, Lord, 136

Lilburne, John, persecution of,6l-2;
Agreement of the People drawn
up by (1648;, 225; trial and



482



INDEX



acquittal of, 350; characteristics
of, 280

Little Parliament, summoning of,
343-4; Scotland and Ireland
represented in, 344; Cromwell's
inaugural address 10,345-7; fidel-
ity of, to Cromwell, 348; legisla-
tive attempts of, 349-50; dissolu-
tion of, 350-1

Lockhart, Sir William, 431, 459-61

London, City of —

Army, hostility to, 223 ; disband-
ment of, urged, 212; Charles I,
welcomed by, 100; his cause fa-
vored by (1648), 246; Cromwell
thanked by, for Irish victories,
301; acclaimedby, after Worcester,
319; his vigilance over, 386; fer-
ment of, in 1644, 147; parliamen-
tarians supported by, 109; peace
desired by, 21 1; petitions pre-
sented by, 452 ; Presbyterianisni
strong in, 279, 369; Puritanism
strong in, 68; riots in (1647),
216-7; (1648), 23S

Long Parliament —

Calling of, 70 ; Charles's attack on
five members of, 103-5 ' compo-
sition of, 71-3 ; Cromwell's rela-
tions numerous in, 74; Holland,
attitude toward, 280, 322-3, 442;
mihtary force, threatened with,
216-18; numbers of, in divisions,
in early days, 197; after Pride's
Purge, 277; Pride's Purge, 259-
260, 329

Lords, House of —

Abolition of, 277-8; bishops' ex-
clusion from, proposed, 89, 93,



Online LibraryJohn MorleyOliver Cromwell → online text (page 34 of 35)