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1^.



'.^;.v^ M



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.



Critical Miscellanies. First Series. New
Edition.

Contents : Vanvenargues — Condorcet — Joseph
De Mais t re — Carlyle — Byron — S^c.

Critical Miscellanies. Second Series.

Contents : Robespierre— Turgot — Mill—Macmilay
— Popular Culture — qt'c.

Voltaire. Third Edition.

Diderot. 2 vols. [in the Press.

On Compromise. Second Edition. 3J. bd.



ROUSSEAU.



BY



JOHN MORLEY



^EW EDITION.



LONDON :
CHAPMAN AND HALL, 193, PICCADILLY.

1878.

(^// rights rese>'ved. )



LONDON :
GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS,

ST. John's square.



NOTE TO THE FIRST EDITION.



URL

n7%



This work differs from its companion volume in offering something
more like a continuous personal history than was necessary
in the case of such a man as Voltaire, the story of whose life
may be found in more than one English book of repute. Of
Rousseau there is, I believe, no full biographical account in our
literature, and even France has nothing more complete under this
head than Musset-Pathay's Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de
J.J. Rousseau (182 1). This, though a meritorious piece of labour,
is extremely crude and formless in composition and arrangement,
and the interpreting portions are devoid of interest.

The edition of Rousseau's works to which the references have
been made is that by M. Auguis, in twenty-seven volumes, published
in 1825 byDalibon. In 1865 M. Streckeisen-Moultou published
from the originals, which had been deposited in the library of
Neuchatel by Du Peyrou, the letters addressed to Rousseau by
various correspondents. These two interesting volumes, which
are entitled Rousseau, ses Amis ct ses Ennemis, are mostly referred
to under the name of their editor.

February, 1873.



The present edition has been revised ; some portions have been
considerably shortened, and a few additional foot-notes inserted.

March, 1878.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY.



PAGE

The Revolution i

Rousseau its most direct speculative precursor 2

His distinction among revolutionists ....... 3

His personality ........... 4



CHAPTER n.

,YOUTH.

Birth and descent . .6

Predispositions .......•••• 7

First Lessons ........... 8

At M. Lambercier's 10

Early disclosure of sensitive temperament 13

Return to Geneva ,........• '4

Two apprenticeships . . . • • • • • • .18

Flight from Geneva ....... . .20

Savoyard proselytizers . . . . . . • • • .21

Rousseau sent to Annecy, and thence to Turin 23

Conversion to Catholicism ......... 24

Takes service with Madame de Vercellis 26

Then with the Count de Gouvon ........ 28

Returns to vagabondage ......... 29

And to Madame de Warens ......... 3°



VI



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER III.



SAVOY.

Influence of women upon Rousseau

Account of Madame de Warens .

Rousseau takes up his abode with her

His delight in life with her .

The seminarists ....

To Lyons .....

Wanderings to Freiburg, Neuchatel, and elsewhere

Through the east of France .

Influence of these wanderings upon him

Chamber! .....

Household of Madame de Warens

Les Charmettes ....

Account of his feeling for nature .

II is intellectual incapacity at this time

Temperament ....

Literary interests, and method

Joyful days with his benefactress .

To Montpellier : end of an episode

Dates



PAGE

31
32
36
36
38
39
40

41

45
46

47
49
53
55
56

57
60
62
62



CHAPTER IV.



THERESA LE VASSEUR.



Tutorship at Lyons

Goes to Paris in search of fortune

His appearance at this time .

Made secretary to the ambassador at Venice

His journey thither and life there

Return to Paris .

Theresa Le Vasseur

Character of their union

Rousseau's conduct towards her

Their later estrangements

Rousseau's scanty means

Puts away his five children

His apologies for the crime

Their futility

Attempts to recover the children

Rousseau never married to Theresa

Contrast between outer and inner life



64

65
67
67
69

71

72

74
76

78
80
81
82

85
86

87
87



CONTENTS.



Vll



CHAPTER V.



THE DISCOURSES,

Local academies in France .....

Circumstances of the composition of the first Discourse

How far the paradox was original

His visions for thirteen years

Summary of the first Discourse

Obligations to Montaigne

And to the Greeks

Semi-Socratic manner .

Objections to the Discourse .

Ways of stating its positive side .

Dangers of exaggerating this positive side

Its excess .....

Second Discourse

Ideas of the time upon the state of nature

Their influence upon Rousseau

Morelly, as his predecessor .

Summary of the second Discourse

Criticism of its method

Objection from its want of evidence

Other objections to its account of primitive nature .

Takes uniformity of process for granted

In what the importance of the second Discourse consisted

Its protest againt the mockery of civilization .

The equality of man, how true, and how false

This doctrine in France, and in America

Rousseau's Discourses, a reaction against the historic method

Mably, and socialism .......



1 06



PAGE

89
89

91
92

93—97
97
98

99
99

lOI

loi
102
103
104
104

105

—114

114

"5
116
118
119
120
121
122
122
123



CHAPTER VI.



PARIS.

Influence of Geneva upon Rousseau . . . . •

Two sides of his temperament ......

Uncongenial characteristics of Parisian society

His associates .......••

Circumstances of a sudden moral reform ....

Arising from his violent repugnance for the manners of the time

His assumption of a seeming cynicism . . .

Protests against atheism •



126
128
129

131
132
136

139
140



vm



CONTENTS.



The Village Soothsayer at Fontainebleau
Two anecdotes of his moral singularity ,
Revisits Geneva . , . . .
End of Madame de Warens .
Rousseau's re-conversion to Protestantism
The religious opinions then current in Geneva
Turretini and other rationalisers .
Effect upon Rousseau ....
Thinks of taking up his abode in Geneva
Madame d'Epinay offers him the Hermitage
Retires thither against the protests of his friends



I'AGE

142
144
145
145
148
150

151

152
153
154
156



CHAPTER VII.



THE HERMITAGE.

Distinction between the old and the new anchorite
Rousseau's first days at the Hermitage .
Rural delirium ......

Dislike of society ......

Meditates work on Sensitive Morality .
Arranges the papers of the Abbe de Saint Pierre
His remarks on them .....

Violent mental crisis .....

First conception of the New Heloisa

A scene of high morals ....

Madame d'Houdetot .....

Erotic mania becomes intensified .

Interviews with Madame d'Houdetot

Saint Lambert interposes ....

Rousseau's letter to Saint Lambert

Its profound falsity .....

Saint Lambert's reply .....

Final relations with him and with Madame d'Houdetot
Sources of Rousseau's irritability .
Relations with Diderot .....

With Madame d'Epinay ....

With Grimm ......

Grimm's natural want of sympathy with Rousseau
Madamed'Epinay's journey to Geneva .
Occasion of Rousseau's breach with Grimm .
And with Madame d'Epinay
Leaves the Hermitage .....



158

159
161

163
164
164
166
167
169
171
172
172

174
176
177
178
179
180
182

1S3
186

187
1S9
190
191
194
194



CONTENTS.



IX



CHAPTER VIII.



MUSIC.



General character of Rousseau's aim in music

As composer ........

Contest on the comparative merits of French and Italian music
Rousseau's Letter on French Music
His scheme of musical notation
Its chief element ....

Its practical value

His mistake. . .• .

Two minor objections .



PAGE

196
196
197
197
199
200
201
202
202



CHAPTER IX.

VOLTAIRE AND D'aLEMBERT.



Position of Voltaire .....

General differences between him and Rousseau

Rousseau not the profounder of the two .

But he had a spiritual element

Their early relations .....

Voltaire's poem on the Earthquake of Lisbon

Rousseau's wonder that he should have written it

His letter to Voltaire upon it . . .

Points to the advantages of the savage state .

Reproduces Pope's general position

Not an answer to the position taken by Voltaire

Confesses the question insoluble, but still argues

Curious close of the letter

Their subsequent relations

D'Alembert's article on Geneva

The church and the theatre .

Jeremy Collier : Bossuet

Rousseau's contention on stage plays

Rude handling of commonplace .

The true answer to Rousseau as to theory of dramatic mc

His arguments relatively to Geneva

Their meaning ....

Criticism on the Misanthrope

Rousseau's contrast between Paris and an imaginary Geneva

Attack on love as a poetic theme .....

This letter, the mark of his sclrism from the party of the philosophers



orality



203
203
205
205
207
208
208
209
210
211
211
212
214
214

215
216
217
217
218
219
219
220
220
221
223
225



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X.



MONTMORENCY — THE NEW HELOISA.

Conditions preceding the composition of the New Heloisa

The Duke and Duchess of Luxembourg

Rousseau and his patrician acquaintances

Peaceful hfe at Montmorency .....

Equivocal prudence occasionally shown by Rousseau

His want of gratitude for commonplace service

Bad health, and thoughts of suicide ....

Episode of Madame Latour de Franqueville .

Relation of the new Heloisa to Rousseau's general doctrine

Action of the first part of the story ....

Contrasted with contemporary literature

And with contemporary manners .....

Criticism of the language and principal actors
Popularity of the New Heloisa .....

Its reactionary intellectual direction ....

Action of the second part ......

Its influence on Goethe and others ....

Distinction between Rousseau and his school

Singular pictures of domesticity .....

Sumptuaiy details .......

The slowness of movement in the work, justified .
Exaltation of marriage . . . . . . ' .

Equalitarian tendencies ......

Not inconsistent with social quietism ....

Compensation in the political consequences of the triumph of
Circumstances of the publication of the New Heloisa
Nature of the trade in books
Malesherbes and the printing of Emllius
Rousseau's suspicions ....

The great stniggle of the moment .
Proscription of Emilius . . ' .

Flight of the author ....



sentiment



PAGE
. 227
. 228
. 229
. 232

• 234

• 23s

• 237

• 238
. 240
. 242
. 242

• 244
244, 24s

. 247
. 248
250
251
253
254

255
256

257
259
260
262
263
264
266
267
268
270
270



249.



CHAPTER XI.



PERSECUTION.



Rousseau's journey from Switzerland ....... 272

Absence of vindictiveness ......... 273

Arrival at Yverdun 274

Repairs to Motiers 275



CONTENTS. xi

PAGE

Relations with Frederick the Great 275

Life at Motiers 277

Lord Marischal 278

Voltaire 280

Rousseau's letter to the Archbishop of Paris . . . . . .281

Its dialectic 283

The ministers of Neuchatel 286

Rousseau's singular costume ......... 286

His throng of visitors . 287

Lewis, prince of Wiirtemberg 289

Gibbon 290

Boswell 291

Corsican affairs ........... 291

The feud at Geneva 294

Rousseau renounces his citizenship ....... 295

The Letters from the Mountain 295

Political side 295

Consequent persecutions at Motiers . 296

Flight to the isle of St. Peter 298

The fifth of the Reveries 299

Proscription by the government of Berne ...... 303

Rousseau's singular request ......... 303

His renewed flight . 304

Persuaded to seek shelter in England 304



CHAPTER XIL



THE SOCIAL CONTRACT.



Rousseau's reaction against perfectibility
Abandonment of the position of the Discourses
Doubtful idea of equality ......

The Social Contract, a repudiation of the historic method
Yet it has glimpses of relativity .....

Influence of Greek examples .....

And of Geneva ........

Impression upon Robespierre and Saint Just

Rousseau's scheme implied a small territory .

Why the Social Contract made fanatics

Verbal quality of its propositions .....

The doctrine of public safety .....

The doctrine of the sovereignty of peoples

Its early phases ........

Its history in the sixteenth century ....



306
307
307
309
3"
312

314
314
316
318
318
321
322

323

324



xu



CONTENTS.



Hooker and Grotius
Loci



e .
Hobbes .......

Central propositions of the Social Contract : —

1. Origin of society in compact
Different conception held by the Physiocrats

2. Sovereignty of tlie body thus constituted .
Difference from Hobbes and Lock
The root of socialism .
Republican phraseology

3. Attributes of sovereignty .

4. The law-making power .
A contemporary illustration .
Hints of confederation .

5. Forms of government
Criticism on the common division
Rousseau's preference for elective aristocracy

6. Attitude of the state to religion
Rousseau's vie«', the climax of a reaction
Its effect at the French Revolution

Its futility

Another method of approaching the philosophy of \

Origin of society not a compact

The true reason of the submission of a minority to

Rousseau fails to touch actual problems

The doctrine of resistance, for instance .

Historical illustrations ....

Historical effect of the Social Contract in France and Germany

Socialist deductions from it



government :



a majority



PAGE

327

329
330
331
332

333
333
334
334
336
336
338
338
340
341
343
345
345

348
349
350
350
351
353
355



CHAPTER Xin.



EMILIUS.



Rousseau touched by the enthusiasm of his time .
Contemporai7 excitement as to education, part

naturalism ....■•
I. — Locke on education ....
Difference between him and Rousseau .
Exhortations to mothers ....
Importance of infantile habits
Rousseau's protest against reasoning with children
Criticised .....••
The opposite theory .....
The idea of property



of the revival of



357

359
360

361
362

364
364
365
365

367



CONTENTS.



Xlll



Artificially contrived incidents

Rousseau's omission of the principle of authority .

Connected with his neglect of the faculty of sympathy .

II. — Rousseau's ideal of living .....

The training that follows from it .

The duty of knowing a craft

Social conception involved in this moral conception

III. — Three aims before the instructor ....

Rousseau's omission of training for the social conscience

No contemplation of society as a whole

Personal interest, the foundation of the morality of Emilius

The sphere and definition of the social conscience .

IV. — The study of history .

Rousseau's notions upon the subject

V. Ideals of life for women .

Rousseau's repudiation of his own principles

His oriental and obscurantist position .

Arising from his want of faith in improvement

His reactionary tendencies in this region eventually neutralised

VI. — Sum of the merits of Emilius

Its influence in France and Germany .

In England ......



PAGE

368

369
372
372
373
374
376
378

379
380

381
382

383
384
386

387
387
389
390
391
392
393



CHAPTER XIV.



THE SAVOYARD VICAR.



a divinity



Shallow hopes entertained by the dogmatic atheists
The good side of the religious reaction .
Its preservation of some parts of Christian influence
Earlier forms of deism .....
The deism of the Savoyard Vicar .
The elevation of man, as well as the restoration of
A divinity for fair weather ....
Religious self-denial .....
The Savoyard Vicar's vital omission
His position towards Christianity .
Its effectiveness as a solvent ....
"Weakness of the subjective test .
The Savoyard Vicar's deism not compatible with gi-owing
conviction ......



The true satisfaction of the religious emotion



intellectual



396
397
398
398
401
402

403
404
405
406
407
409

409
410



xiv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

ENGLAND.

PAGE

Rousseau's English portrait 413

His reception in Paris 414

And in London 4^5

Hume's account of him . . . . . . . . .415

Settlement at Wootton 417

The quarrel with Hume . 417

Detail of the charges against Hume 418

Walpole's pretended letter from Frederick ...... 420

Baselessness of the whole delusion . . . . . . . 42 1

Hume's conduct in the quarrel 421

The war of pamphlets ...... .... 423

Common theory of Rousseau's madness ...... 423

Preparatory conditions ......... 424

Extension of disorder from the affective life to the intelligence . .425

The Confessions • 426

His life at Wootton 429

Flight from Derbyshire ......... 43°

And from England . . . . . . . • • • 43'



CHAPTER XVI,

THE END.

The elder Mirabeau 432

Shelters Rousseau at Fleury 433

Rousseau at Trye 434

In Dauphiny 435

Return to Paris 435

The Rkjcries 43^

Life in Paris 43^

Bernardin de St. Pierre's account of him 437

An Easter excursion 439

Rousseau's unsociality 441

Poland and Spain 442

Withdrawal to Ermenonville 443

His death 444



JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU.



Bom .

Fled from Geneva ........ March,

Changes religion at Turin ....... April,

"With Madame de Warens, including various intervals, until April,
Goes to Paris with musical schemes .....

Secretary at Venice ........ Spritig,

Paris, first as secretary to M. Francueil, then as composer, and |
copyist .........)

The Hermitage ......... April 9,

Montmorency ......... Dec. 15,

Yverdun ........ . . June 14,

Motiers-Travers ......... July 10,

Isle of St. Peter Sept.

Strasburg, Nov.

Paris .......... Deceviber,

Arrives in England Jan. 13,

Leaves Dover May 22,

Fleury Jiuie,

Trye July,

Dauphiny .......... Aug.

Paris Jii'ic,

Death July 2,



1712
1728

1740
1741

1743

1744
to

1756
1756

1757
1762
1762
1765



1766
1767

1768
1770

1778



1759



PRINCIPAL WRITINGS

Discourse on the Influence of Learning and Art
,, ,, Inequality ....

Letter to D'Alembert ....

New Helo'isa (begun 1757, finished in winter of
Social Contract .....

Emilius .......

Letters from the Mountain

Confessions (written 1766 — 70) .

Reveries (written 1777 — 8).



-60)



Published 1750

1754

1758

Published 1761

M 1762

» 1762

,, 1764
(Pt. I. 1781
)Pt. II. 17S8



Conime dans les Hangs assotipis sous les bois,

Dans plus d'une d?ne 07i voit deux choses a lafois :

Le del, qui teint les eaux a peine remutes

Avec tous ses 7-ayons et toutes ses nuees ;

Et la vase,fo}id morne, affreux, sombre et dormant,

Oil des reptiles noirs fourmillent vaguetJient.

Hugo.



ROUSSEAU.



CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY.

Christianity is the name for a great variety of changes which
took place during the first centuries of our era, in men's ways
of thinking and feeUng about their spiritual relations to unseen
powers, about their moral relations to one another, about the
basis and type of social union. So the Revolution is now the
accepted name for a set of changes which began faintly to take a
definite practical shape first in America, and then in France,
towards the end of the eighteenth century ; they had been directly
prepared by a small number of energetic thinkers, whose specula-
tions represented, as always, the prolongation of some old lines of
thought in obedience to the impulse of new social and intellectual
conditions. While one movement supplied the energy and the
principles which extricated civilization from the ruins of the Roman
empire, the other supplies the energy and the principles which
already once, between the Seven Years' War and the assembly of
the States General, saved human progress in face of the political
fatuity of England and the political nullity of France ; and they
are now, amid the distraction of the various representatives of an
obsolete ordering, the only forces to be trusted at once for multi-
plying the achievements of humail intelligence stimulated by human
sympathy, and for diftusing their beneficent results with an ampler
hand and more far-scattering arm. Faith in a divine power, devout
obedience to its supposed will, hope of ecstatic, unspeakable



2 ROUSSEAU.

reward, these were the springs of the old movement. Undivided
love of our fellows, steadfast faith in human nature, steadfast
search after justice, firm aspiration towards improvement, and
generous contentment in the hope that others may reap whatever
reward may be, these are the springs of the new.

There is no given set of practical maxims agreed to by all
members of the revolutionary schools for achieving the work of
release from the pressure of an antiquated social condition, any
more than there is one set of doctrines and one kind of discipline
accepted by all Protestants. Voltaire was a revolutionist in one
sense, Diderot in another, and Rousseau in a third, just as in the
practical order, Lafayette, Danton, Robespierre, represented three
different aspirations and as many methods. Rousseau was the
rpost directly revolutionary of all the speculative precursors, and
he was the first to apply his mind boldly to those of the social
conditions which the revolution is concerned by one solution or
another to modify. How far his direct influence was disastrous
in consequence of a mischievous method, we shall have to
examine. • It was so various that no single answer can compre-
hend an exhaustive judgment. His writings produced that glow
of enthusiastic feeling in France, which led to the all-important
assistance rendered by that country to the American colonists in
a struggle so momentous for mankind. It was from his writings
that the Americans took the ideas and the phrases of their great
charter, thus uniting the native principles of their own direct
Protestantism with principles that were strictly derivative from the
Protestantism of Geneva. Again, it was his work more than that
of any other one man, that France arose from the deadly decay
which had laid hold of her whole social and political system, and
found that irresistible energy which warded oft" dissolution within
and partition from without. We shall see, further, that besides
being the first immediately revolutionary thinker in politics, he
was the most stirring of reactionists in religion. His influence
formed not only Robespierre and Paine, but Chateaubriand, not
only Jacobinism but the Catholicism of the Restoration. Thus
he did more than any one else at once to give direction to the
first episodes of revolution, and force to the first episode of re-
action.



PRELIMINAR V. 3

There are some teachers whose distinction is neither correct
thought, nor an eye for the exigencies of practical organization,
but simply depth and fervour of the moral sentiment, bringing
with it the indefinable gift of touching many hearts with love of
virtue and the things of the spirit. The Christian organizations
which saved western society from dissolution owe all to St. Paul,
Hildebrand, Luther, Calvin, but the spiritual life of the west
during all these generations has burnt with the pure flame first
lighted by the sublime mystic of the Galilean hills. Aristotle
acquired for men much knowledge and many instruments for
gaining more, but it is Plato, his master, who moves the soul with
love of truth and enthusiasm for excellence. There is peril in all
such leaders of souls, inasmuch as they incline men to substitute
warmth for light, and to be content with aspiration where they
need direction. Yet no movement goes far which does not count
one of them in the number of its chiefs. Rousseau took this
place among those who prepared the first act of that revolutionar)^
drama, whose fifth act is still dark to us.

At the heart of the Revolution, like a torrid stream flowing un-
discemible amid the waters of a tumbling sea, is a new way of
understanding life. The social changes desired by the various
assailants of the old order are only the expression of a deeper
change in moral idea, and the drift of the new moral idea is to
make life simpler. This in a sense is at the bottom of all great
religious and moral movements, and the Revolution emphatically
belongs to the latter class. Like such movements in the breast
of the individual, those which stir an epoch have their principle
in the same craving for disentanglement of life. This impulse to
shake off" intricacies is the mark of revolutionary generations, and
it was the starting-point of all Rousseau's mental habits, and of
the work in which they expressed themselves. His mind moved
outwards from this centre, and hence the fact that he dealt
principally with government and education, the two great agencies
which, in an old civilization with a thousand roots and feelers,



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