William Starke Rosecrans,H
H.I.M. THE EMPEROR OK JAPAN.
(Born Nov. 3, 1X52; acceded Feb. 13, 1867; crowned Oct. 13, 1868.)
A NATION THOROUGHLY IN EARNEST.
FORMERLY OF THE IMPERIAL PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT, TOKIO ;
AUTHOR OF "WAR I\ KOREA," "A SAMURAl's DAUGHTER," ETC., ETC.
Illustrations by R. Isayama, Military Artist of l/te Kuzen Clan,
W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED,
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.
(All rights reserved.}
\\YMAN AND SONS, LIMITED,
LONDON AND KKDHILU
To His IMPERIAL MAJESTY,
THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN,
ENLIGHTENED AND BENEVOLENT RULE THE EMPIRE HAS ADVANCED
TO A POSITION IN THE FRONT RANK AMONG THE
POWERS OF THE WORLD,
ENGRAFTED THE ARTS AND SCIENCES OF THK WEST
OLDER CIVILISATION OF THE ORIENT
WHICH FOR MANY CENTURIES
HAD DISTINGUISHED THE TERRITORY O
gil?t volume is most respectful'to? insert beb
BY HIS MAJESTY'S FORMER SERVANT IN THE
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS,
FIRST LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
His EXCELLENCY T. KATO, Japanese Ambassador to Great Britain.
SIR EDWIN ARNOLD, K.C.I.E., C.S.I.
T. HAYASHI, Esq., Japanese Consul-General in London.
WM. ANDERSON, Esq., M.R.C.S., Chairman of the Japan Society.
Y. NAKAI, Esq., Manager of the Yokohama Specie Bank.
A. DIOSY, Esq., Hon. Sec. of the Japan Society.
R. TAYUI, Esq., Chancellor of the Japanese Consulate-General.
DESIGN ON COVER.
The Japanese National flags support the ribbon and
medal awarded by the Emperor for valour, which takes
the place in Japan of our Victoria Cross. There are
many recipients of it in connection with the late Chinese
The five-pointed Star and Cherry-blossom are respec-
tively the badges of the Japanese Army and Navy.
The Chrysanthemum is the Official Crest of Japan,
and the adjoining leaf and flower of the Kiri tree form
the private badge of the Japanese Emperor.
THE contest just concluded between Japan and
China had the effect of directing public atten-
tion to the serious side of the Japanese character. A
people capable of waging warfare so systematically and
successfully cannot fail to occupy a most prominent
position in the twentieth century, now so near its dawn.
But though they have shown themselves to be well
equipped for the fray, the tendency is distinctly towards
the re-establishment of peaceful intercourse with China,
on that footing of perfect equality which was unattain-
able so long as the people of the Middle Kingdom held
in derision the efforts of the Japanese nation to excel in
the arts of the Occident.
Now that the supremacy of Japan in the matter of
armaments has been acknowledged by her ancient rival,
the way has been paved for a reconciliation which shall
have widespreading effects not only upon the future of
the two nations more immediately concerned, but upon
the policy of the Great Powers of the West. Japan has
taken up a position from which she cannot recede, and,
without being aggressive, she will strive not only to
maintain that position but to continually improve it.
The ambition she cherishes will not attain its fruition
until she has constituted herself as powerful a force on
the eastern flank of Asia as is the United Kingdom on
the north-west edge of Europe. In no way has she
sought more diligently to strengthen herself than in the
formation of a potent fleet, and the adequate training
of her sailors. She has added to her resources by the
capture of her enemy's vessels, as did the British in
days of old, and she has devoted large sums, in the
current estimates, to the supply of gigantic line-of-
battle ships which will be in no way inferior to those
of highly-organised European navies.
The acquisition of Formosa gives Japan a vastly
improved strategical position in Far Eastern Waters,
and though she has chosen to relinquish her claim to
Liao-Tung, she has benefited in no inconsiderable de-
gree by her magnanimous renunciation of her right to
an increased indemnity. Such treatment of a fallen foe
will raise Japan immeasurably in the world's esteem,
and is in harmony with the repeated utterances of the
Japanese Emperor disclaiming any intention of inflict-
ing needless privations upon the Chinese people at
large, with whom his Majesty had no quarrel. Such
generosity will not be lost upon those at the head of
affairs in Peking, and the actual outcome of the mili-
tary struggle may not improbably be the revival of
those cordial relations between the two Powers of the
Orient which existed in past centuries. Though the
conditions are reversed, and the former pupil has be-
come the tutor, it will be none the less advantageous
to China in the end that the practical result of the war
has been to convince her Government of the utter folly
of longer rejecting the lessons of the age.
In the last chapter of this book I have sought to
indicate the direction in which a mutual understand-
ing between the recent combatants may bring about
important events bearing upon the future trade of
European countries. The way to China now lies
through Japan, for unquestionably Japan has made a
deeper and more lasting impression upon her neigh-
bour than had previously been made by any other
nation. The blow has been all the more severely felt
by China in that the Power which inflicted it was one
which she had previously affected to hold in contempt.
The consciousness that the Japanese Emperor has
shown moderation in his hour of triumph will not
tend to lessen the humiliation of the vanquished, but
it may render a return to intimate friendship not only
possible, but comparatively speedy of accomplishment.
The form which its outward expression may take is a
matter in which the Western Powers are keenly inter-
ested, but it is likewise one in which they may not be
enlightened for some time to come. Negotiations will
proceed very leisurely, now that peace has been secured,
and the outer circle of nations may have to judge of
their tenour mainly by results. The future conceals
nothing more calculated to amaze the casual observer
than the effects which are certain to follow in the train
of re-established amity in the East. Everyone admits
that the opening-up of China to general intercourse
would be fraught with stupendous consequences, though
few care to pursue the subject so far as to ascertain in
what way the change may be effected.
In this necessarily imperfect work I have sought to
draw attention to some of those characteristics of the
Japanese and their undertakings which have tended to
make of them at this hour a nation to be honoured.
Their ancient history has been touched upon with a
view of showing that they always had in them the
materials of a great and powerful people. In many
respects it has been found impossible, within ordinary
limits, to enumerate even a tithe of the notable qualities
and features of their daily existence. Only the salient
points have been touched upon, and attention has been
invited rather to the practical side of the national dis-
position than to the exquisite productions of their fine
arts, or to the innate poetry of their nature. Those who
would pursue these branches of study have a wealth of
material at hand in the admirable works of Sir Edwin
Arnold, Mr. Basil Hall Chamberlain, Mr. William
Anderson, Mr. Josiah Conder, and many other writers
eminently qualified to deal with such subjects effectively.
Upon ethnological points the massive product of Dr.
Rein's investigations will be found to satisfy, in volume
form, every demand which the student may make upon
it Personally I have revived my recollections of places
and incidents, with which I was well acquainted years
ago, by the perusal of the publications of the late Mr.
J. R, Black, to whom I have alluded in connection with
the establishment of newspapers in Japan. I must also
express my indebtedness to the columns of the Yoko-
hama Press for some of the earlier history of the settle-
ment, and to other contemporary works which have
enabled me to recall to memory associations with which
I was familiar in a long residence in the Japanese Em-
pire. My stay in the interior in connection with public
works gave me uncommon facilities for acquiring a
knowledge of the habits and ideas of the rustic popula-
tion, and I was fully prepared to find the raw material
of the Army, as gathered by conscription, capable of
being worked up into the splendid force which Japan
has recently placed in the field, and for the exhibition of
that dauntless heroism which has marked its achieve-
ments in Korea and Manchuria. The men went into
battle singing the praises of their monarch in a verse
which is venerable for its antiquity as a musical as well
as a literary composition :
Kimi ga Yo wa
Chi yo ni, Ya chiyo ni,
Sazare ishi no
Iwa wa to narite,
Koke no musu made.
Sir Edwin Arnold has very kindly given me his version
of this :
THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OF JAPAN.
May our Lord's dominion last
Till a thousand years have passed,
Twice four thousand times o'ertold !
Firm as changeless rock, earth-rooted,
Moss of ages uncomputed
Grow upon it, green and old !
I trust that in my endeavour to attract attention to
those solid qualities of perseverance and determination
to excel which mark the Japanese people, I shall have
afforded some inkling of the sturdy mechanical bent
which has contributed in no small degree to raise them
to the position they now occupy. The practical phases
of their character are so interwoven with the romantic
and poetical that there has been no little danger of the
distinction being altogether lost to Europeans, who have
to judge only by what they see of the nation's products.
Within the past few months the Japanese have appeared
to many in entirely a new light. To me they have ever
been an intensely painstaking, hard working, frugal, and
thoughtful people, imbued with a resolve to succeed in
whatever they undertake, and with the innate conviction
that nothing is beyond their powers of attainment. My
effort to portray them in this character will go far, I
hope, to secure for me, with the general reader, that
measure of cordial forbearance in regard to the short-
comings of my book of which I stand so palpably in
need. J. M.
London, May, 1895.
CHAPTER I. ADMINISTRATION.
The Emperor and Empress Insignia Cabinet Ministers The Present Parliament
Pay of Members The Administration in Korea The Leader of the Opposition
Provincial Assemblies i
CHAPTER II. THE JAPANESE ISLANDS.
Geographical Position The Mainland Territorial Divisions Tukaido The Peer-
less Mountain Hakone Lake The Ex-Shogun's Retreat Biwa Lake Turbulent
Rivers Area and Population Mountains Harbours Climate 13
CHAPTER III. NATURAL HISTORY.
Quadrupeds Birds Fishes Trees Fruits Flowers Vines Cereals Land
under Cultivation Vegetables The Tea Shrub 49
CHAPTER IV. DIET, DRESS, AND MANNERS.
Table Etiquette The Ordinary Bill of Fare Tea-drinking Dress The Household
Washing Day Girlhood in Japan Study and Play Music Arrangement of
CHAPTER V. EARLY HISTORY OF THE NATION.
The Shogun Period Jinmu Tenno Buddhism Introduced Early Writings Heroes
of Old Advent of Christianity Causes which led to the Restoration Kublai
Khan's Invasion Emigration Prohibited Japanese Wars of the Roses Yoritomo
True Relation of Shogun to Mikado Tokugawa Regime Daimio's Revenues ... 91
CHAPTER VI. THE RESTORATION.
Foreign Treaties Early Efforts to Trade Prominent Leaders Railways and other
Public Works Undertaken Compulsory Education Vaccination Cotton Mills ... 122
CHAPTER VII. EARLY YEARS OF MEIJI.
Remonstrances from Satsuma Education The Saga Insurrection Formosa Expedi-
tion China Alarmed Coast Survey Administration of Justice Relief of the Poor
Exhibition ... 162
CHAPTER VIII. PRINCIPAL CITIES OF JAPAN.
Tokio Its Railway Depots The Castle Main Thoroughfares Ueno Park Asa-
kusa Government Offices Kioto Kara Nagoya Kochi Onomichi Kuma-
CHAPTER IX. TREATY PORTS.
Yokohama Kobe-Hiogo Osaka Nagasaki 219
CHAPTER X. COMMUNICATIONS.
Roads The Jin-riki-sha Excursion Guilds Cheap Hotels Highways Railways-
CHAPTER XL LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.
Systems of Caligraphy The Press in Japan First Newspaper Illustrated Periodi-
cals Chinese and Japanese Lexicons Examples of Printing and Engraving ... 288
CHAPTER XII. MINES AND MINERALS.
Gold, Silver, Copper Coal in Abundance Iron, Lead, Tin, and Quicksilver Modern
Methods Employed E'ectrical Haulage Wharves at Misumi Coal Production of
Higo and other Provinces Branch Railways to Mines 309
CHAPTER XIII. ARMAMENTS.
The Organisation of the Forces List of the Fleet, and its Capabilities The Murata
Rifle Personnel of the Army, and of the Navy Colleges Hospitals The Red
Cross Brigade Field Ambulances Warships built in Japan 325
CHAPTER XIV.-WAR WITH CHINA.
The Campaign against Satsuma in 1876 The War with China 1894-5 Valu Naval
Fight Assault and Capture of Ping- Yang and Chiu-lien-chfing Port Arthur Wei-
hai-Wei The Lessons of the War 33$
CHAPTER XV. COLONISATION AND TRADE.
The Progress made in Yeso Prospects in Formosa Opening of New Ports to Com-
merce Facilities for Employment of Foreign Capital Banking and Bank-notes ... 376
CHAPTER XVI.-Tiii FUTURE OF JAPAN.
Predictions of 1868 not Verified A Policy of Selection Japan will open China-
Will urge on Railway Enterprise there The Empires have Something in Common
Railway Profits to Pay War Indemnity Drill-Sergeants for China Japan can
Supply Arms Her Large Market there Will use her Power Wisely Will Introduce
Modern Mechanical Arts Holds the Key to China In Earnest 397
The TOkaido Route The Ko-shiu Kai-do Route The Nakasendo Route (Central
Mountain Road) The Sanyodo Route The San-in-do Route The Tosando
(Oshiu-Kai-do) Nan-Kai-do (Island of Shikoku) Sai-Kai-do (Island of Kiu-
shiu) Hokkaido (Island of Yeso) Population Trade at Ports: 1894 Meteoro-
logical Observations Cotton-Spinning Mines Posts and Telegraphs Tele-
phones Electric Lighting Railways in Japan Average Cost of Food, etc., in
1. H. I. M. The Emperor of Japan Frontispiece.
2. A Red Cross Hospital 3
3. Viscount Mutsu Munemitsu ... ... 6
4. General Saigo Tsugumichi ... ... 7
5. H.I.H. Prince Komatsu 8
6. Provinces and Products (Map) ... ... 15
7. Railway Train Southward Bound from Tokio ... ... 19
8. Fujiyama from Kara, on the Tokaido ... 29
9. Nagoya Castle 36
10. A Japanese Tea-house 39
11. A Dragon Fly 48
12. Carpenter's Tools ... ... ... ... 59
13. The Art of Floral Arrangement ... ... 63
14. Harp, Violin, and Guitar 72
15. An Industrious Sempstress ... 75
16. Hand-ball 81
17. Washing Day 85
1 8. Tobacco-pouch and Pipe-case 89
19. A Dragon Fly ... ... 90
20. Precincts of Asakusa Temple 97
21. The Classic Dance ... ... roi
22. I yeyasu's Castle and Moat at Tokio 108
23. Interior of Buddhist Temple 115
24. The Foreign Office, Tokio 131
25. The Nobles' College, Tokio 137
26. Imperial College of Engineering ... ... 143
27. Medals Awarded at Tokio Exhibition ... 147
28. Before the Police Superintendent 151
xviii ILL US TRA 770 AS.
29. The Cruiser Chiyoda ... ... ... ... ... 163
30. Doctor Ishiguro ... ... ... ... 164
31. General Nodzu ... ... ... ... 171
32. Admiral Ito 172
33. Admiral Kawamuru ... 183
34. Marshal Yamagata ... ... 185
35. H.I.H. Prince Arisugawa ... 186
36. Shinbashi Railway Station ... ... ... 189
37. Where Rest the Dead ... ... ... ... ... 197
38. Poetry amid the Cherry-blossoms ... ... ... 205
39. Homeward from the Picnic ... ... 309
40. Ministry of Communications ... ... ... ... 213
41. The Specie Bank, Yokohama ... ... ... ... 221
42. Fujiyama, from Mishima ... ... ... ... ... 225
43. Kobe Municipal Hall ... ... ... ... ... 229
44. A Bridge at Kameido ... ... ... ... ... 333
45. A Japanese-built Torpedo-boat ... ... ... ... 237
46. Ama-no-Hashidate, near Miyadzu ... ... ... 241
47. The Jin-riki-sha ... ... ... ... ... ... 248
48. Shrine at Nikko 255
49. Pleasure-boat on the Sumida River ... ... ... 265
50. Railways in Japan (Map) ... ... ... ... ... 267
51. Telegraphs in Japan (Map) ... ... ... ... 275
52. Telegraphs at Hamana Inlet ... ... ... ... 281
53. Japanese Printing ... ... ... 289
54. The Japanese Syllabary ... ... ... 295
55. Early Efforts 297
56. Perusing the Morning Newspaper ... 300
57. Example of Japanese Cover to Historical Book ... 305
58. Mining Railway Crossing the Main Line ... ... 311
59. Lighthouses and Harbours ... ... ... ... 317
60. Kumamoto Castle 321
61. Army Department Headquarters ... 327
62. Bringing in the Dead 331
63. Cruiser Takachiho ... ... ... 333
64. Captain of Mat sushi inn ... ... ... 334
65. General Kawakami ... 337
ILL US TRA TIONS. xix
66. Yalu Battle, Stages i, 2 and 3 345
67. The Gunboat Akagi 348
68. Yalu Battle, Stages 4 and 5 349
69. Port Arthur 359
70. Marshal Oyama ... ... ... 361
71. Admiral Hirai ... ... ... ... ... ... 365
72. General Kodama ... ... 367
73. Wei-hai-Wei Harbour ... ... ... 369
74. Map of Formosa ... ... ... ... ... ... 383
75. Japanese Ten- Yen Bank Note (Face) ... ... ... 393
76. Japanese Ten-Yen Bank Note (Reverse) 394
77. Japanese One-Yen Note (Face) ... ... ... ... 395
78. Japanese One-Yen Note (Reverse) ... ... ... 396
79. The Cruiser Yoshinc ... ... ... 398
80. Chinese Prisoners Guarded by Japanese Infantry ... 403
Si. Watching the Attack near Port Arthur ... ... ... 409
82. The Cruiser Suina (Built in Japan) ... ... ... 411
83. The Cruiser Hashidatk (Built in Japan) ... ... ... 412
84. In Honour of the Slain ... ... ... 415
HE EMPEROR AND EMPRESS.
The Emperor Mutsuhito was
born on the 3rd November, 1852,
and succeeded his father, Komei
Tenno, on the I3th February, 1867.
His coronation took place on
October I3th, 1868.
In 1869 he married Haruko,
daughter of a noble holding high
rank at the Court of Kioto. She is ordinarily known
as the Kogo-sama, and her title, taken in conjunction
with her own name, may be translated Empress of
The Emperor is rather tall for his race, standing five
feet eight inches, of rather dark complexion, but possess-
ing fine open features and high forehead, his bearing
2 ADVANCE JAPAN.
being dignified, and his walk alert and active. The
general expression of his countenance is benign, though
shaded at times by a certain solemnity. His consort
is likewise comparatively tall, being about five feet four
inches, and possessing the slim figure and oval features
of the Japanese aristocracy. She is consulted by the
Emperor very generally in State affairs, to the con-
sideration of which she brings a cultivated intellect and
a vast amount of shrewd common-sense. She takes in-
tense personal interest in the welfare of the women of
her nation, and is largely occupied in works of charity
and benevolence. During the war with China she has
actively supervised the proceedings of the Nursing
Organisation, of which she is the president, and has
personally prepared lint and bandages to be sent to the
In the earlier years of his monarchy the Emperor
had constant trials, due to the insurrections fomented
by rival factions, through which his most trusted Mini-
sters were lost to him ; one fell by the sword of the
assassin, one died a natural death, and in two cases
insubordination was followed in the end by actual rebel-
lion.' He was still very young when called from the
seclusion of the Kioto Palace to take an active share in
the conduct of public affairs, with a realm torn asunder
by the violence of contending parties and conflicting
interests. But his earnestness of purpose and steadfast
solicitude for the ultimate good of his subjects has
carried him through all difficulties. By the wisdom
and practical sagacity which he has displayed at crises
in the life of the nation, he has won respect, not only
from his own people, but in countries far afield. If he
has been loyally supported in his efforts by the counsel
of able Ministers, it is due to his personal selection,
and not to the mere accident of political supremacy
that he is surrounded by men of the greatest ability
and discretion, men who would have been regarded
under any circumstances as possessing the highest
qualities of statesmanship and the loftiest patriotism.
His children died young, and for a time the Throne
was without a direct heir.
The actual significance of the term Mikado is Great
Place. Other designations of the Emperor are Tenno =
King of Heaven; Tens/ii=Son of Heaven ; Kotei=
Sublime Ruler; Go-sho = Imperial Place; Kinrisama =
Lord of the Palace. Honours conferred by the Tenshi
are the highest distinctions which can fall to the lot
of any subject. The symbols of Imperial power are
the mirror, as an image of the sun-goddess ; the ball of
rock crystal, the sword, and the brocaded banner. The
Imperial coat of arms is the ^chrysanthemum flower ;
at the same time the emblem of the sun. It has 16
rounded petals. The family badge of the Emperors
represents three leaves and clusters of flowers of the
Kiri (Paulowni Imperialis\
Both emblems are shown in the design which appears
on the cover of this book.
By the Constitution, which was promulgated in 1 889,
the Emperor is the supreme head of the realm, and
combines in himself all the rights of sovereignty. He
exercises entire executive power, with the advice and as-
sistance of his Cabinet Ministers, who are responsible to
him alone, and are appointed by himself. In addition,
he consults the Privy
Council, whose members
are directed by him, to
deliberate on important
affairs of State. His
Majesty has absolute
authority to declare war,
make peace, or conclude
treaties with foreign
The Imperial Cabinet
now numbers nine mem-
bers ; they are :
President of the Cabi-
net and Prime Minister, Count Ito Hirobumi.
Minister of Justice, M. Yoshikawa Akimasa.
Minister for Home Affairs, Count Inouye Kaoru.
Minister of Communications, Count Kuroda Kiyotaka.
Minister for War, Marshal Yamagata Aritomo.
Minister for Agriculture and Commerce, Admiral
Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. Mutsu Mune"mitsu.
Minister for Education, M. Inouye K6.
(Minister for Foreign Affairs).
Minister for the Navy, Count Saigo Tsugumichi.
Minister of Finance, M. Watanabe Kunitake.
Tlie Parliament. The Imperial Diet (Tei-Koku
Gi-Kwai), as now constituted, includes the House of
Peers and the House of
Representatives, and would
correspond to our Lords and
Commons but that the Jap-
anese Legislative Assemblies
number only 300 members
in each instance. The Jap-
anese House of Peers (Kizoku
In) has five classes of mem-
bers. In the first rank are the
males of the Imperial Family
who are over 20 years of age ;
the second rank includes
those of princely houses not
directly connected with the Throne, and all nobles of
the grade of Marquis, the age qualification being 25
years and upwards. Counts, Viscounts, and Barons
rank next, also over 25 years old, who have been elected
to the Diet by their respective orders, the stipulation
being that the number shall not exceed in any case
more than a fifth of the total of each order, which
practically limits the representation to 16 Counts, 71
Viscounts, and 6 Barons ; the fourth rank includes
persons over 30 years of age whom the Emperor has
raised to the House of Peers in recognition of their
GENERAL SAIGO TSUGUMICHI
(Minister of the Navy).
erudition, or of some distinguished service rendered by
them to the State. So far the grades of membership
are identical with our own, save that the ecclesiastical
body is wholly unrepresented in Japan. But there is a
fifth class of persons in-
cluded in the Tokio House
of Peers, for which we have
no precise equivalent. In
each prefecture of the Em-
pire those persons over 30
years of age, to the number
of 15, who pay most in the
way of direct national taxes
on land or industries are
nominated by the Emperor