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17,000 Swedes. As soon as he reached
the'shore, he fell on his knees, and after
a short prayer in sight of his soldiers,
directed them to entrench ^emselves,
seizing a spade with his own hand to
riiow them the example. When tidings
of this event were brought to the Em-
peror Ferdinand, he made light of the
matter, sarcastically terming the
Swedish leader, ^ a snow-king, who
would melt as the summer drew near,
and as he advanced towards a more
southern dimate.** The following
year 6000 English volunteers (among
whom must have been Dugald Dal-
getty) arrived on this spot to reinforce

In the course of the summer, a
Steam^boat goes once a week (on Sa-
turday) to the baths of Putbus in the
Idand of Riigen, from Swinemiinde,
returning on the Monday following.
(Route LXXVI.)


' fi£BGX2(.

Riigen, the largest island belonging
to Germany, is situated in the Btdtic,
separated only by a narrow strait from
Prussian Pomerania, in which pro-
vince it is included. It abounck in
romantic scenery, on account of which,
and of the advantages of sea-bathing

which it affords, it is mudi frequented
in summer by visiters from all parts
of Northern Germany. It may be
termed a German Isle of Wight^ and
indeed bears some resemblance to the
English Island in the conformation
of its lofty cfaalk-diffs, though it is
better wooded, and is further distin-
guished by the narrow bays or bights
which penetrate far inland.

The best mode of approaching it
is by the steamer, which goes in
summer from Swinemiinde to Putbus,
every Saturday, returning on Monday.

There is an excellent carriage road
from Stettin, by Anclam, and along
the shore of the Baltic, to Greifswald
and Stralsund. The road from Ros-
tock to Stralsund is very bad indeed,
not yet macadamised; thus the ap-
proach to the Idand from the W. is
difficult in a carriage, and disagreeable.
There are two Ferries across die Strait
separating Riigen from the midnland :
— 1 . From Stafalbrode, about 1 2 miles
W. of Greiftwald, called Gleuntzer
FHhre, At Glewitz the landing place,
(2^ German miles), conveyances may
usually be hired to Putbus, 2 j G^man
miles l^ Garz. 2. From Stralsund
by the AUe Fahre, a shorter and safer
passage in stormy weather, the strait
not being more than a mile broad
here ; the other ferry is 2 miles.

Greifrwald (Inn, Deutsches Haus,)
is a sea-port town ^ 8000 inhabitants,
possessing a Univernty, founded 1456»
which numbers about 200 students.

An excellent Government steamer
goes twice a week (Sundays and
Thursdays), from Greifswald to Ystad
in Sweden. The passage takes be*
tween 12 and 16 hours.

StraUund (Inn, H. de Branden-
burg,) was formerly capital of Swedish
Pomerania, and a fortress of great
strength. It was ceded to Prussia in
1815. It is situated on the borders of
the strait called Gollen, separating
Riigen from the mainland. The
town is entirely surrounded by water,
and approachable from the south only
by bridges. The Nicdlai Kirche is

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Prussia, routb LXXVI, — the island ojf ruqek.


richly ornAmented withlo, and the
view from its tower is remarkable.
Thel Mathhaus was built 1316. It has
17,000 inhabitants. Schill, the brave
but imprudent soldier who took up
arms io 1808, without authority from
his soyereign^ in the hope of freeing
his country from the French, 'was shot
in attempting a sortie in Uie Fahr-
jstrasse ; a stone marks the spot. The
public fountain is named after him,
Schillsbruimen, His body rests in the
churchyard, without a monument ; his
Jbead is in the museum at Xieyden.

During the thirty years* war(1628),
Stralsund was the place which first
.checked the career of the hitherto ir-
resistible Wallenstein. He had sworn
to take Stralsund, " even though it
were fastened by chains to heaven;**
vowing vengeance upon the child un-
born, when he should gain possession.
This impious boast, however, was not
destined to be fulfilled, for through
the brave defence of its citizens, aided
by a party of Scotch mercenaries in
the pay of Denmark, he was at last
compelled to raise the siege, after a
loss of 12,000 men before its walls.
In 1715, the town was besieged by
the allied army of the Prussians,
Danes, and Saxons. Charles XII.,
then recently escaped from Turkey,
conducted the defence for a consi-
derable time; at length he was ob-
liged to retire, and the town sur-
rendered to Denmark.

In going from Stralsund to Futbus,
the old Ferry, Altfahre, about a mile
broad, is crossed.

2| Garz. Buscb's Inn.

l^ Putbtts, Inns: Count Hahn's,
and Schwartz's, are excellent. A bed-
room costs ZlJ agr. ; dinner 12^ sgr.

Putbus is a watering-place with 700
permanent inhabitants, belonging to
the Prince of Futbus, a very wealthy
nobleman, said to be the Uoeal de-
scendant of the ancient Kings of
Riigen* His Palace (Schloss) is a
handsome Italian edifice, and the prin-
cipal building in the place. It con-
taias a libimry, some good paintings,

statues, (3 by Thorwalds^), and a
collection of antiquities found in the
Island, Ai^oining the Palace is the
Saloon or dining-room, where there hi
a daily table d'hote, and Pavilion con-
taining assembly and music rooms fioir
the use of the visiters ; the Theatr$,
and the New School^ opened 1836.
Attached to the palace is a delightful
Park, with gardens and pleasure
grounds open to the public. The
Prince's stablet contain a very sv^
perior stud.

A mile from Putbus, on the sea-
shore, is the Badehaus, supplied with
warm sea-baths. There are also
bathing machines for those who prefer
the open sea.

The great attraction of Putbus is
its beautiful situation near the borders
of a bay with an island in front. High
wooded banks and long indented pm>-
montories shelter it from the Baltic.
It bears a miniature resemblance to
the Bay of Naples. From the ex-
cellent accommodation furnished bjr
the lodging'Uiouses, Putbus is the best
head quarters for those who intend to
explore the Island. All charges are
fixed by printed tari£

The Prince's agent lets out horsfiB
and carriages for hire at a moderate

The Steamer from Swinemuode
lands its passengers on the boat<pier
at lAuterbach, a_mile from the Bathfu
Travellers, intexiding to return by the
boat, had better hire fi>r 1 or 2 days
one of the carriages waiting on the
spot, make with it the excursion round
the island, and leave Putbus till thiur

The following sketch of a tow
round the leland, includes all the mo9t
remarkable objects, starting from JRm^
biis to the

li Jagdhaus (Hunting Lodged

Prora, on the narrow Isthmus calM
Schmaler Heide, which unites Jhe
promontory Jasmund to the maip

Sagard. Inn: Furstenkrone. Near
this is the Tumulus of Dubberworthf

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The northernmost extremity of the
island Riigen consists of a long narrow
peninsula or rather of two peninsulas ;
that of Jasmund, and beyond it that of
Wittow, connected with each other
and the main island by two narrow
necks of land. The length of this
united promontory is about 25 miles.
The bay or firth which it encloses, is
crossed by one or two ferries, at which
carriages and foot passengers can be
transferred from one side to the other;
thus avoiding the necessity of retracing
the same road in returning from

Beyond Sagard, the road enters the
ancient beech wood of Stubbenitz.
Here the goddess Hertha (Earth) was
worshipped by the Pagan Saxons, and
here stood her temple described by
Tacitus. It abounds in stone se-
pulchres called Hunengraber by the
peasants, in which skeletons and jars
full of bones and ashes haye been found.
The whole district is likewise celebrated
in Scandinavian poetry and mythology.
Buried in the recesses of this mys-
terious grove lies the Heitha See, or
Bloi^ lake, from the dark shadows of
the beech woods around ; it is still
looked on with veneration by the
inhabitants. It is about 200 paces
long, and 48 feet deep in the centre.
These localities, and various ancient
remains existing upon the island, such
as tumuli and cromlechs, possess ad-
ditional interest, if we regard them as
the relics of a nation by whom Rome
was overthrown, after an existence of
twelve centuries : Odoacer, who final ly
captured the Imperial city, was king
of the Rugii, and the cradle of the
barbarian hordes who formed his army,
was this remote and insignificant is-
land, and the neighbouring coast of

S. Immediately beyond the Hertha
See and the wood of Stubbenitz, rises
the foreland of the Stubbenkammerj a
precipice of chalk, 440 feet high, rising
out of the sea, somewhat like Shak.
speare's cliff at Dover. Tolerable
accommodation may be found in an

inn near at hand (Baumhatis). A
staircase of 600 steps cut In the rock
leads from the shore to the highest
summit, called KQnigsntuhl, Hith^
travellers repair to see the sun rise
and set, and to enjoy the view. On
the W. rises the promontory of Ar-
kona, the most northern point of
Riigen, stretching far out into the sea.

The Stubbenkammer is about 20
miles distant from Putbus, and 15 from
Bergen. Close to this, it the Her-
thaburg, an eminence crowned by a
nearly oval wall or entrenchment con-
structed by the ancient Sclavic in-
habitants of the island. Within the
enclosure, the Temple of the Heathen
goddess Hertha is said to have stood.

At Quoltitz is the stone of Sacri-
fice, a rude block traversed by a groove
or channel, to collect, it is said, the
blood of human victims. Spieker, a
country seat of Prince Putbus, is a
fanciful castle built by Baron Wrangel,
after the thirty years' war.

The way from Stubbenkammer to
Arkona lies along another narrow
tongue of land, called Die Schafe,
which unites the promontory Jasmund
to that of Wittow. At the village of
Altenkirchen (Haas's Inn,) the poet
Kosegarten, who was its pastor, is
buried. For 8 successive Sundays,
during the season of the herring fishery,
the minister preaches upon the shore
to the fishermen assembled around
him in their boats, from the neigh-
bouring islands. A figure of the Idol
Swantewit, is said to be built into the
wall of the Church. •

4. Arkona, the most northern pro-
montory of the Island, partly a chalk
cliff, 173 feet above the sea, is sur-
mounted by a lighthouse which fur-
nishes accommodation to travellers.
The view from it extends over the
coast of the promontory Jasmund, to
the island Hiddensee, and to the more
distant Danish island Moen.

Upon Arcona stands the ancient
Fortress of the Wends, who at one pe*
riod inhabited this island, called Bur-
gring. It is a circular entrenchment

Digitized byLjOOQlC

Prussia. route LXXVII. — bbrlin to danzig.


from 30 to 40 ells high, with an open-
ing to the N. W. Within it stood the
temple of the God Swantevit, destroyed
by the Danes under King Waldemar,
who took it by storm 1168 ; carried
off its treasures to Denmark, and in-
troduced Christianity into the bland.
Saxo Grammaticus, the historian, was

Travellers must now either return
by Altenkirchen and Wieh, to the
Wittow Ferry, and after crossing it,
proceed direct to

5} Bergen, or they may prolong
their tour by taking boat, and making
an excursion to the neighbouring is-
land Hiddentoe, whose inhabitants, a
poor and primitive race, not much
raised above the condition of Es-
quimaux, live chiefly in turf-covered
huts, and support themselvesby fishing.
Many of them spend their whole lives
on the spot, and never set foqt even
on Riigen. There is not a bush on
the whole island ; for fuel the people
have recourse to peat or cow dung ;
vet with so few attractions, the island
IS said to be dear to its children, who
call it '< dat sbte Uinne," the sweet
little land.

Serpen (Inn, Golden Anker) is
the chief town in the island, and has
2600 inhabitants. To the north of
the town, is the hill of Rugard, the
highest in Riigen, surmounted by tlie
ruins of the ancient fortress destroy-*
ed 1316. From this spot the whcde
island, with its deeply indented shores,
may be surveyed, as a map laid open
at the spectator's feet.

The distance hence to Stralsund is
about 16 miles, including the ferry.
From Bergen to Putbus is 6 miles.



76 J Pruss. miles ^359 Eng. miles.
Schnellposts go twice a week, in about
sixty-five hours, to Dansig; in four
nights and three days to Kbnigsberg.
The rate of driving post is about 5^
miles an hour. As far as Danzig,
the country is dull and uniqtoresting ;

the road is macadamized, and good all
the way; the inns are for the most
part bad, so that those who can bear
the fatigue had better sleep in their
carriage at night, instead of stopping
by the way: the journey to Danzig
may thus be performed in forty-eigfac

3 Vogelsdorf.

3| Miincheberg. Here the road to
Frankfort on the Oder branches off.

Si Seelow.

24 Kustrin. Inns: Kronprinz; - *
Adier. A strong fortress and town
of 4700 inhabitants, surrounded by
marshes, at the junction of the Warthe
with the Oder. Frederick the Great
was confined in the fortress by hii
imperious and crazy father, and com*
pelled to look on while hb friend
Katto was executed on the ramparts*
6 miles north of Kustrin is the viU
lage of Zorndorf, where Frederick the
Great, with SO^OOO Prussians, defeated
50,000 Russians, under Fermorini
1758. The road runs nearly pandlel
with the Warthe, as far as

3\ Balz. Inn, Post.

S Landsberg. Inn : Golden Hirsch)
good. A flourishing small town, of
9000 inhabitants. The great road
from Berlin to Posen and Warsaw
strikes off here to the £.

3| Friedeberg. Several small lakes
are passed on this stage.

2\ Woldenberg. The country is
rather pictorcsque, as far as

2 Hochzeit; and is (Mmamented by
other lakes.

1 Zutzer.

2J Ruschendorf. Here the road
to Kbnigsberg by Bromberg (Routd
LXXX.) diverges.

2| Deutsch Krone. Inn, not very

2 Schbnthal.

2 Jastrow. Inn, tolerable.
3^ Peterswalde.

3 Schlochau.

2 Konitz. Inn, post, Kron Prinz.
A town with a population of 2600.

4 Czersk.

3 Frankenfelde.

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3 Preinsisdi-Stargard. Inn: GoU
dene Krone, tolendl^.

3 Dirschau on the Vistula (Weicb*
tel) ; here the road to Dantzig turns
off from that to Konigsberg ; the tra-
veler who does not intend to visit
Dantaig continues on to Marien-

44 Dakzig (in Polish, Gdansk).
inns t H. de Berlin, good ; Englischer
Hof. Danng, one of the oldest cities
in Prussia, is situated on the left bank
ef the Western arm of the Vistula, or
Wcichsel, being traversed by two tri>
butaries of that river, the Mottlau and
Radaune, at the distance of about 3
miles from the sea, and has 62,000
inhabitants. It is a fortress of the first
dase, and the principal sea-port of
Prussia. It was anciently a leadins
member of the Hanseatic league, and
a free city : it is still a place of great
commerce, especially in wheat brought
down the Vistula from Pdland, and
other corn-producing countries, and
•hipped from hence to all parts of
Europe. The exports of wheat are
greater than from any other port in
the world. There are extensive dis-
tilleries of brandy here, which hence
gets the name of Danzig, The gra-
naries, of enormous dimensions, ca-
pable of holding 500,000 quarters of
com, are situated on an island called
Speicher Inael. To avoid the risk of
fire, no one lives upon it, nor are lights
ever admitted. To protect the ware-
houses from robbery, twenty or thirty
ferocious dogs were at one time let
loose at night; and such was the terror
tiiey excited that depredators were ef-
fectually kept at i| distance. The
timber trade is also considerable.

*' There is nothing in the locality
of the town to compensate for delay.
The fortifications may interest a mili-
tary man, and the grotesque old build-
ings may be remarkable to a foreigner
just entered Germany; but the only
true object of curiosity is the Cathedral
(Dom, or Marien kirche)."* It was

* Dates and Diitanceg,

begun in 1343, by Von Waizan, grand
master of the Teutonic knights, who
sent an architect, Ulric Ritter of
Strasburg, to Constantinople, to make
drawings of the church of St. Sophia
there. The plan of copying that edi-
fice, however, was not carried into
execution. The church, as it now
stands, was not finished till 1503.
The vaulted roof, supported by 26
slender brick pillars, is 98 ft. above
the pavement. Around the interior,
are fifty chapels, originally founded
by the chief citizens as burial-places
for themselves and their families. It
possesses a fine brass font, cast in 1 554,
in the Netherlands ; and an astrono-
mical clock, which has long ceased to
move. It was made by an artist named
Duringer, who, according to the story,
was deprived of his eyesight by the
citizens of Danzig, to prevent his
noaking a similar clock for the rival
town of Hamburg. The blind artist^
a short time before his death, was led,
by his desire, to the spot where his
masterpiece was placed ; and, with a
pair of scissors, cut a single small wire,
which sufficed at once to stop the clock,
and no subsequent attempt had suc-
ceeded in repairing the irgury. Such is
the tradition. Thegreat ornament of the
Dom is the celebrated Last Judgment,
attributed to John Van Eyck, known
as the Danzig Picture. It was painted
for the Pope, and while on its way to
Rome, was intercepted by pirates;
but was retaken by a Danzig vessel,
and deposited in the cathedral, where
it remained till 1 807, when the French,
baring captured the town, transported
it to Paris. " On its return, after the
war, the king of Prus^a was very
anxious to retain it at Berlin, and
offered 40,000 dollars as a compen-
sation ; but yielded to the pressing in-
stances of tiie rightfbl owners for its
restoration. This act of royal self-
denial, or rather of common justice,
is gratefully conunemorated by an in-
scription on the picture. * * f The pic-

f Dates and I>lstaBoei^

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Prussia, route LXXVUI. — danziq to koniosberg. S63

tore is said to bear about it the date
1 367 ; if so, it cannot be by &e Van
Eycks, as tbey were but just bom at
that time.

A crucifix, carved on wood in a
very admirable style of art, and with
great truth of expression, is the se-
cond curiosity of this church. It has
been here since the middle of the
fifteenth century, but the artist's name
is unknown. According to the story,
he actually crucified one of his ap-
prentices, in order to study more ex-
actly the agonies of a human b^ng
^ing under such circumstances.

The other chief buildings are the
Exchange, called Arthnakof, an im-
posing Gothic edifice, facing the long
market, built in 1879. In its great
hall, the vaulted roof of which iis sup-
ported by 4 slender pillars, the guilds
and corporations formerly met. Their
laws, in rhyme, are still hung up in it;
and its walls are further decorated
with carvings, old armour, and pic-
tures; the most singular of which, on
account of its subject, is a represent-
ation of the church, under the form of
a ship, sailing to heaven full of monks,
who are throwing out ropes, hooks,
&c., to haul on board a few miserable
sinners, who but for their assistance
would inevitably be drowned. Notice
should be taken of two pictures bj
Danzig artists, a Last Judgment, by
A^ Muller, a pupil of Raphael, 1601,
and a Madonna and Christ, by An-
dreas Steck, In front is a fine foun-
tain, ornamented with bronze figures
of Neptune drawn by sea-horses. Not
far from the Arthushof is the SenaU
House, built probably in 1311, with a
belfry, dating from 1581. The tall
brick tower, called Stockthurm (1346)
was originally one of the entrances
into the town : it is now a prison.

The Grune Thar, a lai|^ building,
originally designed as a lodging for
the King of Poland, is now converted
into a Mtueum, The collection of
implements, dresses, &c., was pre-
sented by Sir Joseph Banks. There
is a theatre here.

A British consul resides in th6
town. One quarter of the town is
called Schottland, from a colony tX
Scotch weavers who settled here in
the fourteenth century.

By means of the gigantic dviee-
gates near the Lege Thor, the country
around three sides of the town can
be laid under water, so as to contri*
bute materially to its defence from
an hostile attack. There are besides
several strong external forts, as tht
Hagelsberg and the Bischofsberg ;
the last has been greatly strength*
ened of late, and completely com*
mands the town.

Fahrenheit the optician, who in-
vented the thermometer named after
him, WBS bom here. Marshal Lefebre^
one of Napoleon's generals, was ere*
ated by him Duke of Danzig, in con*
sequence of his having taken the town
in 1807. It was yielded back to th«
Prussians in 1813, after an obstinate
resistance, maintained by the French
under General Rapp for many months,
until the town was reduced, by famine
and pestilence, to the lowest depth of

The port of Danzig is Neufobr*
wasser, at the mouth of the western
arm of the Vistula. It is defended by
the fort Weichseimunde, has a Hght^
house and an extensive pier at the
entrance of the channel.



In order to proceed on to Konigs*
berg, the preceding route must be
retraced as far as

4| Dirschau. The west arm of tiie
Vistula is here crossed by a ferryt
and the road then traverses the fertile
triangular plain, or Delta, . depositea
by the river, which is bounded aft
rtie further extremity by the eastern
arm, called Nogath. A bridge of
boats is thrown across It, and on its
right bank stands

2\ Marienburff, Inn, D^ Hoch*
meister. An ancient town of 5400
inhabitants, chiefly remarkable m the
R 2

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seat of the once powerful Kni^ts of
the Teutonic Order, to whom this
country was ceded in the thirteenth
century by the King of Poland. After
a struggle of 53 years, the knights
effectually subdued the pagan and then
barbarous Prussians : the germ of the
present Prussian empire was, in fact,
formed by them ; and they appear like-
wise to have laid the foundation of
that military spirit which still animates
the nation. The Castle, or PcUace of
the Grand Masters, an imposing edi-
fice, in a very peculiar style of Gothic
architecture, was built at different
periods; the oldest part, now much
decayed, in 1 276 ; the Middle Castle
in 1309* In 1457 it was surrendered
to the Poles, after having been in the
possession of the order 148 years, and
having been governed by seventeen
Grand Masters. The Chapter- House
(Remter) in which assemblies of the
order were held, and foreign ambas.
sadors received, is a circular apart-
ment, supported by a single pillar of
granite in the centre. The Poles,
while besieging Marienburg in 1410,
endeavoured to aim a cannon-ball so
lis to shoot away this pillar, and over*
whelm at one bl6w beneath the ruins
ibe Grand Master and all his knights,
qvhom they knew, from the inform-
ation of a deserter, to be at the time
assembled in conclave. The ball
missed its aim, but lodged in a corner
of the chimney, where it still remains.
The Convent's Remter is a very
splendid apartment. The Church, in
-a very chaste style, and tolerably
perfect, is decorated externally with a
figure of the Virgin, in relief, 26 feet
high; the draperies are painted and
gilt, but it displays considerable skill
and knowledge of art. Many of the
Grand Masters of the Order repose in
vaults beneath the Church, in simple
coffins. Many cells of the knightly
monks, and their subterranean dun-
geons, still exist. The building has
been rescued from ruin, and partly re«
atored within a few years, chiefly by
the taste and munificence of the Crown

Prince* The BuUermilk Tower is so
called, because, according to the tra-
dition, the peasants compelled to build
it by forced labour for the Order, were
also obliged to slake the lime with

Beyond Marienburg, the road
passes through a populous country,
abounding in villages, and showing
evidences of prosperity and improve-

4\ Elbing. Inn, Stadt Berlin. A
flourishing trading town, with a po-
pulation of 24,000, on the Elbing, a
navigable stream emptying itself into
the Frische Haff, an extensive lake
separated from tlie Baltic by a narrow

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