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A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon online

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medans), and came originally from
Bokhara. He was the spiritual pre-
ceptor of Aurangzib. His successor is
still in charge of the place. Beyond
the first tank and the ornamental
garden is a second and much larger one.
It is entirely supported on vaults, on
two rows of massive pillars. The weight
of the great body of water i-esting on
them is enormous, and altogether it i8
a remarkable work. Below is a Roble
hall reached by steep steps down to the
level of the river. On the rt. of the
second tank is a fine mosque, the roof
of which is supported by four rows of
massive pillars. In two of the rows
the pillars are of teak, and in two of
masonry. At the S.W. corner of this
mosque, in a little garden, is the Tomb
of the saint. It is of beautiful light-
coloured marble, but very diminutive.

After leaving the Pan Chakki, drive
i m. N. to the Mecca Gate of the city,
and the Mecca Bridge^ which are prob-
ably some centuries old. The gateway
from the top of the parapet is 42 ft
above the road whicli passes over tb<
bridge. The flanking towers are snr
mounted by domes. Inside thegate then
is a black stone mosque built by Malil
Ambar. In the centre is a niche with th<
Divine Name, and * ' Victory is near.'
Above that is the Kaliviafiy and sonw
verses of the Koran written in difficull
T-Mgr^ra (ornamental characters and use*
in royal signatures). Close by is a reces
with a bell-shaped ornament. Thisi
perhaps the oldest mosque in the city.

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67



The Goyenunent Offices are 2 m.

to the S.E. of the cantonment, and

in or near the Arkilla or citadel built

by Aorangzib. This spot not long ago

was entirely covered with cactus and

jungle, the haunt of hyenas and other

wild animals. It was, however, the

site of gentlemen's houses in the reign

(^ Anrangzib, when Aurangabad was

the capital of the Deccan. Sir Salar

Jang ordered the site to be cleared,

and when this was done, numerous

reservoirs, fountains, and other works of

interest were discovered. These have

been repaired, and the wilderness has

literally been changed into a blooming

garden. On the high ground looking

down upon the Revenue Settlement

Officer's Rooms, and on those of the

Municipality, is a fine hall, and in iront

of it is a beautiful tank of most jwil-

locid water. Behind the hall is a

well-an*anged garden, and in rear

of that again is the BaraMarif or

Oovemme7U RovsCf with a fine fountain

in front. The facade of the Barahdari

is ornamented with lace-like patterns

in white chunam . Only one archway of

Anrangzib's citadel remains, but here

53 great princes, like the Maharajas

of Jeypore and Jodhpnr, attended the

court of the Emperor with thousands

of armed retainers, and Aurangabad

was then the Delhi of the South. As

toon as Aurangzib died the princes

departed, and Aurangabad sank at

once into comparative insignificance.

The Jmnma Hnsjid is on the right

of the road, amid a grove of some of

the finest trees in India. One

B&mense Ficus indica stands close on

the road and shades some 300 ft. of

it The Mosque is low and so are the

ninarets. But the fa9ade is rendered

itriking by an ornamental band of

<*rving 2 ft. broad along the whole

init Over the central niche are the

taiimah and inscriptions in Tughra

■nting as in Malik Ambar's Mosque.

^ mosque is wonderfully well kept,

*ri there is, what is not seen anywhere

<^ a net covering the entire fa9ade,

fithat no birds or other creatures can

•ter. Malik Ambar built half this

teosque, and Aurangzib the other half.

The Caves of Aurangabad are beyond



L



the N. outskirts of the city near Rabf a
Durrani's mausoleum, from which it is
necessary to ride or walk to the foot of the
hills, which are here about 500 ft. high.
The ground at the base of the hill is
very rough, and intersected with deep
ravines. The visitor will have to climb
over a very rough and slippery rock
about 250 n. up to the caves. He will
then see the mausoleum of Rabi'a 1}
m. to the S.E. Steps lead to the
entrance of Cave No. L On the left
of the door is Buddha in the teaching
attitude, that is, holding the little
finger of the left hand between the
thumb and forefinger of the right.
A Gandharva is nying nearly over
Buddha's head. On ttie left is the
Padmapani, "lotus holder," an attend-
ant. The other attendant on the right
is Vajrapani, "lightning holder."
Above the side door on tne left are
three Buddhas, two of which are cross-
legged, and the third is in the teaching
attitude with the usual attendants. On
the right of the main entrance are
Buddha and three figures similar to
those on the left. A lai^e figure of
Buddha, of black stone, 6 ft. high, sits
facing the entrance to the shrine. A
circle in relief on the wall represents a
halo round his head. Padma and Vajra
are one on either side as usual, with
Gandharvas over their heads. This
cave has been whitewashed, and the
white patch on the side of the hill
can be seen &om a mile off in the plain
below. There is an ornament like
prongs round the archway.

Cave No, ;^ is a Ohaitya Hall with t
semicircular roof with stone ribs, like
the Yishwakarma Gave at EUora, and
a triforium. It consists of a nave 15
ft. long on either side, besides a bow or
curve 17 ft. long. Near the end of the
nave there is a dagoba with a "Tee"
very perfect. The ribs of the roof are
13 ft. above the cupola of the dagoba.
Canje No. 5 is a vihara. The outer
verandah is ruined. The centre hall
is portioned off as usual by twelve
pillars, with plain bases, shafts, and
brackets. There is the usual vestibule
and sanctuary. The central Buddha
is 9 ft. 6 in. hi^h. On either side are
seven worshipping figures. Cave No»

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^ is a small vihara. Buddha is seated
on a Singhascm in the teaching attitude.
All round on the wall are smaller
Buddhas. The sanctuary is 8 ft. 4 in.
square. The Yajrapani has a da-
goba in his crest, and two figures of
Buddha. The Nagas, known by their
snake-heads, stand at the sides of the
two attendants. A good example of
the dagoba crest or Tee is in the
corridor to your right as you enter, after
passing the first division, about the
middle in point of height. Cave No. 5
is higher up in the face of the cliff, and
is not worth the trouble of a visit.
These caves are, as is generally the case,
in the centre of a semicircular ridge, as
at DUora. At the distance of 300 yds.
from the foot of the hill on the descent
is reached a beautiful cluster of trees,
of which the principal are two im-
mense specimens of the Indian fig tree.

There are man y other places of interest
to be seen in the hills around. The
journey to Daulatahad from Av/rcmga-
badf 9 m., can be done in one hour and
a half in a tonga with two good horses.
3 m. from Aurangabad is the village of
MUmitha,

It will be necessary to aiTange before-
hand for a relay of horses at Dautata-
bad to get on to Roza {the tomb), 7 m. ,
the same day. Near Daulatabad a
ghat or steep nill is passed, which tries
the horses very much, and sometimes it
is necessary to have coolies, or labourers,
to assist them. Permission must be
obtained from the British station staff-
officer to see the fort of Daulatabad.

Daulatabad (Deogiri) a 13th cent,
fortress, 8 m. from Aurangabad, is
built on a huge isolated conical rock of
granite about 500 ft. high, with a per-
pendicular scarp of from 80 to 120 ft all
round the base. At the base is a strag-
gling patch of houses and huts, which
IS all that remains of the native town.
It is defended by a loop-holed wall
with bastions which on the E. side joins
the scarp of the fort. At the bottom
of the scarp is a ditch, before reaching
which four lines of wall, including the
outside wall of the town, must be
passed. The fosse can be crossed
only in one place by a stone causeway,
so narrow that only two men can obtain



a footing on it abreast, and commanded
on the side near the fort by a battle-
mented outwork. The only means of
ascending the rock is through a narrow

f)assage hewn in the solid stone, and
eading to a large vault in the interior.
From this a ramp or gallery, gradually
sloping upwards, and also excavated
in the solid rock, winds round in the
interior. The first part of the ascent
is easy ; towards the end it is difl&ciilt
The height of the passage averages
from 10 to 12 ft, with an equal breadth,
but it is so dark that torches are requi-
site. The entrance is on the £. side,
past 2 gates armed with very formidable
spikes of iron to resist elephants ; at
the third gate there are 3 Hmdu pillars
and 3 pilasters on either side. Facing
this third ^ate is a bastion 56 ft. high.
It has a balcony or gallery with Hindu
curved supports, and is called the
Nakar Khana, or music gallery. It
has a small window on which are
carved in alto-relievo two leopards like
those in the royal shield of England.
The fourth archway faces to the E.,
and beyond it on the ri^ht is an old
Hindu temple, with a broken lamp
tower 13 ft. high. On the left of the
road is a smul ehattri, or pavilion,
which is the dargah of the Pir-i-Eadus.
Passing along the side of a tank, and
turning to the 1., there is an entrance
to a mosque which was first a Jain
temple and then a place of worship
of Kali. Prayers are said here in
Ramazan, and at the Bakri 'Id, other-
wise it is not used. On the rt of
the central dome, looking W., in a
niche, is a stone covered with a San-
scrit inscription, whitewashed over and
placed on its side. Groing out of the
temple to the N. is a minaret said
to have been erected by the Moham-
medans in commemoration of their
first capture of the place. It was built
in 1435, according to a Persian inscrip-
tion in one of the chambers in the
foundation. From the window above
the third gallery an admirable view is
obtained. The fifth gateway leads to
a platform, which goes partly round
the hill, and has on the rt a building
called the Chini Mahal, in which
Hasan Shah, last king of Golkonda,

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ftOUITE 2. BOZA OH RHULDABAD



69



wtt imprisoned for thirteen years.
Ascend here to a bastion, on which is
a eamum indented in two places by
cannon balls. It is caUed Eil'ah Shi-
kan, leveller of forts, and is 21 ft 10
in. long, and the mnzzle has a diameter
of 8 in. It was made by Muhammad
Hasan the Arab. The really difficult
and in former times impregnable part
of the fortress is now entered. Cross-
ing a narrow modem stone bridge, con-
structed to replace the movable planks,
that formerly were the only means of
entering, the ditch that surrounds the
citadel is now passed. To the 1. of the
bridge and overlooking the moat are
the extensive ruins of a Hindu palace
with remains of some excellent carving
in wood and stone. Continuing to
ascend by a flight of steps and rock-
cat passages at the place where the
tufa and limestone strata join, and
eventually emerging from a tunnel, we
reach a platform, and look out over a
garden with immense nests of hornets
hanging from the branches of the trees.
Passing on we come to an opening
covered over with an iron shutter 20
ft. long and 1 in. thick, made in ribs
(part of it is gone), which in case
of siege was heated red hot, so that
if assailants could have penetrated so
far, they would have encountered a fiery
roof quite unapproachable. To provide
ventilation for the fire a large hole has
be^i tuniielled through the rock close
hj. Passing a gateway, and the shrine
of the Fakir Sukh Sultan, we come
toa Barahdari, or pavilion, from which
there is a fine view. It is believed to
have been the residence of the Hindu
Princes of Deogiri, and was a favourite
SDBmer resort of the Emperor Shah
hba.n and his son Aurangzib. The
(arilion has a wide verandah, with a
ndpice of from 100 to 200 ft. in
Bsnt, and a view to Aurangabad on
^ £. and to Roza on the N. In the
ilbction of Aurangabad is the small
iiakted hill of Chaman Tekri, upon
vUch are the ruins of Hindu temples
of great antiquity. 100 steps more
fWBt be climl>ed to reach the Citadel
itself, on a platform 160 ft. x 120 ft.
At the W. comer is a one-gun battery,
60 fL X 30 ft. The gun is 19 ft. 6 in.



long, with a bore of 7 in. On one
bastion is a large gun, cm which is a
Guzerati inscription, saying that the
funds for its construction were provided
by certain Banias, and also a Persian
inscription, naming the gun "Creator of
Storms." Tavemier says that the gun
on the highest platform was raised to its
place under the directions of a European
artilleryman in the service of the Great
Mogul, who had been repeatedly refused
leave to return to his native land, but
was promised it if he could mount
the gun on this spot. Stimulated by the
promise, he at last succeeded.

In the year 1293 'Alan -din, after-
wards Emperor of Delhi, took the city
of Deogiri (Daulatabad). The citadel
still held out. He raised the siege on
receiving an almost incredible ransom,
15,000 lbs. of pure gold, 175 lbs. of
pearls, 50 lbs. of diamonds, and 25,000
lbs. of silver. In 1338 a.d. Muhammad
Shah TugUak attempted to establish
his capitel in the Deccan, removed
the inhabitants of Delhi to Deogiri,
strengthened the fortifications, and
changed the name to Daulatabad. His
plans, however, were finally baffled.

The road (7 m.) to Roza and the
caves of EUora is up the steep hill called
Pipal Ghat. It was paved by one of
Aurangzib's courtiers, as recorded on
two pillars about half-way up the hill,
where there are fine views.

Rosa (or properly Itauza) or Khul-
dabad, 3^ a walled town, 2000 ft above
the sea (2218 inhab.) It is 2 m. from
the caves of Ellora and 14 m. N. W. of
Aurangabad. Tongas or light carts can
be taken up or down the ghats. An
annual Fair is held here on 7th Feb.,
at which thousands of people assemble.

Roza jpossesses a pleasant and tem-
perate climate, and is largely used as a
sanitarium during the summer months.
It is the Kerbekt (a holy shrine) of
the Deccan Mussulmans, and is cele-
brated as the burial-place of many
distinguished Mohammedans, amongst
whom are the Emperor Aurangzib and
his second son, Azim Shah ; Asaf Jah,
the founder of the Hyderabad dynasty ;
Nasir Jung, his second son ; Malik
Ambar, the powerful minister of the last
ofthe Nizam Shahi kings; ThanahShah,



70



ltOUl?E 2. BOMBAt (t?0 AURANGABAD



India



the exiled and imprisoned kinc of Gol-
konda ; and a host of minor celebrities.

Roza once contained a considerable
population, but the place is now in
great part deserted. It is surrounded by
a high stone wall (built by Aurangzib)
with battlements and loopholes. Old
and ruinous mosques and tombs abound
in every direction on each side of the
road.

Midway between the N. and S. gates
of the city is the MauBolemu of Aur-
angsib. An ascent of 30 yds. leads to
the domed porch and gateway, erected
about 1760 by a celebrated dancing girl
of Auraneabad : within it is a large
quadrangle. Some of the surrounding
buildings are used as rest-houses for
travellers, and one as a school. In the
centre of the S. side is an exquisite little
Nakar Khana, or music hall, from the
galleries of which music is played when
festivals or fairs are celebrated. The
W. side is occupied by a large mosque,
the roof of which is supported on scal-
loped arches. Facing the N. end of
the mosque is a small open gateway
leading into an inner courtyard, in the
S.E. an^le of which is the door of
Aurangzib's tomb itself. Above the
door is a semicircular screen of carved
wood. The grave, which is uncovered,
lies in the middle of a stone platform
raised about half a foot from tne floor.
It is overshadowed by the branches of
a tree (Bukuli) which bears sweet-
smelling flowers, otherwise it is quite
open to sun and rain, as it should be,
according to orthodox Mohammedan
ideas. This emperor, who was a man
of austere piety, is said before his death
to have desired that his sepulchre
should be poor and unpretentious, in
accordance with the tenets of the
Koran. The tomb is plain almost to
meanness, from which it is only
redeemed by the beauty of the delicate
marble screen, 5 ft. high, which encloses
the lower portion on the W. side. It
is a remarkable circumstance that he,
who had erected such a magnificent
mausoleum over his wife Rabi'a Durani
at Aurangabad, should have desired
such a lowly sepulchre himself ; but it
is generally believed that his son, Azim
Shah, who was near him at the time of



his death, and his courtiers, religiously
obeyed his wish in intening his remnins
in this manner, and in a place sanctified
by the tomb of a celebrated Moh&m-
medan saint. He is said to have
"desired in his will that his funeral
expenses should be defrayed from the
proceeds of caps which he had quilted
and sold, and this amount did not
exceed 10s. ; while the proceeds of the
sale of his copies of the Koran, 805 is.,
were distributed to the poor."

Fifteen or twenty paces to the R of
Aurangzib's tomb is a small quadran-
gular enclosure of marble, withm which
are three graves, the one on the right
being that of the daughter of the
Mohammedan saint buried close by ;
the next that of Azim Shah, Aurang-
zib's second son, attached to which is
a small marble headstone carved with
floral devices ; and the one beyond is
the grave of Azim Shah's wife. The
whole is surrounded by a plain screen
of white marble. Midway between
these tombs and that of Aurangzib is
the Mausoleum of Sayyad Zainu-din,
on the E. side of which are inscribed a
number of verses from the Koran, and
the date of the Saiyad's death, 1370 a.d.
This tomb, however, was erected many
years after that period by one of his
disciples. The doors of the shrine
are inlaid with silver plates of some
thickness ; the steps below it are em-
bellished with a number of cuiiously cut
and polished stones, said to have been
brought here from time to time by
fakirs and other religious devotees of
the shrine. A little distance to the
rear of this tomb is a small room built
in an angle of the courtyard wall, which
is said to contain the robe of the
Prophet Mohammed. It is carefully
preserved under lock and key, and is
only exhibited to the gaze of the
faithful once a year, the 12th Rabia-l-
Awal (March).

Opposite the tombs of Aurangzib
and his son is that of Asaf Jah, the
first of the Nizams of Hyderabad.
The entrance is through a large quad-
rangle, having open-fronted builaings
on all sides, and a Nakar Khana, or
music hall, at the R end. The W.
end is used as a school for instruction

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ROUTE 2. THE CAVES OF ELLORA



71



in the Koran. A door at this end
giv^es access to an inner courtyard in
which are a number of graves. Facing
the entrance are the shrines of Asaf
Jah and one of his consorts, surrounded
bj a lattice screen of red sandstone,
and that of Sayyad EazraJt Burhanu-
(Hn, a saint of great renown amongst
Mohammedans, who died at Roza,
1344. The Sayyad is said to have
left Upper India with 1400 disciples
a few years before the first invasion
of the Deccan by 'Alau-din, 1294,
for the purpose of propagating the
tenets of his faith amongst the Hindus
of this portion of India. Deposited
within the shrine are some hairs of the
Prophet's beard, which are said to in-
crease yearly in number. The shrine,
however, boasts of a still more remark-
able treasure, which is described by the
attendants as follows : "For some years
after its erection, the disciples of the
Saiyad were without means to keep it
in repair, or to provide themselves with
the necessaries of life. Supplication
to the deceased saint, however, pro-
duced the following remarkable pheno-
menon. During the night smaU trees
of silver grew up through the pavement
on the S. side of the shrine, and were
regularly removed every morning by
the attendants. They were broken up
and sold in the bazaars, and with the
proceeds thus realised the Saiyad's dis-
ciples were enabled to maintain the
wine and themselves. This remark-
able production of silver is said to have
continued for a number of years, until
a small jagir was allotted to the shrine,
once which time the pavement has
only yielded small buds of the precious
netai, which appear on the surface at
Bight and recede during the day." In
proof of these assertions the visitor is
ibwn a number of small lumps of
liver on the surface of the pavement.
The shrine doors are covered with plates
ofwhite and yellow metal wrought into
designs of trees and flowers.

Small game is plentiful in this neigh-
hoarhood.

24 m. from Bozais the native village
of Kvnhur, in the fertile valley of the
Sinna. 20 m. farther is Chalisgaon,
Oft the G.I. P. Rly.



The OftYds of Bllora.^

Ellora {Elura or VenU), « about 1^
m. from Boza, a village in the Nizam's
Dominions. Distant N. W. fix)m Auran-
gabad 14 m., from Drulatabad 7 m.
Pop. 742. The village is partly walled,
and contains a Mohammedan shrine
famed throughout the Deooan for its
marvellous healing powers. Ellora is
famous for its highly remarkable series of
rock-caves and temples, situated in a
crescent-shaped hUl or plateau. They are
first mentioned by Ma'sudi, the Arabic
geographer of the 10th cent., but merely
as a celebrated place of pilgrimage. They
were visited in 1306 by Ala-ud-din or
his generals, when, as Dow {History of
Hindostan) relates, the capture occurred
of a Hindu princess of Guzerat, who was
here in concealment from the Moham-
medans, but was afterwards carried to
Delhi and married to the emperor's son.

Contrasting the caves of Ellora
and Ajanta, Mr. Fergusson writes:
*' Architecturally the Ellora caves
differ from those of Ajanta, in con-
sequence of their being excavated in
the sloping sides of a hill, and not
in a nearly perpendicular cliff. From
this formation of the ground almost all
the caves at Ellora have courtyards in
front of them. Frequently also an
outer wall of rock, with an entrance
through it, left standing, so that the
caves are not generally seen from the
outside at all, and a person might pass
along their front without being aware
of their existence, unless warned of the
fact." The caves extend along the face
of the hill for IJ m. They are divided
into three distinct series, the Buddhist,
the Brahmanical, and the Jain, and are
arranged almost chronologically.

"The caves," writes Dr. Burgess,
"are excavated in the face of a hill, or
rather the scarp of a large plateau, and
ran nearly N. and S. for about IJ m.,
the scarp at each end of this interval
throwing out a horn towards the W.
It is where the scarp at the S. end
begins to turn to the W. that the
eaniest caves — a group of Buddhistic
ones — are situated, and in the N. horn
is the Indra Sabha or Jain group, at

1 Ellora is 45 m. from Nandgaon sta. The
road passes (9 m.) Deogaon (D.B.), see p. 66.

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ROUTE 2. BOMBAY TO AURANGABAD



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the other extremity of the series. The
ascent of the ghat passes up the S. side
of Kailas, the third of the Brahmanical
group, and over the roof of the Das
Avatar, the second of them. Sixteen
caves lie to the S. of Kailas, and nearly
as many to the N., but the latter are
scattered over a greater distance.
"Most of the caves have got dis-



are 5 at the extreme N. There are
also some cells and a colossal Jain image
on the N. side of the same spur in
which is the Indra Sabha." Amongst
the Buddhist, the most important are
the Dherwara, the oldest ; the THsh-
wakarma, or Carpenter's Cav& a
Ghaitya with a ribbed roof, a parallelo-
gram about 85 ft. long ; the I>oii Tal (2




The Dherwara.

tiuguishiug names from the Brahmans ;
but it may be quite as convenient, for
the sake of reference, to number them
from S. to N., beginning with the
Buddhistic caves, of which there are
12, and passing through the Brah-
manical series, of which 17 are below
the brow of the scarp, and a large
number of smaller ones above, and end-
ing with the Jain caves, of which there



The Kftflas.



storeyed, really 3); and Tin Tal (3
storeys). The Das Ayatar is the oldest
of the Brahmanical series. The great
hall is 143 ft. long, and is supported
by 46 pillars.

The most splendid of the whole series
is the Kailas, a perfect Dravidian
temple, complete in all its parts, char-
acterised by Fergusson as one of the
most wonderful and interesting monu-

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ROUTE 3. BHUSAWAL



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ments of arohitectaral art in India.



Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon → online text (page 21 of 87)