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A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon online

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centre city. To the L are the gaudily-
furnished modern buildings containing
the apartments of the Maharajaand his
courtiers, and the zenana.

East of the Chandra Mahal is the
famous Jantra or Observatory, the
largest of the five built by the celebrated
royal astronomer Jey Sine (see Benares,
Muttra, Delhi, and Ujjain). It is not
under cover, but is an open courtyard
full of curious and fantastic instruments
invented and designed by him. They
have been allowed to go much out ot
repair, and many of them are now quite
useless, it being impossible even to
guess what purpose they served in the
wonderfully accurate calculations and
observations of their inventor ; but
dials, gnomons, quadrants, etc., still
remain of great interest to astronomers.

Adjoining the Observatory are the
royal Stables, built round large court-
yards ; and beyond them is the Hawa
Mahal, or HaU of the Winds, one of
Jey Sing's chefs cTosuvret a fantastic
and elaborate building, decorated with
stucco, and overlooking one of the chief
streets of the town.

In the central court of the palace are
the Raj Printing Office, the Clock
Tower, and the Armoury. To the E.
of the Diwan-i-'Am is the Parade
Groimd, girt with open colonnades,
behind which are the Law Courts.
Horses can mount to the top of the
palace by inclined planes.

Near the chief entrance rises the
Ishwari Minar Swarga Sul, the " Min-
aret piercing heaven,** built by Rajah
Ishwari Sing to overlook the city.

Public Gaxdezi, outside the city wall,
is one of the finest gardens in India,

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70 acres in extent, and was laid out
by Dr. de Fabeck at a cost of about
400,000 rs. Attached to it are a fine
menagerie and aviary. These gardens
cost the Maharaja 30,000 rs. a year to
keep up. There is a fine statue oj
Lord Mayo,

In the centre of the garden is the
Albert Hall, a sumptuous modern build-
ing, of which the Prince of Wales laid
the first stone in 1876. It contains a
large Darbar Hall and a beautiful
museum, — an Oriental South Kensing-
ton, suitably housed. The collections
of modem works of art and industrj%
and also of antiquities, from every part
of India, are very complete and highly
interesting. There is a fine view from
the top.

The Mayo Hospital. —Beyond the
gardens is the hospital, of rough white
stone, with a clock tower. It can
house 150 patients.

The Church is on the way to the
Railway Station, a little to the "W. of
the road.

At the School of Art, a handsome
modem building, are first-rate technical
and industrial classes for teaching and'
reviving various branches of native
artistic industry, such as metal and
enamel-work, embroidery, weaving, etc

The Maharaja's Ck)llege.— In Jey-
pore public instruction has made greater

grogress than in the other states of
Ajputana. The College, opened in
1844 with about 40 pupils, had in
1889 and 1890 a daily class attendance
of 1000, and compares favourably with
similar institutions of the kind in
British India ; it is affiliated to the
Calcutta University.

The chattris, or cenotaph^, of the Ma-
harajas at Gethur are just outside the
N.E. city wall. They are in well-
planted gardens, the trees of which
are full of solemn-looking, gray-headed
monkeys. The first seen on entering
is Jey Sing's Chattri, the finest of all.
It is a dome of the purest white marble,
supported^ on 20 beautifully carved
pillars rising from a substantial square
platform, and profusely ornamented
with scenes from Hindu mythology.
S.E. of Jey Sink's Chattri is that of
his son Madhu Smg, a dome rising from



the octagon on arches reveraed. The
only ornaments are carved peacocks.
W. of this chattri is that of Pratap
Sing, his son, completed by the late
ruler Ram Sing. It is of white marble
brought from Alwar.

The water which supplies Jeypore is
drawn from a stream on the W . of the
city, running into the ChambaL The
pumping-station and high-level reser-
voirs are nearly opposite the Chandpol
Gate.

[An expedition for the sake of the
view may be made by elephant or on
foot to the Shrine of the Sun God at
Oalta, an uninteresting building ^50 ft
above the plain, and built on a ^'utting
rocky platform, on the summit of a
range of hills, about 1^ m. to the E. of
Jeypore, of which by far the finest view
is obtained from this point. The way
the sandy desert is encroaching on the
town should be noticed. It has caused
one large suburb to be deserted, and the
houses and gardens are going to ruin.
The sand has even drifted up the ravines
of the hills. This evil ought to he
arrested at any cost by planting.]

[The excursion to Ambdr (5 m.), the
capital of Jeypore till 1728, now ruined
and deserted, is most interesting, and
will occupy a whole day. It is neces-
sary to obtain permission to visit Amb^r
from the Resident of Jeypore, and that
official, as a rule, kindly asks the State
to send an elephant to meet the traveller
at Chandrabagh, where the hill becomes
too steep for a carriage.

On the left of the road a line of
fortified hills are passed ; these culmin
ate in the great Fort 400 feet above the
old palace, connected with it and built
for its defence. The picturesque situa-
tion of Amber at the mouth of a rocky
mountain gorge, in which nestles a
lovely lake, has attracted the admira-
tion of all travellers, including Jacque-
mont and Heber. The name is first
mentioned by Ptolemy. It was founded
by the Minas, and still flourishing in
967. In 1037 it was taken by the
Rajput, who held it till it was deserted.

The old Palace, begun by Man Sing,
1600, ranks architecturally second only
to Gwalior, though instead of standing
on a rocky pedestal it lies low on the

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slope of the hill, picturesquely rooted
on its rocky base and reflected in the
lake below. The interior arrangements
are excellent. The suites of rooms form
vistas opening upon striking views. It
is a grand pile, and though it lacks the
fresh and vigorous stamp of Hindu
originality which characterises earlier
bufldings, the ornamentation and tech-
nical details are free from feeble-
ness.

Entered by a fine staircase from a
great courtyard is the Diwan-i-*Am,
a noble specimen of Rajput art, with
double row of columns supporting a
massive entablature, above which are
latticed galleries. Its magnificence
attracted the envy of Jehangir, and
Mirza Riga, to save his great work
from destruction, covered it with
stacco.

To the right of the Diwan-i-'Am steps
is a small temple where a goat, offered
each morning to Kali, preserves the
tradition of a daily human sacrifice on
the same spot in pre-historic times.

On a higher terrace are the Raja's
own apartments, entered by a splendid
gateway covered with mosaics and
sculptures, erected by Jey Sing, over
^ich is the Svhdg Mandiry a small
pavilion with beautiful latticed win-
dows. Through this are further mar-
vels, — a green and cool garden with
fonntains, surrounded by palaces,
brilliant with mosaics and marbles.
That on the 1. is the Jey Mwndir^ or
Hall of Victory, adorned by panels of
alabaster, some of which are inlaid, and
others are adorned with flowers in alto-
relievo, ** the roof flittering with the
mirrored and spangled work for which
Jeypore is renowned." Near the Jey
ihndir a narrow passage leads down to
tJw bathing-rooms, all of pale creamy
nuirble. Above is the Sas Maridir,
"which literally glows with bright and
tender colours and exquisite inlaid work,
and looks through arches of carved ala-
baster and clusters of slender columns
upon the sleeping lake and the silent
mountains."

At theN. E. angle is a balcony, whence

there is a fine view over the town of

Amber and the plain beyond to the

hiU which overlooks Ramgarh. Some

[India]



chattris outside the wall are those of
chieftains who died before Jey Sing II.
In the palace to the ri^ht is a chamber
on the rt wall of which are views of
Ujjain, and on the 1. views of Benares
and Muttra. That opposite the Jev
Mandir is called the SukhNawaSy * * Hall
of Pleasure. '* In the centre of the narrow
dark room is an opening for a stream to
flow down into the groove or channel
which runs through the hall. The doors
are of sandal-wood inlaid with ivory.

A steep path leads down to the
Khiri Gate, beyond which, as it leads
to one of the forts, Kantalgarh, no one
is allowed to pass without an order.
At the bottom of this path there is a
temple to Thakurji, or Vishnu. It is
white and beautifully carved, and just
outside the door is a lovely square
pavilion exquisitely carved with figures
representing Krishna sporting with
the Gopis.

Amb^r formerly contained many fine
temples, but most are now in ruins.]

[Sanganer is about 7 m. to the
S. of Jeypore, a nice drive past the
Residency and the Moti Dongari, and
garden where the Indian princes who
are visitors to the Maharaja some-
times encamp.

A gateway leads into this town
through two ruined Tirpoliyas, or triple
gateways of three stories, about 66 ft.
high. The second story has an open
stone verandah, supported by four
pillars on either side of the archway.
Ascending the street is a small temple
on the rt. sacred to Kalyanji or KrishTUi,
the door of which is handsomely
carved. Opposite is a temple to Sita-
ram, with a pillar, 6 ft high, of white
Makrana marble called a Kirthi Kambh.
On the four sides are Brahma with four
faces, Vishnu, cross-legged, holding the
lotus, Shiva holding a cobra in his rt.
hand and a trident in his 1. , with Par-
bati beside him and Ganesh.

Higher up, on the 1. , are the ruins
of the Old Palace, which must once
have been a vast building. N. by E.
from this is the Sanganer Temple with
three courts. Visitors are not allowed
to enter the third. There are several
other old shrines in the place.]

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coined their own money, and their
currency was called Gokul Sikkah. It
is a place of considerable trade, particu-
larly in iron and salt The Town Hall
is handsome, as are the Jain Temples^
close to the town.

The rly. passes W. of the Kutb Minar
and of the tombs and ruins S. of Delhi,
a line of hills shutting them out from
view, and when near the city turns E.
(Here the Delhi, Umballa, and Ealka
Rly. turns N.) The line enters through
the W. wall, meeting in a fine central
station the E. I. Rly. and N. W. Rly.,
which enter the city over the Jumna
river bridge from the E.

890 m. Delhi junc. sta.,a^ D.B.
(193,600 inhab.)

History.

Little is definitely known of the
history of Delhi prior to the Moham-
medan conquest in 1193 a.d. It is
said that a city called Indraprastha
was founded by the early Aryan im-
migrants, under a king called Yudhis-
thira, and that the fort of Indrapat,
also called Purana Killa, or ''Old
Fort," stands on the site of this city.
The extensive ruins lying S. of modern
Delhi, and covering an area of about
45 sq. m., are the remains of seven
forts or cities, built by different kings.
The oldest are the Hindu forts of Lal-
kot, built by Anang Pal in 1052 a.d. ;
and Rai Pithora, built by the king of
that name, about 1180 A.D. The ruins
of these two forts, and the iron pillar
at the Kutb, are the only remains of
the Hindu period. The five Moham-
medan forts or cities were Siri, built by
'Alau-din in 1304 A.D. ; Tughlakabad,
built by Tughlak Shah, in 1321 a.d. ;
the citadel of Tughlakabad, built by
the same king at the same date ; 'Adi-
labad, built Dy Muhammad Tughlak
in 1325 A.D. ; and Jahanpanah, endosed
by the same king. The name Delhi
first appears in the 1st century B.C.,
but the area thus designated cannot
now be determined.

The modem town dates from the
commencement of the fort by Shah



Jehan in 1638, whence it was \
Shahjehanabad. Delhi has beol
quently attacked, and often cap!
It was sacked by Timur, the Moi
1398 ; by Nadir Shah, the Pem
1739 ; and by Ahmad Shah Durai
Afghan, in 1756. On the 10th II
1739, the small Persian gar^ -
which Nadir Shah had introi ^
into the city when he captured it'"^/
almost entirely put to the swoi //
the people. On the 11th he g^yf
troops, who had been summoned ^^jV
the encampment outside the city, c^.^^^
for a general massacre. From su^v . j
till 12 o'clock Delhi presented a { i ;
of shocking carnage, the horroiT'^
which were increased by the €3y|
that now spread to almost every qu M
of the capital. The Mogul Em^t
Muhammad Shah then interoedet, i^
the people, and Nadir replied, " [^
Emperor of India must never a«r f
vain," and commanded that the ^<
sacre should cease. A vast multi P^
of persons had perished, however,^ /
when Nadir left Delhi he carried ^^/
him immense treasures, estimate/f^ -
from 30 to 70 millions sterling^ .
famous Peacock Throne, and the 1 /
i-Nur, diamond. y^



In 1789 the Maratha chief, Mah
Sindia captured Delhi, and the T
thas retained it till, in September' -.
General Lake defeated Louis Bou| |
commanding Sindia's army, and s
possession of Delhi and of the f
and person of the Mogul Shah *i
In October 1804 Delhi was besieg
the Maratha, Jaswant Rao Holka]
successfully defended by the B ^
under General Ochterlony. '. >
that time to 1857 the old capit
India remained in the possessit
the British, although the descent
of the Mogul were allowed some
of royalty, and the name of 1
Bahadur Shah succeeded in 18315
was about 80 years old whe:
Mutiny broke out. With his
at Rangoon in 1862, the last
of the Mogul dynasty disapp

1 A list of sovereigns who reitcned i
from 1198, will be found o& p. uviii.



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ROUTE 6. DELHI



133



The Siege of Delhi, 1857.^ 1

On the 10th of May 1857 there
were in the large cantonment of
Meenit, aboat 40 miles from Delhi,
a British force consisting of a battalion
of the 60th Rifles, a regiment of
Dragoons armed with carbines, and
a large force of Artillery, though only
two field-batteries were fully equipped.
The Native troops were one regiment
of Cavalry — the 3d, and two re^raents
of Infantry — the 11th and 20th.
Eighty-five troopers of the 3d Cavalry
had been imprisoned for refusing to
use the new cartridges, but were
released on the day above mentioned
by their comrades. On that day,
Sunday, when the sun went down,
the Sepoys broke into revolt. The
English soldiers in the cantonment
were in amply sufiicient numbers to
have crushed the mutiny locally had
they been conmianded by a competent
general, but General Hewitt does not
seem to have comprehended the neces-
sity for vigorous action, and the
mutineers, after setting fire to the
houses of the European officers, escaped
to Delhi. On the moraiog of the
11th there was still time for the
British Cavalry and Horse Artillery
to have reached Delhi soon enough to
have saved many precious lives, but
the General took no action.

In the meanwhile the Native Cavalry
arrived at Delhi, entered the city, cutting
down any Europeans met withj and then
found their way to the Fort, and in-
duced the 38th N.I. to join them.
The church was subsequently destroyed,
and all Christians met with put to
death. There were no British troops
either in the Fort, or in the cantonment
about 2 m. outside the city. The 64th
N.I. under Colonel Ripley was marched
from the cantonment to the Fort, but
at once fraternised with the 38th, and
allowed their officers to be shot down.
Major Abbott with the 74th N.I. and
two guns arrived next on the scene,
bat his regiment also joined the muti-

1 A traveller who desires a concise account
of the siege of Delhi, etc., without military
technicalities, cannot do better than refer to
Holmes' Indian Mvivtiy^



neers. Lieut. Willoughby, with two
officers, and six non-commissioned
officers defended the magazine, in the
city, against enormous odds ; and
finally exploded it, only three of them
surviving. No assistance arriving from
Meerut those who had taken refuge in
the Fort attempted to escape. Many
were shot down while doing so, and
Delhi, with its well-fortified palace and
strong city wall, was left in the hands
of the mutineers.

Instant measures were taken for the
concentration of European troops and
loyal native regiments upon Delhi.
Sir H. Barnard took command of the
troops collected at Kumal, and on 6th
June reached Alipur, where he halted
till the Meerut brigade joined him.
On the 7 th the latter brigade, after fight-
ing two engagements with the rebels,
arrived. On the following day the
combined forces marched on Delhi, and
found the rebels well posted and
supported by 30 guns 6 ra. north of
Delhi, at the village of Badli-ka-Serai.
Attacking the mutineers, Barnard
gained a complete victory. The most
important result of this success was to
give the British possession of "the
Ridge," from which all subsequent oper-
ations against Delhi were made.

* * On the left and centre of the Ridge,
obliquely to the front of attack, the
tents of the English were pitched a
little to the rear of their old houses,
and effectually concealed from the be-
sieged. The position on the extreme
right invited attack. It was sur-
mounted by an extensive building
known as Hindu Rao's house. A strong
body of troops was posted here, and in
an old observatory near it. About 800
yds. to the left of Hindu Rao's house,
and on the Ridge, was an old mosque,
and again 800 yds. to the left was the
Flag-Staff Tower, a double-storied circu-
lar building — a good post for observa-
tion, and strong enough to afford shelter
to troops. At these four points Barnard
established strong picquets supported
by guns. Beyond Hindn Rao's house
was the suburb of Subzee-mundee, which,
with its houses and walled gardens,
afforded shelter to the enemy, and was
in fact the key of the, English position.

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Beyond Sabzee-mundee, towards the
Kabul Gate, were the viUages of Kish-
engunge, TVevelyangunge, Paharipur,
and Tdiwara, all strong positions which
covered the enemy when they advanced
to the attack, but were too near the city
walls for us to occupy. A little to the
S. of the Flag-Staff, but farther to the
E., was Metcalfe House, on the banks of
the Jumna, with substantial outbuild-
ings, and a mound in their rear, which
seemed to recommend it for occupation.
Between it and the city was an old
summer palace of the Emperor, the
Kudsiya Bagh, with lofty gateways
and spacious courtyards, and in a line
between the latter and Hindu Rao's
house was Ludlow Castle, the house of
the late Commissioner Simon Frazer."

To take this great walled city Greneral
Barnard had a force of about 8000
British, one Ghoorka battalion, the
Coips of Guides, the remnant of certain
native regiments, and 22 ^ns. At
first it was intended to assamt the city
by night, but as failure would have
been disastrous, it was considered best
to delay till the expected reinforce-
ments liad arrived. Between the 12th
and 18th the rebels attacked the British
position four times, in front and rear.
Again on the 23d they attacked, having
been reinforced by the mutineers from
Nusseerabad. Fortunately the British
by that time had received an additional
850 men.

On the 24th General Chamberlain
arrived, and with him the 8th and 6l8t
Europeans, the 1st Panjab Infantry,
a squadron of Panjab Cavalry, and 4
guns, raising the British strength to
6600. The rebels had received an
accession of about 4500 from Bareilly.

On the 9th and 14th of July fierce
engagements were fought on the right
of the English position, near Hindu
Rao's house, in and about the Subzee-
mundee. In these engagements the
British lost 25 officers and 400 men.

7 On the 17th of July Gen. Reed
resigned the command, and made it
over to Brig.-Gen. Archdale Wilson.
At this time the besieging force was in
great difficulties ; two generals had died,
a third had been compelled by illness
to resign, the Adj. -Gen. and Quarter-



master-Gen. lay wounded in their
tents ; and the rebels had attacked so
often, and with such obstinacy, that
it had. come to be acknowledged that
the British were the besieged and not
the besiegers. On the 18th of July
the rebels made another sortie, which
was repulsed by Col. Jones of the 60th
Rifles. The Engineer officers then
cleared away the walls and houses
which had afforded cover to the enemy,
and connected the advanced posts wi^
the main picquets on the Ridge. After
this there were no more conflicts in the
Subzee-mundee. On the 23d of July the
enemy streamed out of the Cashmere
Gate, and endeavoured to establish
themselves at Ludlow Castle. They
were driven back, but the English
were drawn too near the city \rall8,
and suffered severe loss. An order
was then issued prohibiting pursuit,
which had led to so many disasters.
But reinforcements were now on their
way from the Panjab, and were to be
commanded by one of the best soldiers
that India had ever produced — Gen.
Nicholson.

"On the 7th of August Nichobon
stood on the Ridge at fielhi He had
come on in advance of his column
of 2500 men, which arrived on the
14th. On the 25th he marched out
towards Najafgarh with a strong
force to attack the Sepoys, who had
moved [to intercept the siege train
coming from Ferozepur. The march
was a troublous one, through deep
mud. He found the mutineers in three
bodies, occupying two villages and a
sarai in fronl^ afl protected by guns.
As the English passed the ford, the
water being breast-high even tiere,
the enemy poured upon them a shower
of shot and shell. Nicholson, at the
head of the 61st and the Fusiliers,
stormed the sarai, and captured the
guns ; but the Sepoys fought well,
and sold their lives dearly. Those who
survived limbered up their guns and
made for the brid^ crossing the Najaf-
garh Canal. Nicholson's men over-
took them, killed 800, and captured 18
guns. It turned out to be the Neemuch
Brigade who were thus beaten. The
Baraili Brigade had not com^ up

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Nicliolson blew up tho Najafgarh
Bridge, and returned to camp.

** On the morning of the 4th of Sep-
tember the siege guns, drawn by
elephants, with an immense number of
ammunition waggons, appeared on the
Ridge. On the 6th the rest of the Rifles
from Mecrut marched in. On the 8 th the
Jummoo contingent arrived, with Rich-
ard Lawrence at their head. Many, and
amongst them foremost of all Nichol-
son, chafed at the delay which occuiTcd
in stonning Delhi. The responsibility
of the attack rested with Archdale
Wilson, and he had stated the magni-
tude of the enterprise in a letter to
Baird Smith, of the 20th of August.
' Delhi is 7 m. in circumference, filled
with an immense fanatical population,
garrisoned by full 40,000 soldiers,
annedand disciplined by ourselves, with
114 heavy pieces of artillery mounted on
the walls, with the largest magazine of
shot, shell, and ammunition in the
Upper Provinces, besides some 60 pieces
of field artillery, all of our own manu-
facture, and manned by artillerymen
drilled and taught by ourselves; the
Fort itself having been strengthened by
perfect flanking defences, erected by
our own engineers, and a glacis whicn
prevents our guns breaching the walls
lower than 8 ft from the top.* These
eircomstances led Wilson to write that
the chances of success were, in his
opinion, an^hing but favourable ; but
he would yield to the judgment of the
chief engineer. Many condemned his
apparent reluctance to order the assault,
hut they have since acknowledged that
they did him less than justice, for the
principles of warfare were upon his side.
"Investment by the English, with
their limited means, being impossible,
it was necessary to concentrate all their
hreaching power on a portion of the
walls sefected for a front of attack.
This was the Mori, Cashmere, and Water
Bastions, with their connecting cur-
tains. This front was chosen because
the fire of the Mori Bastion alone com-
manded the approach to it, and because
there was excellent cover to within a
short distance of the walls. On the
evening of the 6th of September, a light

hitteryjconsisting of si^ 9-pounders and



two 24-pounders, under the command of
Captain Remmington, was constructed
on the plateau of the Ridge to protect
the operations going on below. On the
night of the 7th the first heavy battery
was constructed at 700 yds. from the
wall. It consistedoftwo parts connected
by a trench. The right portion held
five heavy guns and a howitzer, the func-



Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon → online text (page 31 of 87)