John Murray (Firm).

A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon online

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kOtJTK 26. OAiJAO JlTiJCTlOl^ to BezwAda



tnik



others, make it probable that they
were dedicated to Wali, his brother,
and his wife. Mr. Fergusson, at p.
874, ascribes to Vitoha^ a local mani-
festation of Vishnu, the one which the
local people refer to Wali, erected 1529-
1542 A.D., but never finished.^ The
shrine of this great temple was never
filled ; it was never used as a place of
worship, nor was it ever formally con-
secrated. The legend is that in the
plenitude of their power the Rajas of
Vijayanagar determined to brin^ the
holy image of Krishna which is at
Pandarpur to Vijayanagar, and built
this temple to exceed in beauty every-
thing before erected in the Deccan to
receive it ; but whether it was, as the
Brahmans inform visitors, that the god
would not move ; or that, having come
to look at the new temple, said it was
too good for him ; or because attention
was diverted by serious troubles with
the Mohammedans, the removal was
never accomplished. The three temples
stand in an enclosure which has four
low gopuras ; they are good examples
of the Dravidian style. There is a
stone rutj or car, close to the temple on
the right, as you enter the enclosure,
and two stone pavilions for lodging
travellers. The stone car which stands
a few paces from the temple just
described is 26 ft. 4 in. high, sadly
disfigured in 1803 by an ill-judced
"restoration" in chunam. The dia-
meter of the wheels is 4 ft. 3 in.
Whether the car was ever moved is
doubtful. The wheels can be moved,
and the^ockets in which the axle works
are worn and chafed as if by movement.

The second temple, which is on the
left of the entrance into the enclosure,
is much the largest, and perhaps the
finest. The ceiling was formed of slabs
of granite 35 ft. long, but all the slabs
have been thrown down except one in
the centre. Two slabs stand against
the wall, 2 ft. 6 in. wide, and 2 ft.
thick. There are fourteen columns,
which supported the roof. Most of
them are carved into representations

1 See also the Indian Antiquary, vol. ii. p.
178, which gives an extract from the Bellary
District Manual, by J. Kelsall, M.C.S., which
says : " The finest temples of all are about 1
ax. lower down the river."



of horsemen mounted on yalis. One
represents the Narsing Avatar. In
some cases the yalis are supported by
elephants. The pavement consists of
huge granite slabs. One is 12 fL 7 in.
long, and 7 ft. 7 in. broad, and the
others are about that size. Within
is a court 100 ft. long from E. to W.,
and 62 ft. broad from N. to S. This
temple is thought by some to hare
been sacred to Vishnu, and the repre-
sentation of the Narsing Avatar makes
this probable. On the S. aide are
numerous Eanarese inscriptions. S. of
the temple is a large dharmsala with
sixty-two pillars, on which are curious
reliefs of lemale monkeys and dwarfs,
so this may be the Tara temple. On
the right of the entrance is a platform
with thirty-nine shorter pillars. Th^
were carv^ with most curious represen-
tations of monkeys, their heads crowned
with two small figures of gods. The
third temple is some 20 yds. N. of the
rtU. It is probably sacred to Wali and
Sugriva.

From this the traveller may go 1| m.
to the E. to the bank of the TuDga-
bhadra opposite Anagundi. There is
a large tree which affords some shelter
from the sun while waiting for the
ferry-boats, which are circulM" ba^ets
covered with bullock hides and 10 ft
in diameter, the Indian form of coracle.
They will each take twenty persons, or
a palki with twelve bearers. The boats
are safe but inconvenient. There are
some inches of water at the bottom of
the basket, and passengers sit on the
edge or rim. The bed of the river and
its sides are very rocky. As soon as
you land on the N". side you are in the
Nizam's dominions. 30 yds. firom the
landing-place is a small temple to Gfanesh,
sheltered by a tree, and 10 yds. fartha
on is the Gate of Anagundi^ which has
been a fort built of granite. The paiaa
of the Rajah of Anagundi, who is tbo
Rajah of Vijayanagar, is one-third of I
mile from the gate.

Returning to the S. side of the riva^
some hours may be devoted to a vaS
to the Pagoda on the high hill to ^
E. of the Kasbin Bazaar, bat the tvoM
are not interesting. The ascent I
excessively steep, and the Pagodi|

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ROUTE 26. TORANAGULLU — BELLART



357



which is sacred to Markand, is un-
important, but the view over the ruins
will repay the visitor for his trouble.

A day must be given to ihe W. and
N.W. portion of the ruins of Hampi,
and here a pony may be used. About
2 m. along the road running W. is an
ancient temple of Shwa^ attested by a
figure of Nandi and carvings of cobras.
Beyond this to the W. is a gigantic
image of the NardTig Avatar^ carved
out of a single block of granite. The
figure is that of a colossal lion-headed
man with enormous projecting circular
eyes and a huge mouth. A spirited
carving of the Shesh Nag forms the
canopy of the idol, which is seated,
and has its legs and arms broken.
From the top of the Shesh Nag to the
floor of the pedestal on which the idol
sits is 22 ft. 6 in. This idol is in an
enclosure of ponderous granite blocks.
The monolithic uprights at the door
are 18 ft. 8 in. high out of the ground.
Just outside the gate is an upright
stone with a Eanarese inscription on
both sides. A few yards from this
enclosure is a small temple containing
a hage Ldngam and Yoni. This is no
doubt the largest representative of
these objects of worship existing.

Near is a vast temple to EriBhna.
It is enclosed by a granite wall. The
breadth of the chief court is 200 ft.
from N. to S., and the length 320 ft.
from E. to W. At the gopura which
forms the entrance is a stone 8 ft.
bigh, with a Eiuiarese inscription on
both sides. There is also on the columns
of the gopura an inscription in Nagri
and Kanarese. About 60 yds. from
this temple off the road is a temple
with a huge Ganesh 10 ft. high ; and
a few yds. farther another, vastly
solid, built of granite, dedicated to
Ganesh, in which the idol is 18 ft.
high. The visitor will remark the
size of the enormous granite slabs
which form the roof. After passing
this temple, the precincts of what is
now called Hampi are entered, and
monkeys of the Langwr kind, but not
large, here show themselves in con-
siderable numbers. The visitor should
WW descend for 70 yds. a granite
paven^e^t put into many small steps,



and pass on the left a square building
which may have been a mcUh. He
will then come under the shade of
some gigantic trees and arrive at the
portal of the great temple of Hampi,
which is sacred to Shiva. The gopura
at the N. entrance is truly gigantic,
and taken in all its dimensions is
perhaps the largest in India. It is im-
possible to ascend beyond the eleventh
story, but from the basement of that
to the ground the height is 133 ft, 5 in.,
and above it there is solid masonry for
30 or 40 ft. After that comes the Shtkr^
which is now broken but must have
been about 30 ft. high, so that when
it was intact the total height must
have been over 200 ft. The gopura
is 85 ft. from E. to W., and is im-
mensely solid. The length of the first
q'ladrangle from E. to W. is 208 ft.,
and its breadth from N. to S. 134 ft.
The second quadranffle is larger, and
has arcades all round built of granite.
The authorities of the temple will not
allow a European, excepting officials,
to go farther than a few steps beyond
the second gopura, under which is the
entrance to this second quadrangle, nor
will they permit any closer exammation
of the building. Ketuming S.E. 2 m.
the visitor will reach the Zeruma, The
outer wall is about 20 ft. high, and
built entirely of granite. The buildings
within have for the most part been
thrown down. At the comers of the en-
closure in which this building is there
have been towers, and two remain. At
one comer of the enclosure is a building
which was probably a pavilion for the
ladies. It has been covered with fine
white cement. Close by it is a door,
beyond which are many ruins and a
temple to Hanuman, with ave^spirited
relief of the Monkey-god. E. of the
zenana are the Elepharvt Stables. S. of
the zenana, at the distance of 150 yds.,
is a monolithic and subterraneous
temple or house, with three chambers.]

94 m. Bellary sta. (R.), D.B. A
municipal town and large military
station, capital of district of same name.
Pop. 63,000. A spur from the Sandur
range runs along the S. side of the
cantonment of Bellary, and extends



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ROUTE 26. GADAQ JUNCTION TO BEZWADA



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K to Badihal, 8 m. distant, where it
abruptly terminates. A high point
in this range is opposite to the Fort
of Bellary, within 4 m. of it, and is
called the Copper MofmUain, the height
bein^^ 1600 ft. above the plain, and 2800
ft. above the sea. Excavations are still
to be seen, said to be l^e remains of
mines worked by order of Hyder 'Ali,
but abandoned in consequence of the
expense exceeding the profit. Besides
copper, haematitic iron ore is found in
large quantities, some of which possesses
magnetic properties.

It is an easy climb up to the Fort,
built on a bare granite rock of semi-
elliptical form, rising abruptly from
the plain to the height of 450 ft,
and about 2 m. in circumference. The
rock is defended by two distinct lines
of works, constituting the lower and
upper forts, both built of granite. In
the upper one, the summit of which
is flat and of considerable extent, stands
the citadel, which is reputed to be of
great antiquity, and might be rendered
almost impregnable. It affords, how-
ever, no accommodation for troops,
and is consequently never occupied
except by a small guard. The cells for
the military prisoners are built within
it. Several tanks or cisterns have been
hollowed out in the rook to hold rain-
water: the system of their construc-
tion is worthy of notice. The lower
fort, which is of more recent construc-
tion, consists of low bastions connected
together by curtains. Its shape is quad-
rangular ; it has a dry ditch and covered
way in front, and surrounds the base of
the rock from its S. W. to its N.E. angle.

The lower fort was built by Tipu in
1792. The upper fort has six bastions,
and deep cavities always full of fresh
water. There is a granite piUar 36 ft.
high, with figures of Hanuman and
other deities close to an ancient, squat
pagoda sacred to Shiva.

The present fortifications were built
hj a staff of French engineers, tradi-
tion adding that after the new citadel
had been completed Hyder 'Ali hanged
the French en^neers at the gate, as
he found that his fort was commanded
by another rock. The place came into
possession of the British in 1800.



The Arsenal is at the foot of the
Fort Rock in the S.W. angle, A tank
lies to the S. of the Fort, fed by a
stream. The N.I. regiment lines are
at the extreme S.W. of the cantonment
The barracks of the English Infantry
are IJ m. to the N. E. Here are Trinity
Church and the Roman Cathohc
Church. There is also a handsome
church, built at the expense of Mr.
Abraham, of fine white stone brought
from Shahabad.

124 m. Quntakal juno. sta. See
p. 334.

167 m. Kumool Boad sta.

\ m. distant is Dhone. D.B. if.

[From here Kumool is distant 33
m. N. by road. This is the Cajwul
of Orme. Pop. 20,000. A civil sta-
tion. The town stands at the junc-
tion of the Hindri and Tungabhadra
rivers. The old fort was difflnantled
in 1862, but four bastions and three
gates still stand. Troops were stationed
in it until 1871, and it still contains
the palace of the Nawabs. There is
a fine mausoleum of Abdul Wahab,
the first Nawab, and several mosques.
17 m. u^ stream at SunkestUa are the
head works of the canal ; the journey
can be done in a canal boat]

214 m. Nandyal sta. Called from
Nandiy the bull of Shiva. There are
several Shivite temples here. Before
reaching it the line passes through the
Gerramalai Hills by many picturesque
curves.

278 m. Ciimbum sta. (R.)

383 m. GKintar sta. (R.)

The Rly. crosses the Eistna river by
a huge bridge just below the irrigation
dam before entering

400 m. Beswada (R.) D.B. This
is also the terminus of the Nizam's
State Rly. from Wadi, Hyderabad, and
Warangal. A line has recently been
opened from Bezwada to Barang (for
Cuttack) and Puri (Jagannath). See
Routes 21 and 25. An important
trading-place on the most frequented
crossing of the Klstna river. A fort
was erected here in 1760, but has since
been dismantled. There are rock-eut
^ddhist temples and Hindu pagodaa
In making excavations for canals many
remains were exposed, which show tb»t



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359



the place was, in the Buddhist period,
a considerable religious centre.

It is a toym with 12,000 inhabitants,
and is situated on the left bank of the
Kistna, 45 m. from its mouth. It is
shut in on the W. by a granite ridge
600 ft. high, running N. and S., and
ending in a soarp at the river. At
right angles to this ridge, and i m.
from the stream, is a similar ridge
sheltering the town on the N.
Close to the E. end of N. ridge is
a sharp -pointed detached mass of
gneiss, on which are Buddhistic caves
and cells. On the S. side of the river,
opposite to Bezwada, is a hill similar
to the W. ridge of which it is a con-
tinuation. It IS 450 ft. high, and from
Bezwada seems a perfect cone. On the
S. side of the river, 1 m. to the W.,
is the Undavilli Cave-Temple. The
rock-cuttings on the hill to the W. of
Bezwada are made perpendicularly
down the rock, which forms the side of
a prism, and they leave a platform
half-way down, on which buildings
were placed by the Buddhists. One
such cutting gives a cave 77 ft. deep
X 30 ft. broad, with a perpendicular
rocky face, and about 45 ft. high.

At a little distance to the S. of the
town there is an enormous rock. It
was there that the Master of the Shas-
tras attained the rank of Buddha. An
inscription on a pillar in the Temple of
Amararshnaraswami, in Bezwada, is
dated 1283 s.s. = 1361 A.D. On the
crest of the hill is a bungalow built
when the Dam at Bezwada was being
made. A statue of Buddha in black
granite was removed from the highest
point of this hill to the library at
Bezwada. Another Bungalow, be-
longing to the Church Missionaries,
has been erected on the platform, from
which steps ascend to the top of the
hill. On the ridge to the W. of the
town the remains cluster thickly. The
perpendicular cliff at the back has been
roughly carved with representations of
Hindu deities. Passing it, you come
to a modem temple to Kanaka Par-
gamma. There is also a figure with
fllegible writing in characters of the
6th or 7th century, and ap inscription
Vfi old Telugu,



In the town of Bezwada are old
shrines with inscriptions from the 7th
century downwards. The caves of
Bezwada are hollowed out of the £.
side of the great hill at the foot of
which Bezwada stands. At the foot of
the hill, at the N.£. comer of the town,
is a small rock-temple with a figure of
Yenayakudu, or Ganesh. Then come
several cells and a good-sized man-
dapam, with pillars of the solid rock.
In the temple of Malleshwar Swami,
which is in the town, are some figures
and pillars much older than the temple
itself. Besides the colossal figure of
Buddha in black granite, which came
from the hill to the E. of Bezwada,
and is now in the Library, there is
another colossal figure of Buddha in the
enclosure of the rest-house for native
travellers at Gndivada. The features
are very fine, the hair woolly. A seven-
headed serpent forms a canopy for the
statue's head. The Brahmans call it
Muneshwaraswami, and claim Sakya
Muni as a Brahmanical deity.

The Kistna Bridge is 1200 yards
long outside abutments, with a depth
of foundations 80 feet below low water,
and cost 4,247,850 rupees.



Exounioiui from Bezwada.
(1) In order to reach UndaTiUi
village, the traveller must cross the
Kistna from Bezwada and go 1^ m. up
the course of the river above and W .
of Sitanagaram. There is a rock-temple
of two stories close to the village, and
also a large one of four stories, the
lower sto^ being buried in debris.
This is a Buddhistic temple converted
to the worship of Anantaswami, or
Vishnu. In the third story is a hall
supported by solid rock pillars repre-
senting the rape of Sita by Ravana, and
the search for her and ner rescue by
Hanuman, and the defeat of Ravana by
Bama. At the end of the hill is a
gigantic figure of the Narsing Avatara
recumbent on the Shesh Nag, and with
two large and several smaller figures at
his feet. There are some remains of
painting on them. An inscription near
the temple records a CTant by a Reddi
chief ftot earlier thai^ the ^3th century.



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ROUTB 27. HUBLI TO HULLABID AND BANGALORE



India



(2) 17 m. W. of Bezwada by road is
Amarayaii, on the rijght or S. bank of
the Kistna river. It ia a place of mucb
interest to antiquarians as an ancient
centre of the Buddhist religion, and
the site of a great Tope,^ of which, bow-
ever, scarcely anything remains in situ.
What there is lies to the S. of the
town, just beyond the outer huts.
Dr. Burgess calls if a deeply interest-
ing monument of antiquity unequalled
for the delicacy of its detail b^ any of
the remains of Indian Architectural
Art" Becent injudicious excavations
have created sach confusion in the
debris that the chances of forming an
idea of the original size and structural
arrangements of the tope have for ever
been destroyed. Many examples of
the sculpture are to be seen in the
•Briti^h Museuni. Before 1790 the tope
is said to have presented the appear-
ance of a very large low tumulus
crowned b^ a smaller one about 80
yds. in diameter, and 20 ft. high,
which had been covered with brick,
and was locally known as JHpaldinney
or the Hill of Light.

N, and N.W. of Amaravati are the
sites of former diamond-workings, all
on the N. bank of the river.



ROUTE 27

HuBLi Junction to Hullabid and
Bangalore.

Hubli June. sta. (R.) is between Londa
June, and Gadag junc, and 127 m. by
rail E. of Marmogoa harbour on the
W. coast.

81 m. Harihar sta. (R.) on the rt.
bank of the Tungabhadra. In 1868 a
very fine bridge was constructed over
the river. An inscription on copper
has been found here of the 7th cen-
tury, and there are several of the 12th.
The temple was erected in 1223. In
1268 additions were made by Soma,
the founder of Somnathpur in the
Mysore district. In 1277 Saluva

1 See Ferguason'fl Hitt. of Ind. ArcK, pp.
71,7 2, 98, 99, 102, and r y J. Burgess, LL.D.
Amaravati and Jaggayapeta StuuaSj London



Tikkama built a temple to Mahadeva.
The Kings of Yijayangar bestowed
many benefactions on these temples
down to the 16th centu^. After the
fall of yyayanagar, the Tarikere chiefs
seized the place and built the fort.

178 m. Banawar sta.

[The renewed ruins of Hullabid lie
20 m. S.W. from this point by road ;
past JamgaZ (12 m.) At 10 hl
beyond in the same direction is Blur.
We take these places on the return
journey to ths railway station.

Belnr (or Baillur), on the rt. bank
of the Yagache, pop. about 8000. In
the Puranas and old inscriptions it is
called Velapura, and is styled the S.
Benares. Here is the famous temple
of Chenna Eesava, erected and endowed
by the Hoysala king, Vishnu Yardhana,
on exchanging the Jain faith for that
of Yishnu m tne be^innin^ of the 12tli
century. The carvmg with which it
is decorated rivals in design and
finish that of Hullabid, ana is the
work of the same artist, Jakanachari
The image of Chenna Kesava is said to
have been brought from the Baba
Budan hills, but that of his goddess
was left behind, which obliges him to
pay her a visit there at stated inter-
vals. The Great Temple stands within
a high wall which surrounds a court,
440 ft. X 860 ft. In this court are,
besides the Great Temple, four or five
smaller ones. On the E. front are two
fine gopuras. **It consists," says Mr.
Fergusson, " of a very solid vimanah,
with an anteraJa, or porch ; and in front
of this a porch of the usual star-like form,
measuring 90 ft. across. The arrange-
ments of the pillars have much of that
pleasing subordination and variety of
spacing which is found in those of the
Jains, but we miss here the octagonal
dome, which cives such poetry and
meaning to the arrangements they
adopted. Instead of these we have
only an exaggerated compartment in
the centre, wnich fits nothing, and,
ihoilgh it does give dignity to the
centre, it does it so clumsily as to be
nlmost offensive in an architectural
sense." The windows to the porch
are 28, and all diiferent. Some are



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KOUTE 27. HULLABID KETARESVARA — HOYSALESHWARA 361



pierced with star-shaped, conventional
patterns, and with foliaged patterns
between. Others are interspersed with
mythological figures, as tne Yaraha
avatar. The base is very richly carved,
and is supported on carved elephants.
Mr. Fergusson says: ''The amount of
labour which each facet of this porch
displays is such as never was bestowed
on any surface of equal extent in any
buildm^ in the world ; and though the
design is not of the highest omer of
art, it is elegant and appropriate, and
never ofifends against good taste. The
sculptures of the base of the vimanah
are as elaborate as those of the porch,
in some places more so ; and the mode
in which the under sides of the cor-
nices have been elaborated and adorned
is such as is only to be found in temples
of this class."

Hullabid, from the Eanarese words,
Aafe, * * old, " bidUf * * ruins, " is a village
10 m,. N.E. of Belur, with 1200 in-
habitants. It marks the site of Dorasa-
mudra, the old capital of the Hoysala
Bsdlala kings. Jt was founded early
in the 12th century, but was rebuilt in
the middle of the 13th by Vira Somesh-
wara, and some inscriptions represent
him to be the founder. Attacked by
leprosy, he withdrew to the neighbour-
ing hill of Pushpagiri (Mountain of
Flowers), where he was instructed to
erect temples to Shiva to obtaia a cure.
The Mohammedan general Kafor took
the city in 1310, and plundered it of
immense wealth. In 1326 another
army of Mohammedans carried off what
remained, and destroyed the city. The
Rwa then removed to Tonnur.

Tliere are 2 most remarkable temples
remaining. (1) The Ketaresvara, the
smaller of the two, but a miracle of art.
Unfortunately, a tree took root in the
vimanah, or tower, over the sanctuary,
and dislodged the stones. Many of
the fibres, thrust out of their places
in this maimer, have been removed
to the Museum at Bangalore. It
is now fast goiug to ruin. It is
star-shaped, with sixteen points, and
had a porch, now ruined and covered
with vegetation. It has a conical
roof, and from base to top "is covered
with sculptures of the very best



Indian art, and these so arranged as
not materially to interfere .wiSi the
outlines of the building." It was,^
when intact, the finest specimen of
Indian art in existence.

(2) The HoysaleBhwara, "Lord of the
Hoysalas," much larger t^an the Eetar-
esvara. It stands on a terrace, 5 ft.
6 in. in height, paved with large slabs.
The temple itself is 160 ft. from N. to S.
by 122 ft. from E. to W., and beyond
its walls thpre is a clear margm of
platform aU round of about 20 ft* The
height from the terrace to the cornice
is 25 ft.. It is a double temple, one
half being sacred to Shiva, and the
other to his wife. Each half has a
pavilion in front containing the Baswa^
or Nandif a bull. , The larger of the
two is 16 ft. long by 7 ft. broad and
10 ft. high, the animal being repre-
sented lying down.

Some of the pillars in the inner part
of the temple are of black hornblende,
and have a dazzling polish, which, as
Buchanan tells us (voL iii. p. 392),
"reflects objects double, which by the
natives ia looked upon as miraculous."
Alluding to the many friezes that sur-
round the temple, Fergusson says
"Some of these are carved with a
minute elaboration of detail which, can
only be reproduced by photography,
and may probably be considered as one
of the most marvellous exhibitions of
human labour to be foimd even in the
patient East." He adds: "Here the
artistic combination of horizontal with
vertical lines, and the play of outline
and of light and shade, far suinpass
anything in (Gothic art. The effects
are just what the mediaeval architects
were often aiming at, but which they
never attained so perfectly as was done



Online LibraryJohn Murray (Firm)A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon → online text (page 67 of 87)