John Murray Graham.

Annals and correspondence of the viscount and the first and second earls of Stair; (Volume 1) online

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bed, and got better rest. Next day, notice being
given that a body of Highlanders were marched to-
wards Dunkeld, and some to Dundee, Colonel Camp-
bell, Fonab, was sent in pursuit, with 500 Argyleshire
Highlanders. He dispersed one body of them, and
took 300 prisoners, with some brandy. The Duke
lay last night at Errol ; and the whole army was this
morning at Dundee, from whence General Cadogan
was to be sent with a strong detachment of horse
after the rebels, who go on diminishing, towards
Aberdeen. Several frigates are on the coast; and
Sutherland, with Beaufort, being masters of Inver-
ness, the Pretender and his five officers and colony
of Frenchified counsellors were [delete]. One would
think that Almighty God had put all their reserves
together to make a solid end of them and their de-
signs. In this bag are the Pretender, his priests of
all kinds, his Ministers of State, and the officers of
the British-popish regiments raised and keeped up
in France for our mischief. . . .

" P.S. I send you a fine Jacobite paper; but it is
Mar, and not King George and his minister Stair,
who have sought the Pretender in France to bring
him to ruin."

The Chevalier, retracing his steps along the east
coast of Scotland to Montrose, embarked for France,
in a foreign ship, on the 4th of February. A few


days after this date Sir Hew Dalrymple addressed
this letter to Lord Stair :

"EDINBURGH, Feb. 9, 1716.

" We had yesterday a report by Captain Grant, the
brigadier's brother, who came from the north, that
two English frigates had given chase to the Pre-
tender and obliged him to put in at Stonehyve ; but
that is not confirmed nor believed this day. The
Pretender set sail from Montrose on Saturday the
4th, with the Earl of Mar and the Lord Drummond ;
the Earl of Panmure and Mr Harry Maule went off
from Arbroath on Friday the 3d. The number of
the rebels is much diminished. They were not
reckoned by the last account at outmost to be above
2500. The weather has been very favourable ; and
the Duke of Argyle was certainly at Aberdeen as
yesterday. There is a long causeway through a
morass, which cannot receive above two horses
a-front, and the morass impassable in the winter-
time in fresh weather ; but now in the frost it is
passable on either side of the causeway. If the
rebels had been in any disposition to make a stand,
a small number might have defended it against all
our army, if the weather had not favoured us. The
Marquis of Huntly has been treating, but has not
kept a neutrality. It is said he was at Tain ; but
it is certain his men have been in arms, levying
cess and quartering upon the neighbourhood. The
Countess-dowager of Seaforth has seen better to the
security of that family. Some say the Earl has not
kept himself exactly to terms ; but it is more generally
expected he has, and so saved life and fortune, which

VOL. i. u

306 THE STAIR ANNALS. [1716.

he owes entirely to his mother, who, though she be a
very bigot Papist, would not expose her son's family
for the interest of any king ; whereas the foresaid
Marquis owes his misfortune in a great measure to
the Duchess [of Gordon], who both drew him into
the snare and discouraged all means of bringing him
out of it.*

" I must now beg leave to recommend to your
lordship's favour Charles Dalrymple, son to James
Dalrymple of Dunraggat, who served the Viscount
and Earl of Stair faithfully. Charles was bred a
merchant, but, by misfortunes and loss at sea, without
his own fault, his stock is brought very low. What
he proposeth is some employment in the Customs
of which he is abundantly capable. He is well affected
to the Government, and attended at Stirling amongst
the volunteers from Glasgow about the quarter of a
year. The English commissioners, who make the
plurality in Scotland, are no ways benign to the Ad-
vocate or me ; so that we cannot do him service,
though there are abundance of vacancies now in the
north. And indeed our commissioners have no great
character for their conduct, either here or above, so
that many commissions are disposed of by the Trea-
sury, and sent down to them without their partici-
pation. If your lordship be pleased to recommend
him to Mr Walpole, as one whose forbears have de-
pended on your family, Colonel Cathcart, who is now
at London, will put Mr Walpole in mind and negoti-

* This was the Jacobite Duchess of Gordon, from whom the Dean
and Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh received and accepted the gift
of a silver medal, having the head of the Chevalier on one side, and
on the reverse the British Isles, with the motto, " Reddite."


ate his business. And now that I have mentioned Col-
onel Cathcart, your lordship will be pleased to know
that the Duke of Argyle honoured him with carrying
the news of the Pretender's being shipped off [from
Scotland], though he will not carry the first tidings
of it, because there was a packet sent (not from his
Grace) to Berwick, and a flying packet directed from
thence a day sooner. In all appearance, our rebels
will be scattered in a few days. I pray God to direct
the king to proper measures, to settle solid peace
amongst us, and that our own divisions may not be
the occasion of new troubles. There has been so
great a disaffection, which cannot be cured on a sud-
den, that all who are true lovers of our present con-
stitution or settlement should contribute everything
towards peace and unity amongst ourselves. The
Duke [of Argyle] has deferred his coming hither
longer than was expected ; and he is not like to come
now till the rebels be dispersed. The Advocate's
absence is not excused by the House of Commons.
He has writ up to obtain his excuse, in which, I be-
lieve, he'll not prevail, and therefore must be going
some time hence ; but that is not yet adjusted in his
family. Your lordship is very necessary where you
are, but I believe it would be very agreeable to your-
self, and very useful, if you could make a trip to Eng-
land, where there is as great use for counsel and con-
duct in tempering mercy and justice, and in engaging
the affections of the people as has been or may be of
a long time."

To this letter a postscript is added from the
Countess-dowager of Stair to her son :

308 THE STAIR ANNALS. [17 16.

" All your friends have been prevailed with to re-
commend Charles Dalrymple to your favour in assist-
ing him to procure some post in the Customs. There-
fore he thought it necessary that I should join with
the rest, and it is always good to prefer friends when
it is in your power. And we have all reason to bless
God for the happy turn made in our affairs, an ac-
count of which you have from the president ; and I
pray God, since He has done so much for us, we may
not fall short in making returns of praise and thanks-
giving. My dear son, adieu."

Upon his return to France, the Chevalier went first
to see his mother at St Germains, and then, instead
of returning to Lorraine, proceeded to Avignon. At
the instance of Lord Mar and the Queen-dowager,
Bolingbroke was about this time dismissed from his
service, on the absurd pretence of having neglected
to supply powder to the Jacobite troops in Scotland.
This able but unreliable minister, immediately upon
receiving his dismissal, commenced those schemes
for making his peace with the British Government
and being relieved of his attainder, in which, chiefly
through the mediation of Lord Stair, he in the course
of a few years partially succeeded.

The ill-advised prince, being now driven from Brit-
ish territory, while his adherents, pursued from their
paradise of rock and moor byCadogan's flaming sword,
were scattered among the Hebrides and Orkneys,*

* " Tho' rugged and rough be the land of my birth,
To the eye of my heart 'tis the Eden of earth.
Far, far have I sought, but no land could I see
Half so fair as the land of my fathers to me."

Jacobite Song.


the Government, with the sanction of Parliament,
took measures to prevent them from finding an asy-
lum in France and the neighbouring States. With
this object, General Stanhope wrote to Stair : -

"WHITEHALL, Feb. 22, 1716.*

" I despatch this by a messenger to your Excel-
lency with the enclosed speech of his Majesty to both
Houses of Parliament, and their hearty and dutiful
returns thereto by their respective addresses. By
these your Excellency will perceive with what earn-
estness they request his Majesty's pressing instances
with all states and princes in amity with him, that the
Pretender may not be harboured in their territories ;
and though the positive engagements the court of
France is under by the 4th and 5th articles of the
treaty of Utrecht should seem to make such instances
at that court needless, yet the great encouragement
which has been given to the Pretender from thence
to make his late attempt of invading his Majesty's
domains, the liberty he has had to pass through
France in order to it, and since to return again to
that country, the convenience and countenance his
Majesty's traitorous subjects, and all others who have
been willing to assist and follow the Pretender, have
met with, are steps so directly opposite to the treaty,
and so little agreeable to the good understanding and
friendship between the two crowns, that his Majesty
thinks it highly necessary that your Excellency
should present a memorial to his Royal Highness on
this subject, and insist in the strongest manner that

* Stair Papers, vol. v. See French letter of same date from King
George to the Duke of Lorraine in Appendix to this chapter.

310 THE STAIR ANNALS. [7 l6 -

the Pretender shall not be harboured in the territories
of France. And as your Excellency is not ignorant
that the Duke of Lorraine has alleged in excuse for
the part he has acted in relation to the Pretender,
and the retreat he has hitherto given to him, his
neighbourhood to France, which engages him to
comply with what that court desires of him, your
Excellency will represent in the memorial that his
Majesty expects from that friendship his Royal
Highness professes, that he will pass such offices
with the Duke of Lorraine as may not leave him any
excuse of that kind for the future. And as a fur-
ther and necessary demonstration of his Royal High-
ness's disposition to live in a good correspondence
with his Majesty, you are to insist that none of his
Majesty's subjects who have been declared or are
known to be traitors or rebels, such as Ormond, Mar,
Bolingbroke, Panmure, and others, shall be allowed
to stay within the dominions of France ; and that
those [officers] who joined with the Pretender in his
late attempt, and were then actually in the service of
France, such as Tynemouth [son of the Duke of
Berwick], Shelden, and others, shall not only not be
allowed to return to their former posts, but punished
in such a manner as to satisfy his Majesty that his
Highness did not approve of these proceedings, the
approbation of which by the court of France would
be an open violation of the treaty between the two
crowns. These are, my lord, the heads of a memo-
rial your Excellency is directed to present to the
Regent without loss of time, and which his Majesty
doubts not but you will enforce with such arguments
as you shall judge most effectual to procure from that


court the satisfaction in these several points his
Majesty so justly expects and demands. His Majesty
has thought fit to write himself to the Duke of Lor-
raine on this occasion the enclosed letter, which your
Excellency is directed to put into the hands of that
Duke's minister at the court of France, his Majesty
having no minister at his, and your Excellency will
recommend to him the transmitting of it to his master
without loss of time ; and as your Excellency will see
by the enclosed copy of it that his Majesty takes
notice of the Addresses of his people, it is thought
proper your Excellency shall give copies of the ad-
dresses of the two Houses to the Lorraine minister,
to be by him conveyed to his master."

In pursuance of this despatch, Stair presented a
memorial to the Regent, the answer to which was
delivered in London through the hands of M. d'lber-
ville, the French ambassador. A slight was thus put
upon Lord Stair, which Secretary Stanhope did not
think proper to notice farther than by assuring him
of the king's approbation of his zeal in the discharge
of his duty, suggesting in his despatches certain other
points in connection with the articles of the treaty of
Utrecht to be laid before the Regent. This, and
one or two other things of a similar nature occurring
afterwards, created an unpleasantness in the relations
between Lord Stair and the Court he was accredited
to, which in the course of two years grew into larger

* Extracts from General Stanhope's despatches to Lord Stair, of
March 19, March 28, and April 16, 1716, showing the views of the
British ministry prior to entering upon the Triple Alliance treaty, are
given in the Appendix to this chapter.

312 THE STAIR ANNALS. [1716.


Anomalous position of the British Ministers and of the Regent Mo-
tives dictating the negotiation which resulted in the Triple Alli-
ance Conduct of the treaty transferred from Paris to the Hague
and Hanover Secretary Stanhope and the Abbt Dubois The
Regent takes a more decided part against the Jacobites Conclusion
of the treaty Importance of its provisions The Lord Advocate
dissatisfied with the measures taken by Government subsequent to
the Insurrection Family letters of Lady Stair and others Burn-
ing of Castle Kennedy.

HAVING regard to the part they were now taking in
the negotiations with France, the Whig ministers of
King George were in a very singular position, if not
upon the horns of a moral dilemma. They had in
parliament declared the treaty of Utrecht contrary
to the interests of Great Britain, and had formally
impeached its authors. * But now, by the force
of circumstances, they were constrained, in their
relations with the Regent Orleans, to base their
policy entirely upon that treaty and its articles.
They were obliged to eat the leek, but, to give
them their due, they never praised it.

* In the Postscript to Arbuthnot's History of John Bull (Swift's
Works, by Scott, vi. 160, edit. 1824), the first of the Chapter-titles sets out
" How John was made angry with the articles of agreement ; how he
kicked the parchment through the house, up-stairs and down-stairs,
and put himself in a great heat thereby;" a picture not far from
truth, although drawn by a Tory pen.


The Regent had also a difficult game to play.
The political sentiments and traditions of France,
and of himself as a Frenchman, had been for many
years in favour of the Stuart dynasty. This current
of traditional opinion within the territory of France
still flowing, but now in a direction counter to the
diplomatic relations between the two governments
of England and France, had made itself practically
felt in the course of the recent insurrection, much
to the annoyance of the ministry in London. The
British ambassador at Paris made representations,
Secretary Stanhope wrote despatches, but the cur-
rent continued without much variation. The Regent
was often puzzled how to act, but with an exhausted
exchequer and an ill-regulated condition of the public
finances, a policy of peace was with him almost a
necessity ; besides that, his relations with his cousin,
Philip of Spain, who, but for the Act of Renuncia-
tion, was nearer in blood to the throne and to the
young King of France, and consequently to the
Regency, than himself, were now beginning, through
Jesuit intrigues, to be of a doubtful and not quite
agreeable character.


In these circumstances, motives of policy dictat-
ing nearer approximation upon a friendly footing
of the two countries to each other, it was expedi-
ent to put aside national traditions and religious
feelings, and to draw closer by new ties the bonds
of a recent treaty of peace, which otherwise might
have started asunder. This political necessity or
expediency seems at last to have pressed more
urgently on the mind of the Regent than even upon
George and his ministers, as it was from the French

314 THE STAIR ANNALS. [1716.

side that the first proposal for a triple alliance be-
tween France, England, and the Dutch provinces
was made.* General Stanhope, in a despatch to
Lord Stair from London, t in March, expressly states
that M. d'Iberville, " who has not thought fit to say
one word himself to any of the king's ministers, has
received orders to authorise M. Duyvenvorde, the
Dutch ambassador here, to offer a defensive alliance
between France, the King, and the States." The
proposal thus made at first indirectly through the
Dutch ambassador, after being brought more direct-
ly before the British ministers, gradually took shape,
when their sentiments as to certain conditions of the
treaty came to be unfolded. J In the end of May,
Secretary Stanhope writes to Lord Stair, that when
the three preliminary points that the Pretender
shall be obliged to go beyond the Alps, that the
Regent shall not permit any of his Majesty's rebel
subjects to continue in or return to France, and
that the canal of Mardyck shall be rendered in-
capable of receiving vessels of war are complied
with, his Majesty is ready to send Lord Stair full
powers to negotiate and conclude a defensive alliance
with France and the States.

* Sevelinges, Memoires Secrets du Cardinal Dubois.

t This despatch is given in the Appendix.

J Stanhope to Stair, April 16, 1716; and other despatches of secre-
tary Stanhope in Appendix. The first notice of the treaty in Lord
Stair's Journal is in an entry of nth March 1716: "By him [Lord
Peterborough] I find the French are for making a treaty to secure
themselves, and for having the performance of the former treaty to
enter into this as conditions. ... If I am mighty complaisant,
I may have the honour of making this treaty; if I happen to be rusty,
it will go into other hands."

May 31, 1716 Stair Papers, vol. v.


In the meantime, however, the Regent had in-
structed the Abb6 Dubois to open a private cor-
respondence with General Stanhope, which resulted
in an arrangement for a conference at the Hague,
and in an agreement to transfer the farther conduct
of the negotiation from Paris to Holland. * In
June, this change of method was communicated by
Secretary Stanhope to Lord Stair ; while in the same
despatch he is assured that the king continues to
place entire confidence in him, although, to prevent
all occasion of jealousy, his Majesty had thought fit to
comply with what was most agreeable to his allies.

After a conference in July at the Hague be-
tween Stanhope and Dubois (who, having no diplo-
matic character, pretended to be engaged buying
pictures and rare books), they met again at Hanover,
and settled the main points of the treaty.

" When this treaty is made," General Stanhope
wrote from the Baths of Pyrmont, whither he had
gone with the king, " and the Regent's behaviour

* The Abbe", who had more of the suaviter in modo than Lord
Stair, using the most conciliatory language in a letter of loth April
to Stanhope, points to a commercial as well as a defensive treaty
between the two countries : " Vous devinez assez que je serai charme*
que mon maitre prit les mesures les plus convenables a son inte"ret ;
que ce fut avec une nation pour laquelle j'ai toujours conserve* de
la partialite et durant le ministere d'un ami aussi estimable et aussi
solide que vous. Au surplus, Milord, outre l'inte"ret de nos deux
maitres, je declare que je serai ravi que vous ne bussiez que du
meilleur vin de France au lieu de vin de Portugal, et moi du cidre
de Gold-pepiti au lieu de notre gros cidre de Normandie." Seve-
linges, Me"moires Secrets, i. 174. It was thus not the fault of the
Abb Dubois that, 150 years before the French commercial treaty of
Messrs Gladstone and Cobden, General Stanhope's countrymen were
not drinking claret and Burgundy instead of port, and the French
cider made from the Golden Pippin apple of England instead of the
coarse cider of Normandy.

316 THE STAIR ANNALS. [1716.

shall have satisfied his Majesty that he is to be
depended upon, I am persuaded the Regent him-
self will not be able to suggest any new arrange-
ment, any other step expedient or necessary for his
particular interest, to which the king will not readily
agree, and which he will not as faithfully make good
when agreed to."

Dubois was perfectly aware that the change of
national policy which found expression in the turn
the negotiations were taking might not be gener-
ally acceptable in France ; and Lord Stair is there-
fore informed in another despatch from Stanhope
that " the Abbe, who doth certainly wish his mas-
ter may comply with what the king requires, hath
advised me to caution you against speaking to any-
body besides the Regent himself; and particularly
he would not have you mention any thing relating to
this business to the Duke of Noailles." t

At an audience the Regent gave Lord Stair about
this time, he expressed himself willing to yield all
that was required as to the works at Mardyck, avoid-
ing as much as possible needless expense in the al-
terations proposed to be made. In his despatch to
Secretary Stanhope relating what passed, J Stair con-
siders " the Regent's reasoning very fair in all its
points, and that what he offers should satisfy us.
4 As for the Pretender,' the Regent said, ' I shall
order all the troops in the neighbourhood to be

* August 3, 1716 Stair Papers, vol. vi.

t The Due de Noailles belonged to that court party in France,
headed by the Marquis de Torcy, called the " old ministry," most of
whom had held office under Louis XIV., and were favourable to the
ancient policy of France and the interest of the Stuarts.

J Stair Papers, vol. v.


ready, that if he make any difficulty to leave Avig-
non they may force him from thence without any
further ceremony.' I told the Regent of prepara-
tions that were making for the Pretender in several
ports of France. He asked where, and I told him
what intelligence I had. He marked the places with
his own hand, and told me he would send to the
Count de Toulouse that minute to have the ships
searched, and to give strict orders to examine nar-
rowly everything that went out. Then he led me
into the discourse that he had had the other day
of people that had served him ill referring to the
Abbe de Tesieu, his former secretary. He made
a reflection upon that occasion how unsafe it was
to trust priests, who had often by-views and another
master, the Pope, they depended upon. He ex-
pressed impatience to have this treaty concluded,
and made great professions that the obstacles which
had fallen in the way of a good understanding with
the king had never arisen from the Regent.
The little king [Louis XV.J has been ill these three
days of a looseness and gripes. The Due de Bour-
bon had a fall the other day, hunting at Chatillon,
and was like to have lost his one eye by a stroke of
his horse's head that has cut a great gash in his eye-

The progress of the treaty towards consummation
is announced to Lord Stair by Mr Methuen, who was
acting as foreign secretary in London during the ab-
sence of Stanhope in Hanover : "His Royal High-
ness [the Prince of Wales] doubts not but that your
Excellency is informed of every thing that passed at
Hanover with the Abbot Dubois, and that you will

318 THE STAIR ANNALS. [1716.

have received directly from thence his Majesty's
orders how to behave yourself during the whole course
of this negotiation. The sum and substance of what
was done at Hanover is that Mr Secretary Stanhope
and the Abbot have settled there between them a
project for a defensive alliance between Great Britain
and France, in which there are some alterations from
that which was at first sent to your Excellency. I
have the original of this project here, and both of
them have signed every article of it excepting that
which relates to Mardyck and is left to be finally
adjusted here." %

Towards the end of the year the " Triple Alliance"
treaty was duly signed by the principal parties ; the
article as to the Pretender being removed from
Avignon beyond the Alps providing that this should
take place immediately after the signing, and before

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Online LibraryJohn Murray GrahamAnnals and correspondence of the viscount and the first and second earls of Stair; (Volume 1) → online text (page 22 of 28)