John Newel Tilden.

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counties of the state, but silver is the leading mine
product. Colorado supplies nearly half of all the
silver mined in the United States.

Denver, the capital, is a great railway center
of the Union Pacific road and its branches and
divisions. This city is the center of the great
mining interests of the state and for the distri-
bution of supplies and manufactured goods of
all kinds.

Pueblo, on the upper Arkansas River, has car shops,
and very large smelting and rolling mills. Leadville, near
the center of the state, is the greatest of the silver-mining
towns, and has extensive smelt ing-works and stamp-mills.

The states of NEVADA, IDAHO, MON-
TANA, and WYOMING, and the territories of

thinly peopled. They have an aggregate area not
much less than that of the North Central States,
but their total population is smaller than that of
the city of Brooklyn. The natural resouroes of
these states and territories have been but little
developed, the centers of population are few, and
manufactured goods are imported from the East.

In Nevada. Virginia Citj. CarBon, Gk>ld Hill, and Reno

are a group of gold- and silver-mining towns on and near the
Comstock lode. These mines are the richest that have been
discovered in the present century. The Central Pacific Rail-
way, touching these points, crosses the California boundary
not far away. Carson is the capital.

Bois^, in the silver regipn of Idaho, is its capital.

Butte, in Montana, first settled as a silver-mining camp.

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is rapidly growing in importance as a result of the discovery
of great deposits of copper and silver. Montana is now the
leading copper-producing state in the Union. Helena, on
the Northern Pacific Railway, surrounded by mines of the
precious metals, is the capital. Smelting-works and refineries
for the treatment of ores are established here.

Cheyenne, the capital of Wyoming, is the greatest live
ccUtU market in America. The town is situated on the
Union Pacific Railway, and is the only shipping and out-
fitting point for the ranchers of a vast region.

Salt Lake City and Ogden, near it, are the only con-
siderable trading centers for the silver-miners and fruit-
growers of Utah. Salt Lake City is the capital.

Tucson, in the southern part of Arizona, has an important
trade in cattle and bullion. Phconiz is the capital.

Santa F^, the capital, Albuquerque, and Las Vegas,
all in New Mexico, deal in silver ore, cattle, and wool.

ALASKA has an area of about half a million square
miles, the greater part of which is within, or adjacent to,
the Arctic Circle. The southern coast has a moderate
climate, owing to the influence of the Japan Current.
The commercial importance of Alaska lies in its fisheries.
Salmon in vast numbers enter the numerous rivers. The
canning of this fish is now a business of great value.
Considerable gold is mined. In the southeastern coast
region are immense forests of spruce and yellow cedar.

The main imports into Alaska are provisions, canning-
materials, and machinery. In 1890 this territory sent to
market 34,000,000 one-pound cans of salmon, from 36
canneries; 100,000 seal pelts from the Pribyloff Islands;
and gold to the value of $1,000,000, nearly all of it from
the Treadwell mine on Douglass Island.

Sitka is the only town of any consequence. Steamers
nm regularly between this place and San Francisco.

Virginia City. — Site of the Comstock Lode

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The BRITISH EMPIRE consists of the Brit-
ish Isles, together with stations, colonies, and
subject countries in all parts of the world.

The British Isles comprise Great Britain, Ire-
land, and numerous adjoining smaller islands.
They are commonly known as the United Kingdom
of Ghreat Britain and Ireland.

Though the British Isles are styled a " king-
dom,*' the government is really carried on by a
congress, the members of which are elected by
the voters of the islands. This congress, called
the House of Commons, makes the laws, and carries
them into effect by an executive committee of its
own choosing. The chairman of this committee,
generally called the "prime minister,'* wields more
influence than the nominal ruler — the king or

The British Parliament consists of the House of Com-
mons and the House of Lords. The House of Lords may
reject a bill passed by the House of Commons, but if the
same bill is again passed by the House of Commons, it
never fails to become a law. The House of Lords cannot
therefore defeat, as can the United States Senate, the will
of the lower House.

The British Isles are northwest of the continent
of Europe, from which they are separated by the
North Sea and the English Channel. Though
situated in the latitude of Labrador, these islands
have a moist, mild, and equable climate, owing to

the influence of the Gulf Stream and the Atlantic
winds. The soil is in parts quite fertile, though in
the main better adapted to pasturage than to til-
lage. The coast is very irregular, being indented
by so many bays and estuaries that no part of the
islands is more than lOO miles distant from the
neighboring seas. The snrface of Great Britain
is uneven, and in some parts mountainous ; that
of Ireland is mainly level. The area of the Brit-
ish Isles is three times as large as that of Ohio ;
the population ten times as great.

The United Kingdom, with its various depend-
encies, is the leading commercial nation of the world.
Its merchant fleets bring raw materials from all
parts of the globe, and carry back in exchange
manufactured goods. Thus, cotton from the
United States, wool from Australasia, and silk from
China are imported into Great Britain, and there
woven into fabrics which are shipped again to
all the countries of the world. Besides this,
British ships are extensively employed in the
carrying trade of other nations. This is especially
true of the United States, more than half of our
imports and exports being carried in British ships.

A very large proportion of British trade is
with our own country. We buy of the United
Kingdom merchandise to the value of about
$175,000,000 yearly. We sell to the same coun-
try goods of more than twice that value. The

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great items of our parchases from this nation are

textile fabrics of all kinds ; iron manufactures,
hides, skins, leather, and leather products; drugs,
tin, and earthenware. The great items of our
return gales are cotton, grain, cattle and leather,
and their various products.

I. GREAT BRITAIN, the larger of the two
principal islands, includes (a) England and Wales,
and (b) Scotland. It is nearly three times as
large as Ireland, and has a population about eight
times as great.

(a) ENGLAND AND WALES cover about half
the area of the United Kingdom. The inhabitants
number 30,cxx),ooo, of whom 20,000,000 are classed
as " urban " or town dwellers. There are 1,000,000
vagrants and paupers. No other country of Europe,
except Belgium, is so densely populated.

The western part is hilly, and includes what are
called the grazing counties, in which wool-growing
is a leading occupation. A smaller area in the
eastern part covers the corn counties, where the
chief farm products are a variety of crops and
vegetables. In recent years, England has come
to depend on foreign countries for most of her

The coast-line is about 1500 miles in extent.
Though the rainfall is abundant, the area of
England is too small to allow of any consider-
able river-basin. There are, however, numerous
streams that are navigable over short distances
for vessels of light draught. Only four rivers —
the Humber and Thames in the east, and the Severn
and Mersey in the west — are important highways
of trade ; and these, in their navigable channels,
are arms of the sea rather than rivers. About
2500 miles of canals, and 14,000 miles of railways,
complete the internal trade routes of the country.

About one-half of English exports are manufac-
tures of cotton and wool. Most of the cotton
goods are made in Lancashire, in the north-
western part, where half a million operatives are
employed in the cotton-mills. Woolen goods are
manufactured in Yorkshire and in Wales.

The establishment and subsequent growth of
these manufactures have been due to the vast
mineral wealth of the kingdom, especially in coal
and iron. The greatest collieries are in southern
Wales, and in the northeastern counties of Dur-
ham and York. The richest iroA mines are those
of Cumberland in the extreme northwest. Com-
paratively little iron is mined in Scotland or
Ireland. England exports its surplus of coal,
but the product of iron is not sufficient for
domestic needs, and iron ores are largely im-
ported from the Spanish port of Bilbao. Manu-
factures of iron and steel rank next in value to
textiles among British exports. Less valuable
mineral products are the salt of Cheshire and
the tin of Cornwall and Devon.

London is situated on both banks of the
Thames River, at the head of ocean navigation.
At high tide the river is here 30 feet deep.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, this
site was at the mouth of the river, or in other
words, at the head of the estuary into which the
Thames flows. In later times the river was
embanked for miles below London, and the
adjoining marshy lands were thus reclaimed.
The city is about 60 miles distant from the
open sea. As a seaport, London includes the
Avhole of the river as far east as Gravesend,
about 20 miles below London Bridge. It is the
capital of the United Kingdom, and the largest
city in the world. It is also the world's greatest
seaport and finaiKial center.

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Six hundred years ago. when the westernmost of the
Hanse '* factories "* or trading-depots was that of London, it
is thought that the place had a population of about 75,000.
Even then, it was the largest town in the island, and it has
ever since been the political and business center. The for-
eign commerce of the port was, however, of no gi*eat value
until the great voyages of discovery led to the founding of the
East India Company, the Virginia Company, and the Hud-
son's Bay Company, all of them established in the seventeenth
century. Hy the year 1800 London had increased in popula-
tion till it was as large as the city of Brooklyn now is.

don controls most of British trade with Baltic and
Mediterranean ports. Tea and other products
from the East, by way of the Suez Canal, and
wool from the Australasian colonies find their
chief market at London, which is also the home
port for most of the West India trade.

The local industries of London are as varied
in character and vast in extent as the great
size of the city would lead us to expect. If

Floating Wharf or Landing Stage. Liverpool

Though Liverpool has in recent years become
a commercial rival of the metropolis, the latter
still leads in the value of foreign trade. The im-
ports of London are greater than the exports, be-
cause the city itself contains more than 4,000,000
consumers, and is, besides, a railway center and
distributing point for the whole kingdom.

A vast coasting fleet hails from this port.
Having no great rival on the eastern coast, Lon-

any occupations deserve special mention, by
reason of the numbers employed in them and
the value of their products, it is to be said that
no other city in the world brews so much malt
liquor or does so great a publishing business.

Liverpool, the second city of England in popu-
lation and commerce, is situated on the river
Mersey, about thc^ennHes 'fronr the* Irish Sea.
It is the most important port on the west coast,

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and is about as large as St. Louis or Boston.
The Mersey is here about a mile wide. The
Liverpool docks and wharves extend for six miles
along the river, while on the opposite bank are
the great docks of Birkenhead. The two cities
are connected by railway under the bed of the
Mersey, and together form one great port.

Liverpool is a city of modern growth. Previ-
ous to the invention of textile machinery and
the cotton-gin, and the consequent spread of
cotton culture in our Southern States, the town
was a small one, though having considerable trade
with the ports of Ireland. The development of
cotton and woolen manufactures in the region
lying back of it has made Liverpool one of the
great trading-ports of the world.

The imports are chiefly raw materials from
the United States, especially cotton, grain, and
animal products. The principal exports are
manufactures of cotton, wool, and iron.

The value of the manufactured exports, which
are widely distributed, is much greater than
that of the crude imports. Liverpool itself is
not a manufacturing city, but sugar is refined
and tobacco manufactured in great quantities at
this port, where they are largely received into
the kingdom.

Manchester is situated on a small tributary of
the Mersey River, about thirty-five miles inland
from Liverpool. With the city of Salford, on the
opposite bank of the Mersey, it forms one com-
munity, nearly as large as the city of Brooklyn.
Manchester is the center of the principal indus-
trial district of England, and is famed throughout
the world for its cotton and woolen goods. Liver-
pool is the port through which the foreign trade
of this district has been carried on.

A canal has been constructed which enables
the largest ocean steamships to come directly to

the Manchester docks. This great engineering
work was begun in 1886, and was opened for
traffic in November, 1893. It is known as the
Manchester Ship Canal It is 26 feet deep, and
120 feet wide across its floor, with numerous
open side-basins or widenings for the accommo-
dation of shipping. For two-thirds of its lengthy
this canal is little else than a new, straight^
and deep channel for the Mersey itself. The
principal docks, with a frontage of more than
four miles, are on the Salford bank. The
canal is entered from the sea at a point about
four miles above Birkenhead, on the Mersey

Other Ports. — On the northeast coast are Newoaatle,
on the Tyne River, and North Shields and South Shields
at its mouth, called, because of their situation, the "Tyne
ports.'' Like Sunderland, at the mouth of the Wear,
ten miles to the south, these places are all outlets for the
product of the rich coal-mining region that lies behind
them. In their harbors the greater part of the iron ship-
building of England is done. Newcastle is about as large
as Newark, and Sunderland as Providence. The other
Tyne ports are much smaller.

HuU, on the Humber estuary, is a city of 200,000 people.
Once chiefly famous as a fishing-port, it has now a busy
continental trade, especially with Hamburg and Bremen,
directly east of Hull across the North Sea. Coal is the
most important export. Hull possesses a magnificent sys-
tem of docks.

On the south coast, at the head of a deep land-locked
inlet, is Southampton. Lying nearer to London than
any other large English port, and being easily reached
from the open ocean, this place is coming into importance
as a terminus for American steamship lines. Portsmouth,.
near by, is the principal home station of the British navy.

Bristol, near the Severn estuary, has a considerable
American trade, particularly in the import of sugar and
tobacco from the West Indies. As a result, great sugar
refineries and tobacco factories are established here. The
city is about as large as Washington.

On the coast of South Wales are the ports of Cardiff
and Swansea, both having a great foreign trade in the
Welsh coal product. Swansea does a vast business in
the smelting of lead, iron, arid copper. The iron ores of

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northern Spain are conveniently received here ; the copper
ores come mainly from Cornwall and Devon, on the other
side of the Bristol Channel.

Interior Towns. — The large, inland factory towns have
all grown up on or near the great coal deposits.

Birmingham, a city about as large as Baltimore, is
famous for its manufactures of metal wares.. These include
brass goods, and all kinds of iron and steel products, from
the heaviest machinery to the smallest hardwares. The
neighboring towns and villages have similar industries,
iron as well as coal being mined near by.

Leeds, the fifth city in population, is the principal seat
of woolen manufacture, and the center of a great trade in
clothing and leather. Sheffield, about the size of San
Francisco, has long been celebrated for its cutlery In the
vicinity are coal and iron mines and grindstone quarries.
Steel rails in great quantities are also made here. Bradford,
a city about as large as Detroit, is the chief seat of worsted
manufacture. Silk velvet is another local product. Notting-
ham, a little larger than Milwaukee, is famed for its cotton
hosiery and machine-made lace. Leicester, about the size
of Omaha, has shoe and lace factories, but is best known
for its woolen hosiery.

Honiton is celebrated for its hand-made lace, "Wilton
and Kidderminster for their carpets, Coventry for bi-
cycles and silk ribbon, Burton-on-Trent for malt liquors,
and Northampton is the largest shoe town in England.

(b) SCOTLAND is about half as large as England
and Wales, and has a population equal to that
of the city of London. The country has three
clearly defined physical areas : —

1. The northern half is a thinly peopled High-
land, having a cold, damp climate, a scanty soil,
and no minerals of value.

2. In the southern part is a hilly Upland of
much smaller area, in which sheep-farming is the
principal rural occupation, while the towns of
the Tweed valley manufacture woolen fabrics
of the best quality.

3. Lying between these regions is a central
Lowland of considerable fertility, and containing
rich deposits of coal and iron. This Lowland

comprises less than one-fifth of the area of
Scotland, but contains more than two-thirds
of the total population.

The great industries of the country are the
manufacturing of textiles, iron shipbuilding, and
the brewing and distilling of liquors. Except in
the Lowland there is little farming area, and
agriculture gives employment to but a small
fraction of the population. Nearly half of the
inhabitants of Scotland live in the towns presently
to be named.

In a great depression of the northern Highland
a series of short canals, connecting the waters
of several lakes, forms a complete water-route
across the country from sea to sea. This Cale-
donian Canal, as it is called, was constructed
early in the present century to enable vessels to
avoid the dangerous voyage around the north of
Scotland, but owing to the great size and draught
of modern ships it is now of little commercial
value. In the Lowland country the Forth and
Clyde Canal connects the rivers for which it is
named. It is probable that this waterway will
eventually be converted into a ship-canal. The
railway mileage of Scotland is only about one-
fourth that of England, and is nearly all in the
more populous southern half.

Olasgow, on the River Clyde, is the largest city
of Scotland, and has the honorable distinction of
being one of the best governed cities in the
world. The population numbers 600,000. It
has, like Liverpool, become a great city only
within the last hundred years, and for some-
what similar reasons. As a port of the west
coast of Great Britain it is favorably situated
to receive raw materials from America. Thus,
before the Revolutionary War broke up the
trade, most of the tobacco from Virginia and

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the Carolinas found a market at this place.
Similarly, raw cotton has been a great import
at Glasgow in the present century. This trade
was interrupted by our Civil War, but what
Glasgow lost from the stoppage of it was more
than made good by the development of her ship-
building industry. For the same war threw most
of our carrying trade into British hands, and
nearly all the, new ships required for it were built

largest steamships now come to the splendid
docks of this port.

The chief manufactures are of cotton goods,
especially muslins, ginghams, and calicoes. In
connection with bleaching and calico-printing are
extensive chemical works. Among woolen fabrics
are curtains, hangings, and all kinds of carpets.
Marine engines, locomotives, and sewing-machines
are turned out in great numbers. Glasgow con-

Herring Port of Wick

on the Clyde. Lying in the heart of the coal
and iron region of Scotland, Glasgow is now
the center of a great cotton-manufacturing dis-
trict, and the iron shipyards here and lower
down on the Clyde are the greatest in the world.
The river from Glasgow to the head of the estuary
was quite shallow at the beginning of this century,
but its channel has been deepened so that the

trols the iron trade of Scotland, though this is
much less important than the same trade in Eng-
land. A large part of the west-coast herring-catch
is marketed here, although Wick, a small town in
the extreme northeast, has been for fifty years the
headquarters for the Scottish herring-fisheries.

Greenock, twenty miles below Glasgow on the
estuary, or Firth of Clyde, is a city about the size

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of Memphis. It is a sort of Idwer port for the
commerce of Glasgow. The chief imports are
iron ores and raw sugar. The great local indus-
tries are iron-smelting, iron shipbuilding, and sugar-
refining. PaiBley, with a population about equal
to that of Greenock, and Kilmarnock, a place half
as large, are other industrial towns in the vicinity
of Glasgow. Paisley is famous for its woolen
goods and cotton thread; Kilmarnock, for its
blankets and fine carpets.

Edinburgh, the ancient capital of Scotland, is
a city about as large as Cleveland, and is situated
near the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
It is an educational and distributing rather than
a manufacturing city, but has long been famous
for its great publishing business, including estab-
lishments for type-founding, engraving, printing,
and book-binding. Liquors, furniture, brass-ware,
and glass are also made here. Leith, a town as
large as Atlanta, adjoins Edinburgh, and is its
port. It is an important center of trade in
grain, timber, and wool from the continent,
and has a busy coasting and fishing fleet.

Dundee, the third city of Scotland, is about as large
as Louisville. It is situated on the Firth of Tay, forty
miles north of Edinburgh. The harbor is commodious,
and has an admirable system of docks, besides great ship-
yards. This port is' the headquarters of the Scotch whale
and hair-seal fisheries.

Dundee has long been known for its manufactures of
flax, and still produces more linen goods than any other
town in Great Britain: but the foremost industry of the
city is the manufacture of jute, a business which has grown
to enormous proportions within the last forty years. The
raw jute comes directly to Dundee from Calcutta, and
Dundee merchants have even established jute-mills in Cal-
cutta itself. Hemp is another coarse textile imported and
manufactured here. Perth, twenty miles above on the Tay,
is a town about as large as Mobile. It has great dye works
and bleaching fields, and manufactures muslins, ginghams,
and imitation India shawls. The Tay is here quite shal-
low, and the foreign trade is consequently small.

Aberdeen, the fourth city of Scotland, is about as large
as Indianapolis. It is situated on the northeast coast, on
a harbor naturally poor, which has been greatly improved
by breakwaters and piers. The industries and commerce
of this port are in a flourishing condition. Woolen cloths
and carpets, linen sheetings, towelings, and canvas, chemi-
cals, machinery of many kinds, and paper and envelopes are
leading products. The largest comb factory in the world
is established in this place. There are busy shipyards in
the harbor, and hundreds of boats from Aberdeen take
part in the herring \fisheries. A fine granite has long been
quarried in the neighboring country districts. The city is
built of thb granite, and the streets are paved with it.

II. IRELAND lies west of Great Britain,
from which it is separated by narrow seas. It
is somewhat larger than Scotland in both area

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