Copyright
John O. (John Oluf) Evjen.

Scandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674; with appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-1640, Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-1620, Some Scandinavians in New York in the eighteenth century, German immigrants in New York, 1630-1674 (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 37)
Online LibraryJohn O. (John Oluf) EvjenScandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674; with appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-1640, Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-1620, Some Scandinavians in New York in the eighteenth century, German immigrants in New York, 1630-1674 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 37)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Gass
Book-



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT



SCANDINAVIAN I [VIM IG RANTS

IN NEW YORK

1630-1674



.\



O V A B K L (i I r A j liw .\ I H I






w



I






N- E l> E U ■ J^v.^' I. A X

lUnrfl van Darh^n. '*^ ♦'"/•«*_ JJ. ^' i*/ «?. M^,.,. ■



-«.-. y






III*




Reduced from



a copy ill tlie Lenox Library, New York City.



Scandinavian Immigrants

IN

NEW YORK

1630—1674 y

WITH APPENDICES ON

SCANDINAVIANS IN MEXICO AND SOUTH AMERICA, 1532— 1640

SCANDINAVIANS IN CANADA. 1619—1620

SOME SCANDINAVIANS IN NEW YORK IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK. 1630—1674

BY

JOHN O. EVJEN, Ph. D.

(LEIPZIG)

PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY IN AUGSBURG [THEOLOGICALJ
SEMINARY, MINNEAPOUS, MINN.



ILLUSTRATED



/



MINNEAPOUS. MINN.

K. C. HOLTER PUBLISHING COMPANY

1916



COPYRIGHT, 1916.



/



^-



MAR 13 (916 ■


Swedish candidates until I had traced him to his original home,
Africa. Promising candidates for my volume were also Emanuel
Pieterszen, Lucas Pieterszen, and the latter's wife, Anna Jans.
But these, too, proved to be of negro stock. Less promising were
the candidates Hans and Hendrick, both without a surname, but
Hans proved to be a Mohawk Indian, and Hendrick a plain Indian.

My field would have been more inviting, if it had been better



viii PREFACE.

cultivated. Judging by a statement made by Professor George
T. Flom, it had hardly seen a plow as late as 1909, when he
published his valuable "A History of Norwegian Immigration to
the United States," which says:

"In the early days of New Netherlands colony, Norwegians
sometimes came across in Dutch ships and settled among the
Dutch. The names of at least two such have been preserved in
the Dutch colonial records." Professor Flom then gives the
names of Claes Carstensen and Hans Hansen. In addition he
refers to Anneke Hendricks and Helletje Hendricks as Norwegian
immigrant women. However, Helletje had the surname Noomian,
not because she was a Norwegian, but because she was married
to Claes Carstensen. But Anneke, the first wife of the ancestor
of the Vanderbilts, was from Norway.

Professor Flom's phrase "at least two," coming, as it does,
from a careful scholar of recognized ability, a graduate of Colum-
bia University (which has derived some of its wealth from a
parcel of the farm of two of the earliest Norwegian immigrants
Roelof Jansen and his wife Anneke Jans), may be taken as an
index of the knowledge which the average public, six years age,
had of the first Norwegian immigrants in New York, of whom
I have registered in the present volume no less than fifty-seven.

Mr. Hjalmar Rued Holand, M. A. (Wisconsin) unknowingly
corroborates my statement regarding the knowledge the public has
of Scandinavian immigration in the seventeenth century. In "De
norske Settlementers Historie" (1909) he gives the names of
twenty persons in early New York, who, in his opinion, were
Scandinavians. Only eight of these, however, prove to be that,
while the total number of Scandinavians treated in the present
work is 187.

"Danske i Amerika" (1908f), published by C. Rasmussen
Publishing Company, Minneapolis, has devoted considerable space
(e. g. pp. 39 — 43, 358 — 384) to Danish immigrants. However, the
sources used are not primary, but secondary at the best. And the
treatment is uncritical. A number of immigrants are mentioned
as Danes, though they belonged to other nationalities. And a great
number of real Danish immigrants have escaped the notice of
"Danske i Amerika," otherwise in many respects a work of which
the Americans of Danish ancestry can be proud.

Less ambitious but far more scholarly than the endeavors in



PREFACE. ix

"Danske i Amerika" are two articles by Mr. Torstein Jahr, in
"Symra" (V., 2, 1909; IX, 1, 1913), a magazine in Norwegian,
published at Decorah, Iowa. They are chiefly based upon the
"Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts" published in Albany, 190^.
Mr. Jahr's articles in "Symra" tell in some forty pages about
the Norwegian immigrants who came to Rensselaerswyck.
He dwells especially on the family of Bratt and of Anneke Jans,
devoting some twenty-five pages to the latter. He makes good
use of the well-known Anneke Jans literature, but offers nothing
new to scholars beyond the claim — and this is important — that An-
neke Jans and her husband Roelof Jansen were Norwegians. Mr. A.
J. F. van Laer, the editor of the "Bowier Manuscripts," had called
attention to the fact that Anneke and her husband did not come
from Holland, as it had been supposed, but from Marstrand, "an
island of the coast of Sweden." It would then appear that they
were Swedes. Mr. Jahr, however, called attention to the fact
that Marstrand was a Norwegian town, founded by the Norwegian
king Haakon Haakonsson about the year 1230, and that it became
a Swedish possession in 1658. And hence Anneke and her husband
were, in all probability, Norwegians.

As for the Swedish immigrants in New York, but little ap-
pears to have been written concerning them, the Swedish settle-
ment on the Delaware having engaged the attention of the more
capable writers on Scandinavian immigration to our country, whose
efforts have been crowned in the elaborate work of Dr. Amandus
Johnson.

Sporadic statements concerning Scandinavian immigrants
have not been wanting in general works on New York (state and
city), but the attention bestowed upon these early pioneers
from Northern Europe is almost insignificant. J. Riker's
"Harlem, Its Origin and Early Annals" (revised edition, 1904)
and J. H. Innes' "New Amsterdam and Its People" (1902),
particularly the latter, belong to the exceptions. They avoid the
common error of making every resident of New Amsterdam or
New Netherland Dutch or English. However, the number of
Scandinavians they mention is very limited, and the treatment ac-
corded them meagre.

The present volume is in the main based on primary sources
The most important of these sources, at least for genealogical data



X PEEFACB.

and personal history, are the Hsts of passengers which the im-
migrant ships of the seventeenth century kept; parish records, or
church registers, kept in New York, Brooklyn, Albany, etc., record?
stating whence the several immigrants came, whom they married,
the date of their marriage, the names of the children, the date of
the baptism of the children, the names of the sponsors; court
records, legislative records, municipal protocols, municipal orders;
deeds; marriage contracts, and general contracts; petitions and
proclamations; wills; private account books, inventories; lists of
soldiers; war dispatches; letters; rent rolls and tax rolls, general
business papers and accounts, etc.

Some of the material is published in Dutch, but most of the
other published material is available, to the general public, only
in English translations. Some of these translations are excellent,
e. g., that of the "Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts." But
many of them are admittedly poor, a fact that the New York
State Library is trying to remedy. It planned some five years
ago (see: Educational Department Bulletin, No. 462, Albany) to
translate and publish the manuscript Dutch records of the govern-
ment of New Netherland 1638 — 74. According to the plan
adopted, three or four volumes of this projected publication should
have appeared by this time. But the Albany Capitol fire of March
29, 1911, did havoc, destroying not only the first volume of the
records but also a copy of the Dutch text and the translations
which Mr. van Laer had prepared.

My aim in writing "Scandinavian Immigrants in New York,
1630 — 1674" has been to present facts, in detail and chronological
order. Wherever I have found it feasible, I have used the words
of published sources. I have given verbatim many excerpts from
the court records. I have quoted at length public and private
documents, in order to illustrate or illumine certain facts, in the
selection of which I have been guided by various considerations,
which it would be useless to enumerate.

My biographies are concerned with the immigrants. The in-
formation they give in regard to the descendants of these immi-
grants is secondary. To trace the descendants beyond the seven-
teenth century would require many volumes of genealogy and per-
sonal history. I have, however, endeavored as much as possible
to give important data bearing on the history of the children born



PREFACE. xi

of Scandinavian parents in New Netherland prior to 1674. But
these children, not being immigrants, of course receive no treat-
ment in special articles, as do the 188 immigrants. They are men-
tioned in connection with their parents.

As to the length of the articles, those treating of the well-
known personages like Hans Hansen from Bergen, Laurens An-
driessen van Buskirk are briefer than those dealing with less
known characters like Dirck Holgersen and Pieter Jansen Noorman.
I am conscious of gaps in these articles, but this is due to the na-
ture of the source material. The historian is concerned with facts,
and it is not his, nor in fact anybody's, business to fill gaps with
fiction.

The articles also vary in the quality of matter. But this, too,
is due to the nature of the sources. Unfortunately such sources
as court records — and I have drawn heavily upon them — are quite
silent about many of the nobler deeds of men, in regard to which
we should like to be fully as well informed as we are concerin'ng
the role these men played in litigations. I have endeavored to
leave no stone unturned in order to obtain all the facts possible
relative to the history of the immigrants, and I have made esthet-
ical considerations entirely secondary to the "micrology" of facts.
For in a pioneer volume like "Scandinavian Immigrants in New
York," which in some degree shifts the emphasis in treating immi-
gration to our country in the seventeenth century, it is necessary
to register even what appears to be pure trivialities. Only those
who are acquainted with the nature of the sources of the early
history of New York can appreciate what it means to trace a deed
to the author of the deed, especially when the author has a number
of namesakes or is known by several dififerent names.

Such a work, packed with details and bristling with names
and dates, does, of course, not claim to be a contribution to belles-
lettres. In some places it resembles the court docket or an ab-
stract of title. Nevertheless it claims to make a distinct contri-
bution to a hitherto almost entirely neglected field in colonial his-
tory. As a reference work it may modestly pave the way for
further research in this field and be of some use to the general
historian.

Of special use it should be to such Americans of Scandina-
vian ancestry as in their school-days were taught a little about



xii PREFACE.

the Swedes on the Delaware, more about the Dutch in New
York, most about the sons and daughters of New England, but
nothing about the Scandinavians, particularly the Danes and Nor-
wegians, along the Hudson. There are many Scandinavian
descendants in the eastern section of the United States who are
mistaken as to the original home of their forebears. It suffices to
mention some of the descendants of the famous Anneke Jans.
There are many in New York who do not know that the Episcopal
Trinity Church, famed in the courts for its great wealth, owes some
of it to an old Norwegian farm. There are many who do not know
that the Bronx of New York was the property of Jonas Bronck.
a Dane, and that the ancestor of the Vanderbilts married a Nor-
wegian woman. No doubt, there is much abuse of the study of
genealogy in our country, and there is much false pride connected
with it. But this should not prevent us from trying to find out
to what extent countries like Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, had
a share in populating the Empire State in early days.

Why the Empire State and not any other states? All the
known Norwegian and Danish immigrants up to 1674 settled in
New York and adjacent territory. They did not go to the New
England states nor to those in the South. And the Swedish immi-
grants settled either in New York or at the Delaware. The only
Scandinavians in "New Sweden" were Swedes, whose history is
already more or less known.

My work is divided into three parts. The first part treats
of the Norwegians. They were numerically inferior (fifty-seven
biographies) to the Danish immigrants. But many of them im-
migrated earlier than the Danes and, on the whole, receive more
attention in the early records. They came from such places as
Fredrikstad, Holme, Langesund, Sande, Flekkero, Hellesund, Sta-
vanger, Bergen, Tonsberg, Selbu, Marstrand, and many other
places in Norway.

The second part of this work treats of the Danes (ninety-seven
biographies), who were numerically as strong as the Swedes and
Norwegians together. They emigrated from places like Copen-
hagen, Roskilde, Ribe, Svendborg, Aalborg, Christianstad, Nord-
strand, Frederikstad (Friedrichstadt), Gliickstadt, Husum, Var-
berg, Dithmarschen, (Oldenburg, Hassing, Helsingor, and several



PREFACE. xiii

other towns or districts of Denmark, which in earlier days in-
cluded Schleswig and Holstein.

The third part is devoted to the Swedes (thirty-four bio-
graphies). At first sight this may seem strange, as there were
fully as many Swedes in America in the seventeenth century as
Danes and Norwegians. But the Swedes had, as has already been
stated, their own settlement. New Sweden, or the present Dela-
ware. They were very little concerned about New York proper,
both before and after the conquest of their settlement by Governor
Stuyvesant, in 1655. The Swedes that are noticed in this volume
are, therefore, with the possible exception of one or two, only such
as came to New Netherland direct from Sweden. The Swedish
immigrants came from Stockholm, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Vester-
as, Vexio, Vintjern, Abo (Finland), etc.

The biographical part is followed by a Retrospect.

I have added four Appendices, one of which, "German Immi-
grants in New York, 1630-1674," may not seem pertinent to the
theme of my book. My reasons for including this Appendix is
given elsewhere. Suffice it here to state, the German New Nether-
landers were the religious allies of the Scandinavian, they were on
par with these in numbers, and they have, like these, been a terra
incognita to historians. A famous work, published as late as 1909,
registers only four Germans who settled in New York before 1674 ;
the present volume gives information concerning 186 of them.

As to the occupation of the early immigrants from Norway,
Denmark, and Sweden, the biographies will show that they were
engaged in various walks of life, representing the farmer, the
miller, the wood-sawyer, the tobacco-planter, the carpenter, the
smith, the mason, the trader, the merchant, the soldier (captain,
sergeant), the mariner (captain, skipper, etc.), the boatbuilder,
the shoemaker, the ganger, the tapster, the brewer, the surgeon,
the fisher, the firewarden, the drayman, the land owner, the council
member, the capitalist, the policeman, the judge, etc. The noble-
man as well as the peasant is represented.

The orthography of proper names has caused some difficulty.
There was much "phonetic" spelling in polyglot New Netherland.



xiv PREFACE.

This highly variable species of spelling makes it difficult, in many
instances, to adhere to iron-rule uniformity. I have retained the
more or less Dutch way (for Dutch was the official language) of
spelling foreign names, sometimes even at the expense of con-
sistency. When we know that one of New York's former archiv-
ists, Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, in his "Documents Relative to the
History of New York" "invariably substituted English equivalents
for Dutch given names" ; and when we notice that reputable
writers on the history of New York spell the Indian word "sea-
wan" in a half dozen different ways, it is, for the present, nigh
hopeless either to attain or to observe uniformity in the orthography
of foreign proper names. I shall specify one instance of "phonetic"
orthography. Jochem Kalder, treated in this volume, has his sur-
name spelled in the records as follows : Kalder, Calder, Calser, Cal-
jer, Calker, Kayker, Kier, Callaer. The various forms may be
due to the misreading of documents in transcribing them, but also
to the niceties of pronunciation, which a scribe, unfamiliar with a
foreign language, would not be able to record on paper. The so-
called "tykke 1" (thick 1) in certain parts of Norway no doubt
puzzled the scribes of New Amsterdam.

The Dutch distinction in terminating patronymics with "sz"
or "sen" for men, and "s" or "se" for women has not been much
observed in this volume, where the termination "sen" has been
used indiscriminately, more in accord with Scandinavian usage.

For my material I am indebted to the Congressional Library,
in Washington; the Pennsylvania State Library, in Harrisburg;
the State Historical Library, St. Paul, Minnesota; University of
Minnesota Library, Minneapolis Public Library; the libraries of
Pennsylvania College and Gettysburg Theological Seminary, Get-
tysburg Pennsylvania. I wish to express my sincere thanks to
the administrators of these libraries ; to Messrs. A. J. F. van Laer
and Mr. Peter Nelson, Archivists of the Manuscripts Section of
the New York State Library; and to Mr. J. H. Innes, author of
"New Amsterdam and Its People."

For permission to use illustrations from specified works on
the history of New York I am grateful to Charles Scribner's
Sons; G. P. Putnam's Sons; Mr. J. A. Holden, N. Y. State
Historian; the Hon. John H. Finley, President of the University
of the State of New York. The New York Public Library has



PREFACE. IV

supplied me with reproductions of certain views of early New
York. Also to this institution my thanks are due.

In offering this volume to the public, it is my hope that those
who peruse its pages may feel a little of the Entdeckerfreude which
I experienced in collecting the data, which have made "Scandi-
navian Immigrants in New York, 1630-1674" possible.

JOHN O. EVJEN.

Minneapolis, 1915.



CONTENTS

Page



INTRODUCTION



PAET I
NOEWEGIAN IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674

Albert Andriessen _ _ 19

Eva Albertse Andriessen „ _ 30

Arent Andriessen „ 33

Laurens Andriessen _ 36

Bernt Bagge _ _ 41

Anuetje Barents _ 42

Jacob Bruyn „ 43

Hans Carelsen _ _ 44

Jan Carelszen _ _ __ _..._ 46

Carsten Carstensen _.. 46

Claes Carstensen __ 51

Claes Claeseu _ _ 54

Frederik Claesen _ _ 54

Harmen Dircksen _ _ 55

Mrs. Harmen Dircksen 55

Jacob Goyversen _ _ „ _ 56

Arent Eldertszen Groen 56

Hans Hansen 56

Anneken Hendricks _ - - 60

Roelof Jansen Haes _ _ - - 61

Herman Hendricksen 64

Direk Holgersen _ 68

Paulus Jansen — 79

Jan Jansen Noorman 80

Jan Janszen _ _ 80

Mrs. Jan Janszen _ _ 80

Pieter Janzen - - 81

Pieter Jansen _ 81

Roelof Jansen 89

Anneke Jans - _ - 91

Fyntie Roelof s Janse _ - 101

Katrina Roelof s Janse _ - — 102

Sara Roelof s Janse 105

Tryn Jonas „._ „_ - ...- 108

Marritje Janse 110

Bartel Larsen _ 115

Andries Laurensen 115

Jan Laurensen 117

Laurens Laurensen 118

Andries Pietersen - 126

Andries Pietersen — 127

Hans Pietersen 128

Laurena Pietersen _ 129



xviii CONTENTS.

Page

Marcus Pietersen — 131

Oule Pouwe^sen - — - — - - - 132

Jan Roeloffsen - - ~ 132

Roeloflf RoeloflFsen - - 133

Cornelius Teunissen - - ~ - 133

Dirck Teunissen 133

Barent Thonissen - 138

Bernt Oswal Noorman - 138

Govert Noorman — 138

Jacob De Noorman - - 138

Roeloff Noorman - - 139

John Wiskhousen - — • 139

Excursus:

Jochem Kalder 140

Mafjdalene Waele 140

Unclassified Names: Martin Bierkaker, O^av Stevensen, Sy-

vert van Bergen, Casper Hugla, Andries Hoppen 143



PART II

DANISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674

Willem Andriaensz 151

Claes Andriessen 152

Laurens Andriessen -.... 152

Pieter Andriessen _ — 156

Claes Claesen Bording _ _ 160

Jan Broersen _ _ - 164

Jonas Bronck - 167.

Pieter Bronck - 181

Peter Bruyn _ 183

Johan Carstenz _ _. 183

Pieter Carstensen 184

Pietersen (Carstensen) 184

Crietgen Christians - 184

Hans .Christiaensen 185

Pieter Hendrieksen Christians ~ 186

Hendrick Cornelissen - 186

Jan Cornelisen -.. 187

Laurens Cornelisszen _ _ - 189

Marritje Cornelis 189

Pau^us Cornelissen _ - 190

Pi ct er Cor n el i s _ 190

Pieter Cornelissen _ 191

Svbrant Cornelissen 191

Ursel Dircks 193

Laurens Duyts - 193

Carsten Jansen Eggert _ 195

Jacob Eldersen _ - 197

Th om a s Fred er i cksen __ 200

Tryntie Harders „ _ 203

Jan Pietersen Haring 203

Laurens Harmens _ 203

Mrs. Laurens Harmens _ - 204



CONTENTS. xix

Page

Marten Harmensen _ _ 204

Bernardus Hassing „ _.„ 204

Heyltje Hassing 205

Johannes Hassing _ 205

Jan Helmszen „ _ _ _.„ _ 205

Fredrick Hendrickseu _ _ _.. 206

Engeltje Jacobs _ 207

Pieter Jacobsen „ „ _... 208

Anneke Jans 208

Giletje Jans _ _ 210

Dorothea Jans _ „ 211

Elsje Jans _ _ „ 212

Engeltje Jans _._ 213

Grietje Jans _ 213

Magdalentje Jans _ 214

Tryntie Jans _ „ 214

Barent Jansen ..._ „ „ „ 216

Dirck Jansen 216

Hans Jansen „ „ 217

Jan Jansen _ _ _ 217

Jan Jansen __ _ 218

Jan Jansen 220

Jeurian Jansen _ _ 221

Laurens Jansen _ _ _ 221

Volckert Jansen _ 221

Pieter Jansen „„ „ __ 225

Jacob Jansz .._ „ _ _ 225

Thomas Jansen _ 225

Teuntje Jeurians 225

Marritje Jeurians _ „ 230

Peter Klaesen „ _ „ „ 231

Mrs. Peter Klaesen _ _ _ „ 231

Pieter Laurenszen Kock 231

.f ochem Pietersen Kuy ter _..._ „ 23 7

.John Larason _ 245

Jan Laurens _ 246

Severyn Laurenszen „ 247

Hendrick Martensen _ „.... 249

Pieter Martensen .._ 251

Christian Nissen _ 251

Claes Petersen _ _ 254

Anneke Pieters _ _ 255

Elsje Pieters „ 255

Marritje Pieters 257

Styntie Pieters 261

Christian Pietersen „„ 262

.Ian Pietersen _ „ 266

.Tan Pietersen _ „ 268

Marritje Pietersen _ ^. 268

Michel Pies _._ 272

Claes Pouwelsen „ 272

.Juriaen Pouwelsen „ 273

.Jonas Ranzow _ 273

Hans Rasmussen 274

Mathys Roelofs _ 274

Jan Pietersen Slot — _ 275

Johan Jansen Slot _._ _ _ 276

Pieter Jansen Slot „ _ 276

Herman Smeeman _ _ 278



XX CONTENTS.

Page

Roelof Swensburg 281

Aeltie Sybrantsen - - - — ■ 282

Pieter Teunis - - 282

Andries Thomasen - — 282

Juriaen Tomassen ~ 282

Tobias Wilbergen 283

Excursus :

Christian Barentsen 284

Unclassified Names: Simon Jansen Asdalen, John Ascou, Jan
Snedingh, Herry Albertse, Hendrick Hendricksen Obe,

Jan Volkarsen Oly 290



PART III
SWEDISH IMMIGRANTS IN NEW YORK, 1630-1674

Andries Andriessen - 297

Andries Barentsen - — 299

Dirck Bensingh - 299

Hage Bruynsen - 300

Jan Cornelissen - — ~ 307

Jan Davidsen - — 307

Evert je Dircx ~ 308



Online LibraryJohn O. (John Oluf) EvjenScandinavian immigrants in New York, 1630-1674; with appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-1640, Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-1620, Some Scandinavians in New York in the eighteenth century, German immigrants in New York, 1630-1674 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 37)