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Digitized by


8iU*. 03fCC . 1 Ids' Round

JUN 8 ' 1900

l^arbarli College libraru

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University Record


APRIL 7, 1890 -MARCH 80, 1900


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VOIi. rV. APRIL 7, 1899— MARCH 80, 1900

Academic Sunday 62

Acceptance of Candidates for Higher Degrees,

43» 60, 65, 74. 109, 121, 258

Alumni i6l, 189, 244, 287, 316, 348

American Students in French Universities 41

An Association of American Universities 353

Angell, J. B., The Old College and the New Univer-
sity 77

An Interesting Gift (a Latin-Spanish Dictionary) 45

Announcements of Examinations for Higher Degrees,
36, 43. 56. 60, 61. 62, 66, 84, 93, 99. lOi, 102, 109,
113. 120, 121, 125, 129, 169, 180, 192, 246, 350, 360

" Autumn Festival " Guests at the University 183

Award of Fellowships ')20

Bemays, A. £., Addresses by 4^

Binding of Books for the Libraries of the University.. . 253
Briefs on Propositions to be considered at 15th meet-
ing of University Congregation, 69; at 1 6th meet-
ing. 133; at 20th meeting 354

Catullus, Codex Romanus of 37

Changes in Announcements of Courses :

Summer Quarter, 1899 73

Autumn Quarter, 1899 130

Spring Quarter, 1900 335, 362

Changes in Spelling recommended by the University

Press 134, 303, 334

Changes in the University Address List 201

Child, C. M., Abstract of Professor Morgan's Lectures 340
Christian Union, Report of for Autumn Quarter, 1899. . 297

Codex Romanus of Catullus 37

College for Teachers, Changes in 334

Report for 1898-9, 49

Free lectures at 195

Comparative Registration, Autumn Quarter, 1898, 1899, 210

Conference of American Universities 257

Conferences of High Schools and Academies affiliated

and cooperating, Autumn Quarter, 1899 213

Consultation Hours, Spring Quarter, 1899 29, 33

Autumn Quarter, 137 ; Winter Quarter 267, 269

Spring Quarter, 1900 •361

Convocation, Changes in connection with 1 333

Convocation Week, the Story of 167, 265

Correspondence Study Conference 105

Councils, The Student 139, 176

Courses in Philosophy 59, 331

In Economics 335

In Zoology 259

Current Events, 10, 26, 30, 56; 61, 74, 135, 163, 194, 201,

211. 248, 255, 259. 271, 351, 356
Cutler, Susan Rhoda 43

Danish-Norwegian Theological Seminary Commence-
ment 52

Death of Miss Belle Harrington 321

of Charies Van Deurzen 360

Democracy and Culture,

Examinations for the degree of Ph.D., Changes in. . . . 334
Executive Bulletin, XII, XIII, 98 ; XIV 201

Faculties, The 164, 193, 247, 291, 319, 346

Federation of Graduate Clubs 270

Fellowship offered by the Association of Collegiate

Alumnae 268, 271

Fellowships, Award of 25, 320

Forging as an Art 176

French Universities, American Students in 41

Free Lectures at the College for Teachers 195

Gift to the University Library from Professor von Hoist 357

Hadley, a. T., Our Standards of Political Morality . . 273

Hale, W. G., The Codex Romanus of Catullus 37

Haskell Lectures for 1899 99, 102, no

Junior College Day. 52

Junior Scholarship in Latin 259

Lectures by Mr. Patrick Geddes 321

By Professor T. H. Morgan 321, 327

By Professor Brooks 327

By M. de R^gnier 358

Michelson, Professor, Honor to 93

Moore, Professor, Honor to 93

Official Actions :

Cooperating Schools accepted, 35* 52, 66, X2X

University Band recognized 35

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OMcial JJoUces 163. 209, 145,258, 267, 293, 335, 355, 359, 364

Division Lectures 138, 139

Graduate-Divinity Debate 20, 56, 350

Graduate Scholarship in Mathematics 320

Junior College Scholarship in Chemistry 8, 321

Senior College Scholarship in Mathematics 320

Official Reports :

The Library, ii, 24, 43, 73, 84, 102, 136, 200, 211,

268,321, 351

Our Standards of Political MoralUy 273

Pedagogical Meetings, the Summer Quarter no

Pedagogy, Courses in 130

Phi BeU Kappa 45, 61, 71, 135, 258, 360

Professor Morgan's Lectures on Regeneration and Ex-
perimental Biology : Abstract by Dr. Child 340

Professor Moulton's Recitals 24, 45, 56

Programme of the 29th Convocation 51, 57

Of the 30th Convocation 1 17, 123, 136

Of the 31st Convocation 192, 255

Of the 32d Convocation 349, 359

Public Appearances of Students, Reorganization of

Methods of 334

Public Lectures. Summer Quarter, 1899 74, 86

Quarterly Statements of the President of the Univer-
sity 13,89,151. 277

Alumni Secretary 155

College for Teachers 18, 155, 279

Department of Biology 152

Elementary and Secondary Schools 155

Financial Statement for the year 1898-9 157

Instructors on Leave of Absence I7, 90, 282

Junior Colleges 280

Library 90, 158

Marshals 13

Needs of the University 14

New Applications 154

New Appointments I7, 90, 154

New Gifts 17, 283

New Members of the Congregation 90

Observation of the total Solar Eclipse of 1900 .... 156

Paris Exposition 282

Pre-medical Work 281

Professor Northrup and the Department of Theol-
ogy 151

Professor von Hoist 152

Promotion 18, 154

Quarter System 279

Rush Medical College 154, 282

Shorey, Daniel L 13

Statistics of Attendance I9i 89, 278

Student Councils 157

Summer Quarter of 1899 18, 156

University Extension Division 18

University t^ress 2S1

University Settlement 153

Van Dyke, Henry 13

Recording work of Graduate Students, changes in

Method of 334

Regulations governing the Free Tuition of Instructors

in Affiliated Institutions 363

Reports of Actions of University Ruling Bodies :

Summer Quarter, 1899 159

October 1899 188

November 1899 241

December 1899 285

January 1900 314

February 1900 343

Roosevelt, Visit of Governor 8

Social Crusade, The 175

Some Recent Actions of University Ruling Bodies .... 333
Some Suggestions in regard to Methods of Teaching

History in University Extension 126

Southern Club 175

Spalding, J. L., The University and the Teacher 141

Student RepresenUtives on the Board of Physical Cul-
ture and Athletics 359

Swedish Theological Seminary Commencement 65

The Autumn Quarter at the Affiliated Institutions,

179, 199, 209

The Autumn Quarter at Morgan Park Academy 210

The Christian Associations 181

The Gurley Collection of Fossils 337

The Imperial German Ambassador at the University. . . 305

The Old College and the New University 77

The November Meteoric Shower 181

University and the Teacher, The 141

University Congregation: Fifteenth Meeting, 118;
Sixteenth Meeting, 171 ; Seventeenth Meeting,
203 ; Eighteenth Meeting, 301 ; Nineteenth Meet-
ing 325

University Elementary School, 8, 19, 30, 34, 46, 51, 53,

58, 62, 94, 113, 122, 130, 163, 327

University Men in the War 205

University Ruling Bodies 1 899-1900 22

University Settlement Meeting 45

Van Dyke, Democracy and Culture i

Vesper Services for the Spring Quarter, 1899 11

Walker Prizes in Natural History 204

Weller, S., The Gurley Collection of Fossils 337

Wergeland, a. M. Some Suggestions in regard to
Methods of Teaching History in University Exten-
sion 126

Zoological Club, Reports from 97, 329

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AMERsiTY Record

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VOL. IV. NO. 1.


APRIL 7. t899.

Bnterad in the pott oflce Chlcafo. lllinolB. u tecond-cUn mattar









Dnmocraer and Cnltare. By Henry van Dyke,

D.D., LL.D. 1-8

Official NotwM 8

Ooreraor Theodore SooMvelt'sV bit ... 8

The UniTorsity Elementary School .... H-10

Cnrrent Eventa lO-ll

Official Report*: Library 11

Veaper Seiriees for the Spring Quarter ... 11

The Calendar 12

Democracy and Culture.^


On such an occasion as this a prudent speaker
will choose a spacious subject. By putting gfoodt
large words into the title of his address he may sug-
gest to the minds of his hearers, through association,
more than he may be able to utter in speech. The
audience, bound by politeness to present the appear-
ance of listening to the inevitable discourse, may
compensate themselves in secret, by letting their
thoughts fly out at the window to follow original and
profitable trains of meditation.

Thus the orator, relying upon the significance of his
subject for eloquence, and upon the intelligence of
the listeners for originality, may move about for a
limited time in an unlimited space, with the confident
assurance that he will not exhaust his topic, and with

*Thc Convocation Address delivered in Connection with the
Twenty-ei«rhth Oonrocation of the University, held in the
Fine Arts BoUdinff, Chicago, April 1, 1880.

the reasonable hope that he may not exhaust his

Of such advantages as these I have not been un-
mindful in setting out to speak to you today of Demoe-
raep and Culture. Theee are important woads —
words of dignity and ooiMideration — too large to be
defined, and too clear to need it

By democracy we mean not a fixed theory of the
state, nor u particular form of government. We mean
a tendency, a spirit, a current of ideas and aspirations.
It is a sense, not of the actual equality of all men as a
fact, but of their potential equality as a hope. It is
the endeavor to realize this hope, not by the concen-
tration of power in the hands of a few, but by the
diffusion of power in the hands of the many. The
removal of those ancient barriers of caste which have
ceased to represent actual differences of character and
intelligence and have come to stand in the way of
general progress : the absolute denial that authority
over one*s fellow-men can be inherited, and the con-
sequent affirmation that it must be earned by merit
and maintained by service : the doctrine that public
offices are public trusts and not private spoils : the
substitution of natural for artificial distinctions : the
belief that the best way to fit men for responsibility
is by conferring rather than by withholding it, and
the effort to prove this faith by widening the bounds
of suffrage as rapidly as may be consistent with public
safety — these, it seems to me, are some of the notes
of true democracy, as we see it working out its salva*
tion with fear and trembling, in our own country,

Now as regards this fear and trembling, let us
acknowledge frankly that they are not without reason,
while at the same time we maint^ that tlkey are
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perfectly coneistent with the most firm and loyal faith.
We believe that democracy is right, that it will triumph
in the end, that the magnificent experiment which ia
now in progress in our countrj^ will result in a splendid
success. But we are not unconscious of certain incon-
veniences which attend the experimental stage ; nor
ought we to be careless of certain dangers which
threaten to delay our national advance, and possibly
to divert it from its true course so widely that we may
be forced into one of those periods of reaction, by
which a nation that has too hastily followed a false
lead, returns upon its course in order to get a fresh

These discomforts and dangers of democracy are of
a very different color from that in which they are
usually painted by the effete European imagination.
The foreigner, setting out upon a voyage of discovery
to the wilds of America, expects to meet Indians on
the Battery and buffaloes in the Bowery. He bids
farewell to his dresS'Suit, and buys a revolver to defend
himself against the cowboys of Chicago and Omaha.
But in point of fact he finds that the security of life
and even of personal dignity, is quite as great here as
it is in Manchester or Marseilles, and considerably
greater than it is in Moscow or Madrid. So far as the
conveniences of living, the general order of society,
the efficiency of law, and the proprieties of human
intercourse are concerned, it is within the bounds of
modesty to say that our country will compare favor-
ably with almost any other in the world.

But just here, in our material prosperity, our rapid
advance in mechanical inventions and the arts of life,
the wide diffusion of what the old divines called
'* creature comforts,** and in the consequent good
humor and self-complacency which prevail among
the different classes of society, lies one of our greatest
perils. We are in danger of making too much of these
things, and imagining that there is something perma-
nent and stable about them. We are inclined to
introduce "I believe in machinery,** as an article of
our creed, and to suppose that an American has only
to present himself before the Judge of the Universe
with a new kind of a sewing-machine, or an improved
telephone, or a rapid-fire gun, to be crowned at once
with glory, and received into the kingdom of heaven.
We are tempted to rely upon our physical prosperity,
our wealth, our industrial advance, as a pledge of
security, and to adopt a policy of letting the more
important things take care of themselvea

Thus it comes to i)ass that a tone of airy carelessness
pervades our political life. Large powers are suffered
to fall into the hands of small and incompetent men.
Our city governments speak with various brogues.

We receive without discrimination, and almost without
thought, the miscellaneous hordes of immigrants who
are poured upon our shores, very much in the spirit
of the man reproved by his wife for mingling cider with
milk and lobster-salad at supper, and who replied,
*' My dear, I have absolute confidence in my digestion.**
The confidence would be more valuable if it were
joined with respect. Our national digestion is power-
ful, but there is a point at which it may break down ;
and it is a serious question whether the signs of politi-
cal and social dyspepsia are not already apparent.

The American idea has immense vigor, but it may
be swamped. A democracy, falling into the hands of
those who do not understand what it means, nor at
heart believe in it, swiftly transforms itself into a tyr-
anny or into an anarchy. Physical force and material
wealth may afford a sufficiently firm basis for a des-
potism, a bureaucracy, an imperial system. But a re-
public must have moral and intellectual foundations.
And these can never be laid in the community save
by first laying them in the individual. A kingdom is
as wise, as strong, as righteous as its king. But a re-
public must measure its wisdom, its strength, its
righteousness by the average man. The cornerstone
of democracy is culture.

This statement you will recognize, at once, as a ven-
erable commonplace. I shall hope to win your atten-
tion for it once more, by trying to particularize a little
in regard to the kind of culture which must be the
safeguard of a democracy.

But, first of all, we must consider certain false
ideals of culture which are peculiarly dangerous in a
new, prosperous, democratic country like the United
States. There are two of these false ideals, and both
of them originate in qualities which are probably good
and certainly unavoidable.

One of these qualities is the strong sense of practi-
cality which is developed in an energetic and free
people by confiict with the forces of nature and by the
excitement of building up a new system of industry
and commerce. The other is the keen desire for indi-
vidual distinction, refinement, singularity, which is
developed by repulsion from the monotony of life at a
dead level of prosperity. The first quality is charac-
teristic of the masses. It is the natural product of an
engrossing struggle for existence. Upon its strength
and substantiality depend the vigor and persistence
of the army of industry. The second quality is char-
acteristic of certain classes. It is the natural fruit of
a disposition which is not content with mere exist-
ence, but craves a particular and personal charm in
life, a marked position in the ranks of being, an un-
folding of personality in some distinctive way^ Upon

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its depth and sincerity depend much of the beauty
and interest of the social world.

But both of these qualities, unbalanced and unre-
strained, have produced false ideals in education. The
one has g^ven us the decorative ideal of culture. The
other has given us the commercial ideal of culture.

I shall speak of the decorative ideal first, because,
strangely enough, it is likely to take precedence in
order of time, and certainly it is preeminent in worth-
leesnees. Barbarous races prefer ornament to decen-
cy or comfort in dress. Alexander von Humboldt
observed that the South American Indians would en-
dure the greatest hardship in the matter of insufficient
clothing rather than go without the luxury of brilliant
paint to decorate their naked bodies. And Herbert
Spencer used this as an illustration of the preference
of the ornamental to the useful in education.

The earliest conception of culture seems to be the
possession of some knowledge or accomplishment
which is singular. The impulse which produces it is
not so much a craving for that which is really fine, as
a repulsion from that which is supposed to be com-
mon. It is a desire to have something in the way of
intellectual or social adornment which shall take the
place of a mantle of peacock's feathers, or a particu-
larly rich and massive nose-ring.

This nose-ring ideal of culture not only rejects, con-
temns and abhors the useful, but it exhibits its abhor-
rence by exalting, commending and cherishing the
useless, chiefiy because it is less likely to be common.
It lays the emphasis of education upon those things
which have little or no relation to practical life. It
speaks a language of its own which the people can-
not understand. It pursues accomplishments whose
chief virtue is that they are comparatively rare, and
puts particular stress upon knowledge which is sup-
posed to bestow a kind of gilding or enamel upon the
mind. This ideal is apt to be especially potent in the
beginning of a democracy, and to produce a crop of
^ young ladies' finishing schools " and '* young gentle-
men's polishing academies " singularly out of propor-
tion to the real needs of the country. In its later
development it brings forth all kinds of educational
curiosities and abortions.

In this second crop of the decorative school of cul-
ture we find those strange phenomena of intellectual
life which are known under the names of Estheticism
and Symbolism and Decadentism and the like. Their
mark is eccentricity. Their aim is the visible separa-
tion of the cultured person from the common herd.
His favorite poet must be one who is cainare to the
vulgar. His chosen philosopher must be able to ex-
press himself with such obscurity that few, if any.

can comprehend him. He must know more than any
one else about the things that are not worth knowing,
and care very passionately for the things that are not
usually considered worth caring about. He must
believe that Homer and Dante and Milton and the
Bible have been very much overrated, and carefully
guard himself, as Oscar Wilde did in the presence of
the Ocean, from giving way to sentiments of vulgar
admiration. His views of history must be based upon
the principle of depreciating familiar heroes and
whitewashing extraordinary villains. He must measure
the worth of literature by its unpopularity, and find
his soul's chief joy in the consciousness that his tastes,
his opinions and his aspirations are unlike those of
common people.

But the favorite sphere of decorative culture is the
realm of Art. For here it finds the way to distinction
easiest and most open. The degradation and torpor,
the spirit of ignorance and blind perversity which fell
upon the arts of design and expression in the middle
of the present century, and which stitl prevail to a
considerable extent among those whom that elegant
English Jeremiah, Mr. Matthew Arnold, used to re-
vile as .the Philistines of England and America, made
it necessary to begin a reform. A band of people who
were very much in earnest (call them pre-Raphaelites,
or men of the new Renaissance, or Impressionists, or
musicians of the future, or what you will), took up the
work, and won, together with a great deal of ridicule, a
large reward of fame. In their wake has followed the
motley throng of esthetes, great and small, learned and
unlearned, male and female and neuter; the people
'who talk about art because they think it is fine ; who
discover unutterable sentiments in beds and tables^
stools and candlesticks ; who go into raptures over a
crooked-necked Madonna after they have looked into
their catalogues and discovered that it was painted
by Botticelli ; and who insist with ecstatic perversity
that the worst of Wagner is better than the best of
Beethoven. It is the veriest simian mimicry of artis-
tic enthusiasm, a thing laughable to gods and men.
True art, — large, generous, sincere, — " the expression
of noble emotions for right causes," — is a noble and
ennobling study. But art as a fashion, with its cant,
its affectation, its blind following of the blind, is a
poor piddling inanity. There is no room for it in a
democracy, — nor indeed anywhere in this world which

Online LibraryJohn Orville TaylorThe farmers' school book → online text (page 1 of 43)