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A DICTIONARY OF ETYMOLOGY



OF THE



EJNTGLISH LANGUAGE':



AAD CP



ENGLISH SYNOSYMES ASD PARONYME?.



BY THE

PvEV. JOHX OSWALD,

MINISTER OF CAMELON ;
i.CTHOR OF "AX ETYMOLOGICAL MANUAL OF THE EXGMSH LANGUAGE,"
" OUTLINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR," &C., &C.



TWELFTH EDITION.



EDINBURGH :
ADAM & CHARLES BLACK ; -

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS, LONEON.
MDCCCLXVL



WOEKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.



The ETYMOLOGICAL PRIMER: PART FIRST

containing the Prefixes, Postfixes, and seTeral hundred

Latin and Greek Roots, of the English Language. 1 'iih

Edition, price Id.
The ETYMOLOGICAL PRIMER: PART SECOND,

or, an Abridgement of the Etymological ManuaL Tenth

Edition^ price 6d.
The ETYMOLOGICAL MANUAL : containing the

Prefixes, Postfixes, and Latin, Greek, and other Roots of

the English Language, adapted to tlae Improved System

of Education. 2od Edition^ y^'xcq \?,.
AN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE, adapted to the JModern Sys-

tem of Tuition. 12th Edit,, 5s,

This work contains copious Tables of the Prefixes, the Postfixes, and all
the Derivative English Words, classified under their respective Roots,
wJth examples illustrating their primary and secondary meaning. In the
Notes, the Teacher will find some useful and important information on
the history and peculiar significations of the more abstruse and technical
words. To the Teacher, then, it must prove a valuable manual; to the
Scholar, a useful text-book ; and to those unacquainted with the leamwJ
languages it will furnish a ready Key to tlie obscurities of their own,

•' We are convinced that this work is calculated to facilitate in an emi-
nent degree the labour both of the teacher and the scholar."

The Quarterly Journal of Education.

** This very laborious compilation deserves to be introduced into eveiT
sf hool where the English language is taught." — Athenceum.

" We have not for a long time met with a book which promised t(; be
more useful." — Scotsman.

" It will be found useful not only to children, but to students of a more
advanced age." — Spectator.

OUTLINES of ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Sixth Edi.

iioHj price 6d.
DICTIONARY OF SYN0NY3IES AND PARO-

NYMES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, price

Is. 6d.



On

PREFACE MA(^/



TO

THE SECOND EDITION.



In complying with the demand for a new Edition of
this Work, the Author has made considerahle im-
provements. He has omitted obsolete words, insert-
ed others, and added an Appendix, containing a
Tabular Keference, and a copious list of Synonymous
and Paronymous terms. The Tabular Reference
will prove a useful help to the teacher, and furnish
the pupil, and those unacquainted with the learned
languages, with an easy key to the Dictionary and
Manual. It may be proper to state, that the words
of the Reference, found in juxtaposition, do not al
ways bear the same or a similar signification, either
with the leading word or with each other. They
point to the roots in the Work itself, under which
some word of kindred meaning with the leading
term is to be found. The table of Synonyms and
Paronyms is a necessary supplement : and affords a

126



IV PREFACE TO THE

ready remembrancer to the writer and teacher in the
business of composition.

The Hebrew and Greek Alphabets are subjoined,
to enable the pupil and the unlearned to read the
words in these characters, and tlius to prepare them
for commencing with gi-eater advantage the study of
these languages.

To the student of languages, a knowledge of the
commutable or convertible letters is of the utmost
importance. They have therefore been carefully as-
certained, and exemplified in the same word in
nineteen or twenty different languages. For an
example of the labials^ the term bear is selected.
In this word, the radical letters b or one of the la-
bials and r, are to be found in the same position in
all the above languages. The other letters, united
with these to form the teiTn, are either euphonic or
accidental according to the genius of the particular
language, but not essential to the signification. So
also of the examples of the Dentals, and Palatkds or
Gutturals.

The Author has now finished a complete series of
Etjmiological V/orks for the use of schools. Their
utility and efficiency have been established by the
successful result of their general introduction into
the most popular seminaries both in Scotland and
England : by the many editions they have gone



SECOND EDITION. V

through in so short a period ; and by the fact of tlieir
being reprinted in America and the East Indies. In
the introduction to the American edition of the Dic-
tionary, Dr Keagy, the Editor, has some remarks on
the object of these works, which the Author has
much pleasure in quoting. " This work," says he,
" will be especially useful to those pupils in our
male and female Seminaries, who do not learn Latin
and Greek ; as they will by its aid be able to ac-
quire, in a simple and philosophical manner, all the
difficult temis of the English language, including
most of the terminology of science. They will be
thus prepared to enter on a course of scientific or
literary studies with much greater advantages than
they would otherwise possess. But it is not only to
the mere English scholar that this book may be
useful, it will also offer great facilities to those who
are going through a course of Latin and Greek, by
shewing them the practical bearing of their studies
on our language." — '' The great English Philologist
Dr J, Jones observes, in his Analogiae Latinae,
* If the custom prevailed in all the schools^ (which
assuredly ought to be the case,) of tracing the Eng-
lish to the Latin language, the utility of this last
would be more generally and permanently felt ; nor
would it be so readily forgotten in manhood, after
the long and fruitless pains that have been taken to



Vi PREFACE.

acquire it in youth/ This book presents tlie means
of tracing these connexions to a greater extent than
any work in our language."

" There is only one objection which we anticipate
against the use of this book fen* phrase-making, viz.
that it does not give the definitions of the derivative
words, except in a few instances of peculiar mean-
ings, or for the exemplification of the primitive word,
and leaves the signification to be discovered by the
scholar, who is furnished with all the elements
which form the term. This, so far from being an
objection, presents an advantage of great value. It
offers an opportunity for more of that exertion of
mind which constitutes active education, than could
possibly be effected by giving the definition : just as
it is better to require a pupil to give the boundaries
of a country from a map, than to learn and merely
recite them by rote from a book. The latter is a
passive business, while the former is active. By the
one he gains ideas ; by the other words enly.'



George Heriot's Hospital,"^
Edinburgh, Nov. 183(i f



PREFACE



TO



THE FIRST EDITION.



The Compiler of the following Work proposed to
himself chiefly to meet the difficulty under which
those unacquainted with the learned languages neces-
sarily labour^ in ascertaining with clearness and pre-
cisioUj the tme and radical signification of words
derived from foreign tongues. In consulting our po-
pular dictionaries, the young and unlettered find them-
selves much embarrassed^ at one time, by numerous
and philosophical definitions given in explanation of
some simple vocable ; at another, by finding a word
defined by another equally difficult to imderstand,
and whichj on being turned up, refers them again to
that, the meaning of wdiich they are in quest of. It
is needless to state that such embaiTassments must
greatly tend to cool the ardor, and repress the aspir-
ing efforts^ of the young mind in the pursuit of
knowledge.

He also conceived that, by presenting the words
of the language arranged according to their genera,
and under their respective o'oots, he would abridge
and facilitate the labours both of teacher and pupil.

The principle on which the work has been con-



VI 11 PREFACE.

struct ed, brings into full operation the pupil's powers
of discrimination and judgment; and while it awakens
Interest, and excites curiosity, he unconsciously ac-
quires those elementary idesis o? vocables , which will
guide him in the proper and legitimate application
of them.

The languages from which by lar the greater pro-
portion of English words now in use originally come,
are Greek and Latin. The Compiler has intention-
ally abstained from introducing words of Saxon ori-
gin. These properly constitute our mother tongue ;
and as they in general express simple ideas, and are
familiar to us from our infancy, it appeared to him
that their admission would have swelled the work
to an inconvenient size. With the exception, there-
fore, of the prefixes and postfixes, they are omitted.
Words borrowed from the French, Spanish, and
modern Italian, being derived chiefly from Latin
roots, — though much altered both in orthography
and inflection, — are in general inserted under the
Latin primitives.

When the usual acceptation of a word differs from
its literal, the peculiarity is generally explained in
the notes, in which the interpretations of Johnson
and Webster are generally adopted ; and in every
word of extensive use, it was judged requisite to
mark the progress of its meaning, and show by what
gradations it has passed from its primitive to its re-
mote and accidental signification. " In most cases,"
says Webster, '* this change consists in a slight de-
flection, or difference of application, which has ob-
tained among different families of the same stock.
In some cases, the literal sense is lost or obscured,



PREFACE. 5X

and the figurative only is retained. The first object,
in such caseSj is to find the primary or literal sense,
from which the various particular applications may
be easily deduced." These nicer shades of the com-
mon meaning, which distinguish the different periods
m the history of language, are discoverable only by a
careful attention to the general scope of the passage.

Many scientific and technical terms, now in use,
have been traced to their source, and defined in their
restricted or appropriate application.

Obsolete words have also been admitted when
they are found in standard works, or when they
possess such a degree of force and beauty, as may
render them deserving of revival.

As the prepositions or prefixes in all languages
constitute an important class of vocables, being used
in composition to vary the sense of other parts of
speech to an unlimited extent, it was deemed useful
to give them a particular consideration. The first
forty pages are occupied in illustrating and aiTang-
ing them according to their respective languages.
Every word, or one of each class in which the pre-
fixes occur, has been given. Another important
ffeniis of vocables are the affixes or terminations.
Accordingly, particular care has been taken, and a
new plan adopted, to determine their precise import.
They have been alphabetically classified and aiTanged
according to the modification of noun, adjective, verh
and adverb. By means of an accurate knowledge of
the prefix and postfix, together with the root, the
primary or radical signification of the word may be
easily ascertained, as well as the elements of the
figurative meaning detected.



X PRErACE,

This method must greatly faciUtate the acquisi-
tion of our vernacular tongue to foreigners, as well
as to our own countrymen, and may in some degree
rescue it from the mischievous influence of sciolists,
and from that overweening spirit of innovation,
which is perpetually disturbing its settled usages,
and filling it with anomalies.

As the plan on which the following Dictionary
is compiled, differs materially from that of every
preceding one, a few explanatory examples may-
be necessary to illustrate its principle, and exhibit
the manner in which it may be used in tuition.
Suppose the word ' attraction should occur, the
pupil may be asked. What is the literal meaning
of the word * attraction' ? He will answer, * a
drawYCig to,' or ^ the act or power of drawYi\<^ to/
From what is it derived ? ' Attract.' — What does
the first syllable or prefix ' at,' of that word signify ?
'To' (See 'at,' page 13.) — Give some other
examples of that prefix ? ' Atiddw, «rtend, ftrtrib-
ute,' &c. — What was its original form ? ' Ad.'
(See 'ad' and its forms, p. 11.) Here the pupil
may be called upon to give the other forms of ' ad,'
viz. — a, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, — with an ex-
ample of each ,• such as, «spire, accede, q/fix, «^gra-
vate, ttZleviate, a^inihilate, «/>pend, arrogate, <7ssimi-
late. — What does the last syllable or postfix ' ion,'
of that word denote ? ' The act of,' or *■ ing.' (See
' ion,' p, .59.) — Give some other example of that
affix havino- the same sigmification ? ' Contribut?o?2,
coWhioii, dissolut/o;?, commot/o??,* &c. (See these
and other examples, p. 59-) — What is the root or
theme of that word ' extraction ? * Tract' — What



PREFACE. XI

does it signify ? ' Draw.' (See ' tr actum* to draw,
p. 567. which refers to ' traho,' p. 568. where the
word ' attraction is to be found. See also note
under ' gravitation/ p. 233.) Here, in alphabet.^
ical order or otherwise, the other words derived from
* tracf may be ehcited. Some such interrogato-
ries as the following may be put by the teacher :
Give a word signifying to d^-aw from ? The
pupil will answer, ' Abs^rac^.' (See * abs,' p. 11.)
— Having power to draw to ? ' Kltract'iYe.' (' at/ as
above, and ' ive/ p. 86.) — To draw together? ^ Con -
tract' (^ con/ p. 14.) — To draw from or down?
' Detract.' (^ de/ p. 18.) — To draw apart or asun.
der^ or to perplex? 'Distract.' (^dis/ p. 21.) —
To draw out? 'Extract.' ('ex/ p. 21.) — That
cannot be drawn or managed ? ' Intractable/ (J in,
p. 26. and 'ble,' p. 79-) — To draio forth, or to
prolong ? ' Vi'otract. {' pro,' p. 32.) — To draw
back ? ' detract,' {' re,' p. 33.) — To draw under or
from ? ' Subtract.' (' sub,' p. 36.) — A mark left by
something j(9as5?w^, or a vestige ? 'Trace,' (p. 570.)
— A beaten path ? ' Track.' — A portion of land,
also a treatise ? ' Tract.' — That may be drawn
out in length? ' TractWe.' (Mle/ p. 85.) — A iraiL
2;?^ _ vehicle, or sledge? ' Trainemi.' — The other
words derived from, or connected with these may
also be asked. The preceding process might, with
advantage, be varied or reversed ; the teacher giving
the word, and requesting the pupil to state its mean-
ing, or the pupil may be called upon to mention
some or all the words derived from that 7^oot.

Interrogated in this manner the pupil would



Xll PREFACE.

soon acquire an accurate knowledge of aj\y ge7nis or
class of vocables.

Suppose^ agaln^ the word ' animate' should occur.
What does that word signify ? ^ To give life.' —
Has it any other meaning ? ' Having life.' — What
part of that word denotes to give ? ' Ate.' {' ate/
p. 95.) — Has the affix ' ate,' when annexed to verbs^
any other meaning ? ' To make.' (p. ^5.) — Give
some examples of that termination having this
signification ? ' Abbrevi«fe, antiquafe_, ivMsivate,
renoYate,' &c. — When ' ate' is subjoined to adjec-
tives, what does it denote ? ' Having' or ' being.'
{'ate,' p. 78.) — Give examples? 'Inanimate, af-
fectionate, adequa^^, ^linate,' &c. — When ' ate' is
affixed to nouns, what does it denote ? ' One icho,'
or ' the person who' (^ ate^ p. 46.) — State some ex-
amples ? ' K^xazate, associafe, potentate, prim^fe,'
&c. — What part of the word ' ani?nate signifies
Ife? ' Anim.' {' anima,' -p. 108.) — State another
example ? ' lria7iijnate.'- — What does *■ maniynate
imply ? ' Not having life.' {' in,' p. 26, and ' ate,'
p. 78.) — Proceeding farther in the investigation,
some such questions as the following may be put.
A living creature? ' Anim^X.' — A little anitnal?
' AnirndXcxAe' (J cle,' p. 56.) — The state of being
lively, orlife? 'Animation.' ('ion,' p. 590 — Men-
tion another word of a similar import ? ' Vitality.'
{' vivo,' p. 620.) — Here the words under ' vivo,'
being of similar meaning, may also be given.
Being out of life, or lifeless"^ ' Exanimate.' (p. 2 1 . &
78.) — To give Ife again ? ' 'Reanimate.' (p. 33. &
95.) — Does the root ' ani?n' bear any other import ?
'Mind.' {'animus,' p. 108 i — Give an example?



PREFx\CE. Xlll

*" AnimsidYevt.' — What does aw/madvert signify?

* To turn the mind to, to criticise.' What part of
that word denotes ' ifo' ? 'Ad.' (p. 11.)— What
part imports ' turn ? ' Vert' {' verto,' p. 602.) —
Here an opportunity is afforded of exercising the
pupil on the derivatives of '' verto.' A strong active
feehng of the mind, or hatred ? ' Animosity.' —
The being of equal mind, or equalness of mind ?
' ISiquanimity/ (^ equus' for *■ sequus/ p. 180, and

* ty/ p. 64.) — The being of great mind, or great-
ness (A mind ? ' Magna?z/mity/ (*" magnus/ p. 292.)
— The being of little mind, or littleness of mind ?
' V\i%\\\anim\iy' {f pusillus/ p. 440.) — The being
of one mind, or oneness of mind ? ' '[]na7iim\iy.'
{' unus/ p. 584.)

One example more may be taken. Suppose the
word 'geography should occur. What is the literal
meaning of that word ? ' A description of the earth
or world.' — Whether is it simple or compound ?
^ Compound.' — Of what is it compounded ? ' Ge, the
earth, (p. 219-) and ' Grapho,' to describe, (p. 230.)
It may be proper to state that the letter ' o/ which
intervenes between the * ge/ and *■ graphy/ is eu-
phonic, and is usually inserted between the two com-
ponent or radical parts, of which words derived from
Greek are compounded. — One who describes the
earth or world ? ' G^ogi-apher.' {' er,' p. 47.) —
Pertaining to geography ? * Geographical.' (' al,'
and ' icalj* p. 72.) — The other words from ' Gc,'
(p. 219.) maybe asked, as well as those derived
from ' Terra,' (p. 552.) being the corresponding term
in Latin, denoting ea7-th. A few also of those de-
rive^, from ' Grapho' may be taken



XIV



PREFACE.



The Accent is the more forcible utterance of a particular
syllable of a word. And on the final letter of that syllable,
the accent is uniformly placed. In the word coUisi'on, for
example, the accent is marked on the terminating letter ' V
of the accented syllable ' /wi,' which is pronounced lizh ;
and the whole word, kol-lizh'-oii.

ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED.



a or ab
a.
ad.
comp.

/.

m.

n.

p.p.

pr.

sup.

Eng.

Fr.

Heb.



stands for



from,
adjective*
adverb,
compound,
feminine,
masculine.

neuter, after Latin, and
noun, after English words.
perfect participle,
preposition,
supine.
English,
French.
Hebrew.



The Figures indicate the Declension and Conjugation.



COMMUTABLE OR INTERCHANGEABLE LETTERS.



These are letters of the same organs : that is, letters
formed by the same parts of the mouth ; and they are com-
monly divided into Labials, Dentals., Palatials or Gutturals.
A knowledge of them is of the utmost importance in the
study of Etymology, as it affords a key to trace the affinity
of words in different languages.

The Labials are—B, F, P, Ph, {<p), V, and W.

Examples in Different Languages.

Eng. iear ; S. iaeran, ^eran ; Goth, fiairan, gaiairan ;
G. /iihren, geiaren ; D. woeren, iaaren ; Sw. iara ; Dan.
icerer; L. /ero, jsario, porto ; Gr. <p5^«, <po^icj ; Fr. porter ;
Sp. & Port, joarir, joortar ; It. joortare ; Ir. iearadh, Aeirim ;
Gael, 5eir ; Russ. beru ; Sans, iharadi ; H. K"\3j, n"»5 ;
Eth. /araya.

Eng. way ; S. waeg, wzg ; G. &, D. weg ; Dan. ve] ; Sw.
vag ; L. via ; It. via ; Port, via ; Fr. voie.

The Dentals are — D, T, Th, S, Z, and C, sibilant.

Examples in Different Languages.

Eng. c/aughier ; Goth. c?auh/ar ; S. rfoh^er ; Scot, rfoch/er ;
D. dogtei ; G. tochter ; Sw. & Dan. dotter ; Gr. S-uyuryi^ ;
Russ. t^och ; Per. o?ochfar, docht ; Sans. c?uhi^r.

Eng. hiothev ; S. hrothev or hrether ; Goth, bro^^ar ; Sw.

& Dan. brother; D. broerfer ; G. hvuder; Sans, brae/er ; Russ.
hrat ; L. fra^er ; Gr. <p^xrno ; Fr. frere ; Sp. frayle, a friar ;
Vort. frade, a friar i It. fra/ello, fra/e ; Pers. boraJar ; Sans,
bliratr ; W. brawc? ; Corn, brer/ar ; Arm. breu;2rr ; Ir. & Gael.
bra^Aair ; Sam. abrai.

Eng. grace ; L. gratia ; Fr. grace ; It. grd;2;ia ; G. gra-
iie; Sp. gracia; Port gT"i9a ; Ir. grasa; Gael, gta.v; W. rharf.



COAIMU TABLE OR^NTEllCHANG E ABLE LETTERS.

The Palatials or Gutturals are — Q, C, hardj Ch, K, and Q.
Examples iti Different Languages.

Eng. ^ross ; Fr. ^ros ; It. grdsso ; Port, ^rosso ; Sp.
^meso, ^TTOsero ; L. crassns. Eng. ^reat ; S. ^eat ; D.
^root ; G. ^oss ; Norm, ^res ; It. ^rosso ; Sp. ^ueso ; Port,
^osso ; Fr. ^ros ; Arm. gxo%(^z.

Eng. car, cart ; W. car ; Ir. carr, carra or cairt ; Arm. garr ;
D. & G. A'arre ; Sw. Ararra ; Dan. ^arre ; Sp. It. & Port,
carro ; L. carrus or currus ; Fi. cAar ; Eng. c/iariot ; S. craet.

Eng. creep ; S. creopan, crypan ; W. crepian, cropian ; D.
Ariuipen; G. ^rieclien ; Sw. ^rypa ; Dan. Arryben, a creeping ;
Ir. (/reapam ; Sp. & Port, ^repdr ; L. repo, serpo ; Gr. 'i^-Tru ;
H. P]n->.

Eng. ea^le ; Fr. ai^le ; Sp. abulia ; Port, a^uia ; It.
djuila ; L. aguila ; (G. adler.) H. Sp)?, to he crooked.

Eng. ^'wit ; Fr. quitter ; It. ^-witare & c/^ita^e ; Sp. &
Port, qtdiax ; D. kw^ien ; G. quitiixen ; Dan. juitterer ; Sw.
guitta ; W. ^'adu, t^adaw ; Ir. cead, leave, cwitighim, to
requite ; Gael, cwidhtich. Eng. cede ; Fr. ceder ; Sp. &
Port, ceddr ; It. cedere ; L. cedo ; Gr. x^'^'^i ix«-^ov.





ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED.


At.


for Arabic


Sam.


for Samaritan


Arm.


— Armoric


Sans.


— Sanscrit


Ch.


— Chaldee


S. or


Sax. - Saxon or Anglo-


Com.


— Ccniish




Saxon


Dan.


— Danish


Scot.


— Scottish


D.


— Dutch or Belgic


Sp.


— Spanish


Eng.


— English


Sw.


— Swedish


Eth.


— Ethiopia


Syi-.


— Syriac


F. or Fr.


— French


W.


— Welsh


G. or Ger.


— German


«.


— adjective


Gael.


— Gaelic


ad.


— ad\erb


Gr.


— Greek


c.


— compoimd.contraction,


Goth.


— Gothic




or common gender


H. or Heb.


— Hebrew


f.


— feminine


Ice.


.— Icelandic


tn.


— masculine


Ir.


— Irish or Hiberno-C cltic


n.


— neuter


It.


— Italian


obs.


— obsolete


L. «• Lat.


— Latin


pp.


— perfect participle


Hers.


— Persic or Persian


pr.


— preposition


Port.


— Portuguese


pron.


— pronoun


Riiss.


— Riiss language, or


mp.


— supine




ftussian


V.


— verb



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Online LibraryJohn OswaldA dictionary of etymology of the English language, and of English synonymes and paronymes → online text (page 1 of 69)