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OWEN'S EXPOSITION



EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS.



AN



EXPOSITION



EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS,



PRELIMINARY EXERCITATIONS,



BY JOHN OWEN, D.D.



ANEW EDITION, IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. II.



Search the Scriptures. — Joliii v. 89.



LONDON :
PRINTED FOR THOMAS TEGG, 73, CHEAPSIDE.

1840.



rHINTi,0 BV J



LONDON .
IIAOOCN, CASTLF. STHEr.T, IINSUURV.



ADVERTISEMENT.



In the Title-page of the original Edition, the Author
' states that in the following Exposition, ' The original
' Text is opened and cleared — ancient and modern trans-
' lations are compared and examined— the design of
' the Apostle, with his reasonings, arguments, and

* testimonies, are unfolded — the faith, customs, sacrifices,

* and other usages of the Judaical Church, are opened
' and declared — the true sense of the Text is vindicated
' from the wrestings of it by Socinians and others—
' and lastly. Practical Observations are deduced and
' improved.'



CONTENTS



PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS,

DRAWN FROM THE EXPOSITION OP THE TEXTS WHICH ARE HANDLED AND
IMPROVED IN THIS VOLUME.



Doctrine.



CHAPTER I.

Verses 1, 2.



Page.



1. Tlie revelation of the will of God, as
to all things which concern his wor-
ship, and our faith and obedience, is
peculiarly and in a way- of eminence,
from the Father, ... 34

2. The authority of God speaking in and
by the penmen of the Scriptures, is the
sole bottom and foundation of our as-
senting to them, and to what is con-
tained in them, with faith divine and su-
pernatural, 37

3. God's gradual revelation of himself,
and of his mind and will unto the
church, was a fruit of infinite wisdom
and care towards his elect, . . ib.

4. We may see hence the absolute per-
fection of the revelation of the will of
God by Christ and his apostles, as to
every end and purpose whatever, for
which God ever did, or ever will in
this world reveal himself, or his mind
and will, 38

5. That the Lord Jesus Christ, who is
the great prophet of his church, under
the New Testament, the only revealer
of the will of the Father, as the Son
and Wisdom of God, made the worlds,
and all things contained in them, . 71

Verse 3.

1. Our Lord Jesus Christ, as the Son of
God, hath the weight of the whole cre-
ation upon his hand, and disposeth of

of it by his power and wisdom, . 95

2. ^uch is the nature and condition of the
universe, that it could not subsist a mo-
ment, nor could any thing in it act re-
gularly unto its appointed end, without
the continual support, guidance, influ-
ence, and disposal of the Son of God, ib.

3. So great was the work of freeing us
from sin, that it could no otherwise be
effected but by the sacrifice of the Son

of God himself, . . . . 101

4. That there is nothing more vain, fool-
ish, and fruitless, than the opposition
which Satan and his agents yet make
unto the Lord Christ and his kingdom, 109



Doctrine. Page.

5. That the service of the Lord Chirst is
both safe and honourable, . . ib.

6. Great is the spiritual and eternal secu-
rity of them that truly believe in Christ, ib.

Verse 4.
1. All preeminence and exaltation of one
above others, depends on the supreme

:1 and will of God, . .116



131



Verse 5.

1. Every thing in Scripture is instruc-
tive, . .

2. It is lawful to draw consequences from
the assertions of Scripture, and_ such
consequences, rightly deduced, are in-
fallibly true, and de fide,

3. The declaration of Christ to be the Son
of God, is the care and work of the
Father, .....

Verse 6.

1. That the authority of God speaking in
the Scripture, is that alone which di-
vine faith rests upon, and is to be re-
solved into, ....

2. That for the begetting, increasing, and
strengthening of 'faith, it is useful to
have important fundamental truths con-
firmed by many testimonies of Scrip-
ture, . . • . .

3. The whole creation of God hath a
great concern in God's bringing forth
Christ into the world, and in his ex-
altation in his kingdom,

4. The command of God is the ground
and reason of all religious worship,

5. That the Mediator of the new cove-
nant is in his own person God blessed
for ever, to whom divine or religious
worship is due from the angels them-
selves, .....

6. The Father, upon the account of the
work of Christ in the world, and his
kingdom that ensued on it, gives a new
commandment unto the angels to wor-
ship him, his glory being greatly con-
cerned therein, . . . •

7. Great is the church's security and
honour, when the Head of it is wor-



132



CONTENTS.



DoCTRiNF, Page.

shipped by all the angels in heaven, 151

8. It can be no duty of the saints of the
New Testament to worship angels,
■who are their fellow-servants in the
worship of Jesus Christ, . . ib.

Verse 7,

1. Our conceptions of the angels, their
nature, office, and work, is to be regu-
lated by the Scripture, . . 155

2. That the glory, honour, and exaltation
of the angels, lies in their subserviency

to the providence of God, . . 156

Verses 8, 9.

1. The conferring and comparing of Scrip-
tures, is an excellent means of coming
to an acquaintance with the mind and
will of God in them, . . . 166

2. It is the duty of all believers to rejoice
in the glory, honour, and dominion of
Jesus Christ, .... 168

3. It is the divine nature of the Lord
Christ, that gives eternity, stability,
and unchangeableness to his throne
and kingdom : — ' Thy throne, O God,

is for ever,' .... 170

4. All the laws, and the whole adminis-
tration of the kingdom of Christ by his
Word and Spirit, are all equal, righ-
teous, and holy: — 'His sceptre is a
sceptre of righteousness,' . . ib.

5. The righteous administrations of the
Lord Christ in his government, pro-
ceed all from his own habitual righ-
teousness and love thereunto, . 173

6. God is a God in especial covenant with
the Lord Christ, as he is the Mediator :

— ' God thy God,' . . . ib.

7. The collation of the Spirit on the Lord
Christ, and his glorious exaltation, are
the peculiar works of God the Father :

— ' God thy God hath anointed thee,' ib.

8. The Lord Jesus Christ is singular in
this unction, . . . . ib.

9. All that serve God in the work of
building the church, according to his
appointment, are anointed by his Spi-
rit, and shall be rewarded by his power,
Dan. xii, 3, . , . .174

10. The disciples of Christ, especially
those who serve him in his church faith-
fully, arc his companions iu all his
grace and glory, . . . . ib.

Verses 10—12.

1. All the properties of God considered
in the person of his Son, the Head of
the church, are suited to give relief,
consolation, and support unto believers
in all their distresses, . . .188

(1.) The properties of God are those
whereby God makes known himself to
us, ih.

(2.) God oftentimes declares and pro-



DOCTRINE. Pac;E.

poseth these properties of his nature
to us for our support, consolation, and
relief in our troubles, kc. . . 188

(3.) That since the entrance of sin, these
properties of God, absolutely consi-
dered, will not yield that relief and sa-
tisfaction unto the souls of men, which
they would have done, and did, whilst
man continued obedient unto God, ac-
cording to the law of his creation, . ib.

(4.) These properties of the divine nature
are in every person of the Trinity en-
tirely, ib.

(5.) The "person of the Word, or the
eternal Son of God, may be considered
either absolutely as such, or as designed
in the counsel, wisdom, and will of the
Father, . . . . . ib.

2. The whole old creation, even the most
glorious parts of it, hastening to its pe-
riod, at least of our present interest in it,
and use of it, calls upon us not to fix
our hearts on the small perishing shares
which we have therein, especially since
we have him who is omnipotent and
eternal for our inheritance, . . 189

3. The Lord Christ, the JMediator, the
Head and Spouse of the church, is in-
finitely exalted above all creatures
whatever, in that he is God over all,
omnipotent and eternal, . . 190

4. The whole world, the heavens and
earth, being made by the Lord Christ,
and being to be dissolved by him, is
wholly at his disposal, to be ordered

for the good of them that do believe, ib.

5. There is no just cause of fear unto
believers from any thing in heaven or
earth, seeing they are all of the making,
and at the disposal of Jesus Christ, ib.

6. Whatever our changes may be, inward
or outward, yet Christ changing not,
our eternal condition is secured, and
relief provided against all present trou-
bles and miseries,. . . . ib.

7. Such is the frailty of the nature of
man, and such the perishing nature of
all created things, that none 'can ever
obtain the least stable consolation, but
what ariseth from an interest in the
omnipotency, sovereignty, and eternity

of the Lord Christ, . . . ib.

Verse 13.

1. The authority of God the Father in
the exaltation of Jesus Christ as the
Head and IVIediator of the church, is
greatly to be regarded by believers, 207

2. The exaltation of Christ, is the great
pledge of the acceptance of the work
of mediation performed in the behalf

of the church, .... ib.

3. ("hrist hath many enemies to his king-
dom, ib.

4. The kingdom and rule of Christ is per-



CONTENTS.



Doctrine. Page.

petual and abiding, notwithstanding
all the opposition that is made against
it, ib.

5. The end whereunto the Lord Jesus
Christ will assuredly bring all his ene-
mies,let them bluster whilst they please,
shall be unto them miserable and
shameful, to the saints joyful, to him-
self victorious and triumphant, . ib.

Verse 14.

1 . The highest honour of the most glo-
rious spirits in heaven, is to minister
unto the Lord in the service where-
unto he appoints them, . . 215

2. Unto what ends and purposes doth
God make use of the ministry of an-
gels, for the good of them that do be-
lieve, 220

3. The Socratical fancy of one single
guardian angel attending every one ;
as it is, if admitted, a Teal impeach-
ment of the consolation of believers,
so a great inducement unto superstition
and idolatry, . . . .226

4. Believers obtain heaven by inheritance
and free gift of their Father, and not

by any merit of their own, . . ib.

CHAPTER n.
Verse 1.

1. Diligent attendance unto the word of
the gospel, is indispensably necessary
unto perseverance in the profession of

it, . . . . . .233

2. There are sundry times and seasons
wherein, and several ways and means

. whereby men are in danger to lose the
word that they have heard, if they at-
tend not diligently unto its preserva-
tion, 236

3. The word heard is not lost without
the great sin, as well as the inevitable
ruin of the souls of men, . . 237

4. It is the nature of the word of the gos-
pel, to water barren hearts, and to
make them fruitful unto God, . ib.

5. The consideration of the revelation of
the gospel by the Son of God, is a
powerful motive unto diligent atten-
dance unto it, ... 238

6. The true and only way of honouring
the Lord Christ as the Son of God is
by diligent attendance and obedience
unto his word, . . . .239

Verses 2 — 4.

1. Motives unto a due valuation of the
gospel, and perseverance in the pro-
fession of it, taken from the penalties
annexed unto the neglect of it, are
evangelical, and of singular use in

the preaching of the word, . 250

2. All punishments annexed unto the



DocTRiKE. Page.

transgression either of the law or gos-
pel, are effects of God's vindictive jus-
tice, and consequently just and equal, 254

3. Every concern of the law and gospel,
both as to their nature and promulga-
tion, is to be weighed and considered
by believers, to beget in their hearts

a right and due valuation of them, 257

4. What means soever God is pleased to
use in the revelation of his will, he
gives it a certainty, steadfastness, as-
surance, and evidence which our faith
may rest in, and which cannot be ne-
glected without the greatest sin, . 259

5. Every transaction between God and
man, is always considered and ratified
by promises and threatenings, rewards
and punishments, 'every trespass,' 261

6. The most glorious administrators of
the law, do stoop to look into the mys-
teries of the gospel, , , . ib.

7. Covenant transgressions are attended
with unavoidable penalties, . . ib.

8. The Gospel is a word of salvation to
them that do believe, . . . ib.

9. The salvation tendered in the gospel,

is great salvation, . . , ib.

10. Men are apt to entertain thoughts of
escaping the wrath of God, though
they live in a neglect of the gospel, ib.

1 1. The neglecters of the gospel shall un-
avoidably perish under the wrath of
God, ib.

Verse 5.

I. This is the great privilege of the church
of the gospel, that in the things of the
worship of God, it is made subject
unto, and immediately depends upon
the Lord Jesus Christ, and not any
other, angels or men, . . . 290

1. That the Lord Christ is our head, ib.

2. That he is our only head, . « 291

Verses 6 — 9.

I. The consideration of the infinitely glo-
rious excellencies of the nature of God,
manifesting themselves in his works,
doth greatly set out his condescension
and grace, in his regard and respect
to mankind, .... 302

1. The respect, care, love, and grace of
Gcd unto mankind, expressed in the
person and mediation of Jesus Christ,
is a matter of singular and eternal ad-
miration, ..... 323

2. That such was the inconceivable love
of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, unto
the souls of men, that he was free and
willing to condescend unto any condi-
tion for their good and salvation, . 326

3. The blessed issue of the abasement of
Jesus Christ, in his exaltation unto ho-
nour and glory, is an assured pledge of
the final glory and blessedness of all



CONTENTS.



ib.



Doctrine. Page.

that believe in him, whatever difficul-
ties and dangers they may be exercised
withal in the way, • • • 329

4. Jesus Christ, as the Mediator of the
new covenant, hath absolute and su-
preme authority given unto him, over
all the works of God in heaven and
earth, J''-

5. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only
Lord of the gospel state of the church,
called under the Old Testament the
world to come, . • • '"•

6. The Lord Jesus Christ in his death
did undergo the penal sentence of the
law, in the room and stead of them for
whom he died, ....

Verse 10.



1. That the whole work of saving the
sons of God from first to last, their
guidance and conduct through sins and
sufferings unto glory, is committed unto

the Lord Jesus," . . ' .340

2. That the Lord Jesus Christ being priest,
sacrifice, and altar himself, the offering
whereby he was consecrated unto the
perfection and complement of his office,
was of necessity to be part of that
work which, as our priest and media-
tor, he was to undergo and perform, 350

3. The Lord Christ being consecrated
and perfected through sufferings, hath
consecrated the way of sufferings, for
all that follow him to pass through unto
glory, ib.

4. Such is the desert of sin,- and such is
the immutability of the justice of God,
that there was no way possible to bring
sinners unto glory, but by the death
and sufferings of the Son of God, who
undertook to be the captain of their
salvation, 354

Verses 11—13.

1 . That all the children which are to be
brought unto glory antecedently unto
their relation unto tlie Lord Christ, are
polluted, defiled, separate from God, 365

2. That the Lord Christ is the great sanc-



tifier of the Church. He as tlie Cap-
tain of salvation, sanctifies every son
whom he brings to glory,

3. The agreement of Christ and the elect
in one common nature, is the founda.
tion of his fitness to be an undertaker
on their behalf, and of the ecjuity of
of their being made partakers of the
benefits of his mediation,

4. That notwithstanding the union of na-
ture, which is between the Son of God
incarnate, the sanctifier, and the chil-
dren that are to be sanctified, there is
in respect of their persons an incon-
ceivable distance between them, so
that it is a marvellous condesccnt^ion



366



377



ib.



b.



UocTRiKE. Page.

in him to call them brethren, . 372

5. That which was principally upon the
heart of Christ in his sufferings, was to
declare and manifest the love, grace,
and good will of God unto men, that
they might come to an acquaintance
with him, and acceptance before him,

6. That the Lord Christ, as the Captain
of our salvation, was exposed in the
days of his flesh unto great difficulties,
anxieties of mind, dangers, and trou-
bles,

7. The Lord Christ in all his perplex-
ities and troubles, betook himself unto
the protection of God, trusting in hira,

8. He both suffered and trusted as our
head and precedent.

Verses 14, 15.

I. That all sinners are subject unto death,

as it is penal. .... 390

'^. Fear of death as it is penal is insepa-
rable from sin, befoi*e the sinner is deli-
vered by the death of Christ, . 391

3. Fear of death as penal, renders the
minds of men obnoxious unto bondage, 392

4. That the Lord Christ out of his inex-
pressible love, willingly submitted him-
self unto every condition of the chil-
dren to be saved by him, and to every
condition of them, sin only excepted, 393

5. It was only in flesh and blood, the sub-
stance and essence of human nature,
and not in our personal infirmities,
that the Lord Christ was made like
unto us, 394

6. That the Son of God should take part
in human nature with the children, is
the greatest and most admirable effect

of divine love, wisdom, and gi'ace, . 395

7. That the first and principal end of the
Lord Christ's assuming human nature,
was not to reign in it, but to suffer
and die in it, . . • .

8. All the power of Satan in the world
over any of the sons of men, is founded
in sin, and the guilt of death attending
it,

9. All sinners out of Christ, are under
the power of Satan,

10. The death of Christ, through the wise
and righteous disposal of God, is victo-
rious, all-conquering, and prevalent,

II. One principal end of the death of
Christ was to destroy the power of Sa-
tan 401

Verse 16.

1. The Lord .Icsus Christ is truly God
and man in one person, , . 408

2. The redemption of mankind by the
taking of our nature, was a work of
mere sovereign grace, . . . 409

Verses 17, 18.
-I The promiocd Messiah was lo be tlic



96



ib.



400



CONTENTS.



Doctrine. Page.

great high priest of the people of God, 418

2. The assumption of our nature, and his
dnformity unto us therein, was princi-
pally necessary unto the Lord Jesus,
on the account of his being a high
priest for us, . . . .419

3. Such was the unspeakable love of
Christ unto the brethren, that he would
refuse nothing, no condition that was
needful to fit him for the dscharge of
the work which he had undertaken for
them, ...... ib.

1. The principal work of the Lord Christ
as our high priest, and from which all
other actings of his in that office do
flow, was to make reconciliation or
atonement for sin, . . . 427

2. The Lord Christ suffered under all his
temptations, sinned in none, . 429

3. Temptations cast souls into danger, 431

4. The great duty of tempted souls, is to
cry out unto the Lord Christ for help
and relief, . . . . . ib.

CHAPTER III.
Verses 1, 2.

1. All the doctrines of the gospel, espe-
cially those concerning the person and
offices of Christ, are to be improved
unto practice in faith and obedience, 435

2. Dispensers of the gospel ought to use
holy prudence in winning upon the
minds and affections of those whom
they are to instruct, . . . 439

3. Believers are all related unto one an-
other, in the nearest and strictest bond

of an equal relation, . . . 440

4. All true and real professors of the gos-
pel are sanctified by the Holy Ghost,
and made truly and really holy, . 441

5. No man comes to a useful saving know-
ledge of Jesus Christ in the gospel, but
by virtue of an effectual heavenly
calling, ib,

6. The effectual heavenly vocation of be-
lievers is their great privilege, wherein
they have cause to rejoice, and which
always ought to mind them of their
duty unto him that hath called them, ib.

7. The spiritual mysteries of the gospel,
especially those which concern the per-
son and offices of Christ, require deep,
diligent, and attentive consideration, 443

8. The business of God with sinners,
could be no way transacted but by the
negociation and embassy of the Son, 447

9. Especial privileges will not advantage
men, without especial grace, . 452

10. The Lord Christ is all in all in and
unto his church, the king, priest, and
apostle, or prophet of it, all in one, ib.

11. A diligent attentive consideration of
the persons, offices, and work of Jesus
Christ, is the most effectual means to



Doctrine. Page.

free the souls of men fi-om all entan-
glements of errors and darkness, and
to keep them constant in the profession
of the truth, .... 459

12. The union of believers lies in their
joint profession of faith in the person
and offices of Christ upon a participa-
tion in the same heavenly calling, 468

13. The ordering of all things in the
church, depends on the sovereign ap-
pointment of the Father, . . ib.

14. The faithfulness of the Lord Christ
in the discharge of the trust committed
unto him, is the great ground of faith
and assurance unto believers, in the
worship of the gospel, . . ib.

15. All things concerning the worship of
God in the whole church or house now
under the gospel, are no less completely
and perfectly ordered and ordained by
the l^ord Jesus Christ, than they were

by Moses under the law, . ib.

Verses 3—6.

1. Every one who is employed in the
service of God in his house, and is
faithful in the discharge of his work
and trust therein, is worthy of honour :

so was Moses, .... 476

2. That the Lord Christ is worthy of all
glory and honour upon the account of
his thus building his church, the house

of God, 485

3. The honour and glory of all that ever
were, or all that ever shall be employ-
ed in the work and service of the house
of God, jointly and severarlly consider-
ed, is inferior, subordinate, and sub-
servient to the glory and honour of
Jesus Christ, the chief builder of the
house, 492

4. The building of the church is so great
and glorious a work, as that it could
not be effected by any, but by him
who is God, .... 501

5. The greatest and most honourable of
the sons of men, that are employed in
the work of God in his house, ai*e but
servants and parts of the house itself, 502

6. The great end of all Mosaic institu-
tions, was to present, or prefigure, and
give testimony unto the grace of the
gospel by Jesus Christ, . . 504

7. It is an eminent privilege to be of the
house of Christ, or a part of that house,

' whose house we are,' . . . ib.

8. The greatness of this privilege requires

an answerableness of duty, . . 505

9. In times of trial and persecution, free-
dom, boldness, and constancy in pro-
fession, are a good evidence unto our-
selves tliat we are living stones in the
house of God, and are duties accepta-
ble unto him, .... 506

i 10. Interest in the gospel, gives sufficient



xl



CONTENTS.



DocTRiNK. Pace.

cause of confidence and rejoicing in
every condition, . . . 507

11. So many and great are the interve-
niences and temptations that lie in the
way of profession, so great is the num-
ber of them that decay in 'it, or apos-
tatize from it, that as unto the glory of
God, and the principal discovery of its
truth and sincerity, it is to be taken
from its permanency unto the end, ib,

.Vf.nsEsT— 11.

1. No divine truth ought, in its delivery,
to be passed by, without manifesting its
use, and endeavouring its improvement
unto holiness and obedience, . 525

2. In times of temptations and ti'ials, ar-
guments and exhortations unto watch-
fulness against sin, and constancy in
obedience, are to be multiplied in num-
ber, and pressed with wisdom, earnest-
ness, and diligence, . . . ih.

3. Exhortations unto duty ought to be
built on a stable foundation, and to be
resolved into an authority, which may
influence the consciences of them to
whom they do belong, . . 527

4. What was given by inspiration from



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