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now it is subjected, Rom. viii. 19-21. So that if we are movetl with
the glory of God, the honour of Jesus Christ, our own only and
eternal interest, with the advantage -of the whole creation, we have
cause to rejoice in this throne and kingdom of the Son.

III. It is the divine nature of the Lord Christ that gives eter-
nity, stability, and unchangeableness to his throne and kingdom:
*' Thy throne, God, is for ever.'' Concerning this, see what hath
fornierly been delivered about the kingdom of Christ.

IV. All the laws-, and the whole administration of the kingdom
of Christ by his word and Spirit, are equal, righteous, and hol}^
His sceptre is a sceptre of righteousness. The world, indeed, likes
them not; all things in his rule seem unto it weak, absurd, and
foolish, 1 Cor. i. 20, 21. But they are otherwise, the Holy Ghost
being judge, and such they appear unto them that do believe: yea,
whatever is requisite to make laws and administrations righteous, it
doth all concur in those of the Lord Jesus Christ ; as, —

1. Authority. A just and full authority for enacting is requisite
to make laws righteous. Without this, rules and precepts may be
good 'materially, but they cannot have \he formality of law, which
depends on the just authority of the legislator, without which no-
thing can become a righteous law. Now, the Lord Christ is vested
with sufficient authority for the enacting of laws and rules of arlmi-
nistration in his kingdom. All authority, all power in heaven and
earth, is committed unto him, as we have before proved at large.
And hence those that will not see the equity of his rule shall be
forced at last to bow under the excellency of his authority. And it
were to be wished that those who undertake to make laws and con-
stitutions in the kingdom of Christ would look well to their warrant;
for it seems that the Lord Christ, unto whom all power is committed,
hath not delegated any to the sons of men, but only that whereby
they may teach others to do and observe what he hath command-
ed. Matt, xxviii. 20. If, moreover, they shall command or appoint
aught of their own, they may do well to consider by what authority
they do so, seeing that is of indispensable necessity unto the righte-
ousness of any law whatever.

2. Wisdom is required to the making of righteous laws. This is
the eye of authority, without which it can act nothing rightly or
equally. Effects of power without wisdom are commonly unjust and
tyrannical, always useless and burdensome. The wisdom of Jaw-
makers is that which hath principally given them their renown. So
Moses tells the Israelites that all nations would admire them, when
they perceived the wisdom of their laws, Deut. iv. Now, the
Lord Christ is abundantly furnished with wisdom for this purpose.
He is the foundation-stone of the church, that hath seven eyes upon

VOL. XII. — 13



192 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. J.

hiin, Zech. iii. 9, — a perfection of wisdom and understanding in all
affairs of it, — being anointed witli the Spirit unto that purpose, Isa.
xi. 2-5. Yea, " in him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and
knowledge," Col. ii. S; it having "pleased the Father that in him
all fulness should dwell," Col. i. 19. So that there can be no defect
in his laws and administrations on this account. He is wise of heart,
and knows perfectly what rules and actings are suited to the glory of
God and the condition of the subjects of his kingdom, and what tend-
eth to their spiritual and eternal advantage. He knows how to order
all thinsfs unto the great end which in his sfovernment he ainieth at.
And thence do all his laws and administrations become righteous.
And this also well deserves their consideration who take upon them
to appoint laws and rules within his dominion, unto his subjects, for
the ends of his rule and substance of his worship. Have they wis-
dom sufficient to enable them so to do? doth the Spirit of the Lord
Christ rest upon them, to make them of quick understanding in the
fear of the Lord ? are they acquainted with the state and condition, the
weakness, temptations, graces, of all the people of Ciirist? If they
are not, how know they but that they may command and appoint
them things greatly to their disadvantage, when they think to profit
them? It seems a great self-assuming, for men to suppose them-
selves wise enough to give laws to the subjects of Christ in things
directly appertaining to his kingdom.

'S. They are righteous, because they are easT/, gentle, and not
burdensome. The righteousness and uprightness here mentioned
doth not denote strict, rigid, severe justice, extending itself unto the
utmost of what can be required of the subjects to be ruled ; but equity
mixed with gentleness, tenderness, and condescension; which if it be
absent from laws, and they breathe nothing but severity, rigour, and
arbitrary impositions, though they may not be absolutely unjust, yet
they are grievous and burdensome. Thus Peter calls the law of com-
mandments contained in the ordinances of old, a yoke which neither
their fathers nor themselves were able to bear. Acts xv. 10; that is,
could never obtain rest or peace in the precise, rigid observation re-
quired of them. But now for the rule of Christ, he tells us that "his
yoke is eas}^, and his burden light," Matt. xi. SO ; and that " his com-
mandments are not grievous," 1 John v. 8. And this gentleness and
easiness of the rule of Christ consisteth in these three things: —

(1.) That his commands are all of them reasonable, and suited
unto the principles of that natural obedience we owe to God; and
so not grievous unto any thing in us but that principle of sin and
darkness which is to be destroyed. He hath not multiplied precepts
merely arbitrary, and to express his authority, but given us only such
as are in themselves good, and suitable unto the principles of rea-
auu; as might be evinced by the particular consideration of his in-



VER. 8, 9.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 1 r),3

stitutions. Hence our obedience unto them is called " our reason-
able service/' Kom. xii. 1.

(2.) His commands are easy, because all of them are suited to
that principle of the new nature or new creature which he workotli
in the hearts of all his disciples. It likes them, loves them, delii^hts
in them; which makes them easy unto it. The Lord Christ rules,
as we said, by his word and Spirit; these go togetlier in the cove-
nant of the Redeemer, Isa. lix. 20, 21. And their work is suited
and commensurate one to the other. The Spirit creates a new na-
ture fitted for obedience according to the word, and the word gives
out laws and precepts suited unto the inclination and disposition of
that nature; and in these two consist the sceptre and rule of Christ.
This suitableness of principle and rule one to the other makes his
government easy, upright, and righteous.

(3.) His commands are easy, because he continually gives out
siqjplies of his Spirit to make his subjects to yield obedience uuto
tliem. This is that which, above all other things, seta a lustre upiu
his rule. The law was holy, just, and good of old ; but whereas it
extended not strength unto men to enable them unto obedience, it
became unto them altogether useless and unprofitable, as to the end
they aimed at in its observation. It is otherwise in the kingdom of
Christ. Whatever he requires to have done by his subjects, he gives
them strength by his Spirit and grace to perform it; which makes
his rule easy, righteous, equal, and altogether lovely. Neither can
any of the sons of men pretend to the least share or interest in tlds
privilege.

(4.) This rule and administration of Christ's kingdom is righteous,
because useful and profitable. Then are laws good, wholesome, and
equal, when they lead unto the benefit and advantage of them that
do observe them. Laws about slight and trivial things, or such as
men have no benefit or advantage by their observation, are justly
esteemed grievous and burdensome. But now, all the laws and
whole rule of the Lord Christ are every way usefid and advanta-
geous to his subjects. They make them holy, righteous,— such as
please God and are useful to mankind. This is their nature, this
their tendency. " Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are
honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, what-
soever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report," they
are all ingenerated in the soul by and in the observance of these
laws of Christ's rule. They free the soul from the power of lust, the
service of sin, fear of death, hell, and the world, guide it in the
truth, make it fruitful amongst mankind, and amiable unto Goil
himself

(5.) Their end manifests them to be righteous. The woith and
equity of laws are taken off when low and unworthy ends aie pro-



194) AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. 1

posed unto their observation. But those of the Lord Christ direct
unto the highest end, propose and promise the most glorious rewards;
so that whatsoever may be done or suffered in an adherence unto
them hears no proportion to that exceeding rich and eternal reward
which they are attended withal ; which renders them highly righte-
ous i\ Ail glorious. And many other considerations of the like nature
may ije added. And hence a threefold corollary may be taken: —

[].] That our submission to this sceptre of the Lord Christ, our
obedience to the laws of his kingdom, and the administration thereof,
is very righteous, equal, and reasonable. What can be further de-
sired to render it so, or to provoke us unto it?

[2.] That the condemnation of those that refuse the reign of
Christ over them, that will not yield obedience unto his laws, is most
just and righteous. On these accounts will their mouths be stopped
for ever, when he comes to deal with them who know not God and
obey not the gospel.

[o.] It is our wisdom to content ourselves with the laws of Christ
in things that belong unto his kingdom. They alone, as we have
seen, have those properties which make our obedience useful or pro-
fitable; whatever we do else, in reference unto the same end with
them, is needless and fruitless drudging.

V. The righteous administrations of the Lord Christ in his go-
vernment proceed all from his own habitual righteousness and love
thereunto. See this declared by the prophet, Isa. xi. 1-9.

VT. God is a God in especial covenant with the Lord Christ, as he
is the mediator: " God, thy God." Of this covenant I have treated
largely elsewhere, and therefore shall not here insist upon it.

VII. The collation of the Spirit on the Lord Christ, and his glo-
rious exaltation, are the peculiar works of God the Father: " God,
thy God, hath anointed thee."

It was God the Father who designed and appointed him unto his
work, who actually sent him, and set him forth in the fulness of
time; and therefore on him was it incumbent both to furnish him
unto his Avork, and to crown him upon its performance. And herein
these several acts, partly eternal, partly temporal, are considerable:
— 1. The engagement of the eternal will, wisdom, and counsel ol
the Father with the Son about his work, Pro v. viii. 22, 23, SO, 3 J ;
Isa. liii. 10—12. 2. H\& fore-ordination of his coming, by an eternal
, free act of his will, 1 Pet. i. 20; Acts ii. 23. 3. His covenant with
him to abide by him in the whole course of his work, Isa. xlix. 6-9,
1. 7-9. 4. His promise of him from the foundation of the world,
often reiterated and repeated, Gen. iii. 15. 5. His actual mission
and sending of him in his incarnation, Zech. ii. 8-10. 6. The exert-
ing of his almighty power unto that purpose and effect, Luke i. 35.
7. His giving of him command and commission for his work, John



VER. 10-12.] liTISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 195

X. 18, XX. 21. 8. Furnishing him with all the gifts and graces of his
Spirit, to fit him and enable him unto his work, Isa. xi. 2, o, Ixi.
1-G; Matt. iii. IG, 17; John i. 32, S3; Col. i. 19. 9. Ahiding by 'him
in care, love, power, and providence, during the whole course of his
obedience and ministry, Isa. xlix. 2, 8. 10. Speaking in him, work-
ing by him, and in both bearing witness unto him, Heb. i. 1, 2 ; John
V. 36. 11. Giving him up unto death, Rom. viii. 32; Acts ii. 23.
12. Raising him from the dead, 1 Pet. i. 21; Acts ii. 24. 13. Giv-
ing all power, authority, and judgment unto him, John v, 22; Matt,
xxviii. 18. 14. Exalting of him by his assumption into heaven and
glorious session at his right hand. Acts ii. 32, 33; Piiil. ii. 9, 10.
15. Giving him to be the head over all unto the church, and sul)-
jecting all things under his feet, Eph. i. 20-22. 16. In all things
crotuning him with eternal glory and honour, John xvii. 5; Heb.
ii. 9. All these, and sundry other particulars of the like nature, are
assigned unto the Father as part of his work in reference unto' the
mediation of the Son; and amongst tliem his exaltation and unc-
tion with the oil of gladness hath an eminent place. And this are
we taught, that in this whole work we might see the autliority,
counsel, and love of the Father, that so our faith and hope through
Jesus Christ might be in God, who raised him uj) from the dead,
and gave him glory, 1 Pet. i. 21.

VIII. The Lord Jesus Christ is singular in this unction.

This is that which the apostle proves in several instances, and by
comparing him with others, who in the most eminent manner were
partakers of it. And this we are in the consideration of, as the par-
ticulars of it do occur. Neither shall I at present further insist ou
the ensuing observations, because I will not longer detain the reader
from the context, namely, that, —

IX. All that serve God in the work of building the church, ac-
cording to his appointment, are anointed by his Spirit, and shall
be rewarded by his power, Dan. xii. 3.

X. The disciples of Christ, esjoecially those who serve him in his
church faithfully, are his companions in all his grace and glory.

Verses 10-12.

In the following verses the apostle, by another illustrious testi-
mony, taken out of Ps. cii., confirms his principal assertion, in the
words ensuing.

Ver. 10—12. — Kar SC zar' apyag, Kopn, rnv yrjv sl}i/J!,i}Jojffa;, xa! sf/a
Tuv ysipuv sou iish 01 ovpavoi. Avrot arroXovvrai, Go hs biaiihug' xui -av-
TBg ug j/j^driov 'TraXaicuO'/jGovrat, xai oiciii Tsp/Co'Xa/ov sXii^iii avrovg, xa/
ukXayy-iSoiTai' ffi) di 6 ahrog il, xa/ ra srrj Sou ouz szAti-^ouei.

In the l;ist verse, for i7^l%it; one copy hatli d'hT^a.^ni, to answer unto aXh%yr^-
covrat' and MS. T., iT^iiiii ccvtov; u; if^-ccrtou.



196 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

The worfls are the same in the Greek Bibles as in this place of the apostle,
nor is there any footstep of any other old tr.insUition of them in t'ne psalm.
The Syriac differs little. Kcct it renda-s ^ini^ "and again," to show that
x,cii is no part of the testimony cited, but serves only to the introduction of
another. Verse 11, for auTol a.Tttj'Kdxivra.i, "they shall perish," T^^< l^-~»
♦'they shall piis-i away;" alludin:^' to that of 2 Pet. iii. 10, 0/ ovpoivol poi^nooif
"TTupsT^ivaovrcii, — " The heavens shall pass away with a noise." 2i) 3s tioc^A-
vsis, '• but thou abidest," " thou continuest;" Jl*'? ^^R 'J'?'*,) " et tu stans es,"
" et tu stas," " et tu stabihs es," — " and thou standest." •' thou art standing,'
answering the Hebrew ■"^^jf?, in the psalm. 'E'hi^iig avrovg, "'thou shalt roll
them up," V'^ ^"1"'?; which words interpreters render variouslyj though to the
same purpose. " Involves," Boderianus, — •' roll them;" "complicabis," Treme'lius,

" fold them ;" " diiplicabis," De Dieu, — " double them up." And it is manifest

that the translator reads i'Ki^ei?, and not d'Khoc^ng. And I doubt not but the
same word was inserted into the translation of the psalm from this place of the
apostle. 2y "hi 6 ctvrog si, — " Thou art the same," or, "Thou art, I am ;" T^ '??■*!
^r? 'm?'?^^^ . Bodei-ianus, " Et tu sicut existens es ;" — " And thou art as thou ex-
istest." Tremellius, '• Tu autem sicut es, eris ;" — " But thou shalt be as thou art."
Properly, " And thou, as thou art, art ;" that is, " art the same."

The translation of the apostle in all things material answereth the original in
the psalm. Verses 25-28, li/ Kvpis, '' Thou, Lord," is supplied out of the vei-se
foregoing, " I said, O my God." '!^~.^\ V'v'JV °"'-??j " ^^ old," " before it was ;" that
is, Kocr dp%xg, or ^^"•^"?'?, " in the beginning." And our tran.slators needed not to
have used any difi'erence of expression in the psalm and this place of the apostle,
as they do; — there, "of old;" here, "in the beginning." "Thou hast founded"
(not "laid the foundation of ")"' the earth ; and the heavens are the works;".— .
'^????5 " the work," which the Greek renders "works," because of their variety, —
" of thy hands."

"They shall perish, ^'^>;!:' "-1," "but thou shalt stand," or "dost abide."
The word used in our translation of the psalm (" endure") doth ill answer the
original, but the margin gives relief. Psalm, " Yea all of them shall wax old
like a garment;" here, " And they all shall wax old as doth a garment:" a little
variety without difference, and that needless, the Greek text exactly expressing
the Hebrew. "And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up;" ^."pij'?'; — "shalt ihou
change them." The change of a vesture, whereunto the change of the heavens
is compared, being by folding up and laying aside, at least from former use, the
apostle instead of oi'K'Ka.^iig, "thou shalt change," renders the word by i'hi^ug,
" thou shalt fold" (or " roll") " them up." sin nnsi^ " et tu ipse," x,a.\ uv 6
ctvTog, — "and thou art he." "And thy years shall have no end," — " shall not
fail;" 'i'^^? S', "shall not consume."'

There is no question but that these words do sufficiently prove the
pre-eminence of him of whom they are spoken, incomparably above
all creatures whatever. Two things, therefore, are questioned by the

' Various Readings. — Griesbach, Knapp, and Stuart, on the strength of mss.
D. E., and a few others, read ^lai^ivftg, instead of dixfiivus, the futiu-e instead of
the present. Tischendorf retains liufisvst;. The Peschito version has it " Tnoa
art pei-manent."

ExrosiTioN. — The manifestations of the Deity were made in the person of
Him who, in the fulness of time, became incarnate as the promised Messiah. In
the deliverance from Egypt, and the march through the wilderness, he was known
as " the angel of the cnveiuiiit," and sometimes appeared in a visible form. The
blessing for which the author of the psalm prays, is the improvement and deliver-



VER. 10-12.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. If) 7

enemies of the truth contained in them: — 1. Whether they were
originally sj)oken at all of Christ, which the present Jews deny.
2. Whether they were spoken all of Christ, which is questioned Ijy
the Sociniaus. These inquiries being first satisfied, the words shall
be opened, and the force of the apostle's argument from thence
declared.

1. That what is spoken in this psalm doth properly respect the
Messiah is denied by the present Jews. That it was owned by the
ancient Hebrews is sufficiently evident from hence, that the apostle,
dealing with them on their own principles, urgeth them with the
testimony of it. The psalm also itself gives us light enough into
the same instruction. It is partly euciical, partly prophetical ; both
parts suited unto the condition of the church when the temple was
wasted, and Zion lay in the dust during the Babylonish captivity.
In the prophetical jiart there are three things signal : —

(1.) The redemption of the people, with the re-edification of the
temple, as a type of that spiritual temple and worship which were
afterwards to be erected: as verse 13, "Thou shalt arise, and have
mercy upon Zion ; for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is
come:" and verse 16, "When the Lord shall build up Zion, he shall
appear in his glory."

(2.) The calling of the Gentiles to the church and worship of God :
Verse 15, "The heathen shall fear the name of the LoRD, and all
the kings of the earth thy glory." Verses 21, 22, "To declare the
name of the Lord in Zion, and his praise in Jerusalem; when tlie
people are gathered together, and the kingdoms, to serve the Lord."

(3.) Hereby the creation of a new i^eople. a new world, is brought
in: Verse 18, "This shall be written for the generation to come"
(the world to come): "and the people that shall be created" (the
new creation of Jews and Gentiles) " shall praise the Lord." These
are the heads of the prophetical part of the psalm, and they all re-
spect things everywhere peculiarly assigned unto the Son, who was
to be incarnate, or the days of the Messiah, which is all one; for, —

[1.] The redemption and deliverance of the church out of trouble
is his proper work. Wherever it is mentioned, it is he who is in-
tended, Ps. xcviii. So signally, Zech. ii. 8-13, and other places
innumerable.

[2.] The bringing in of the Gentiles is acknowledged by all the

ance of the chosen people, by that God who had directeil providence for that end.
But with regard to the Divine Father, the Seriptures assure us that '• no one
hath .seen him, or can see him." Can we, then, avoid inferring that the object of
the afflicted psalmist's prayers was that same Divine Pkrson who hail allowed
himself to be seen in a glorious human form by Abraham, by J.icob, by Mose.s,
etc. ? — Pi/e Smith.

TiiANSL.'VTio^s. — A/£«,M. Thou shalt remain. — Boothroyd, Stuart, Ebrard.
Tu permauebis. — Valyate. Du besteiiest. — De IVette. — Ed.



198 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I,

Jews to respect the time of the Messiah; it being he who was to be
a light unto the Gentiles, and the salvation of God unto the ends of
the earth.

[3.] Also, "the generation to come," and "people to be created,"
the Jews themselves interpret of the t53n D^y, " world to come," or
tlie new state of the church under the Messiah. These two last put
together, the gathering of the people, and the world to come, created
for the praise of God, make it evident that it is the Son whom the
psalmist hath respect unto.

Qrotius in this place affirms that the apostle accommodates unto
the Messiah what was spoken of God. And he thinks it a sufficient
argument to prove the words were not spoken of the Messiah, he-
cause they were spoken of God ; whereas they are produced by the
apootle to prove his excellency from the properties and works of his
divine nature. And he adds, as the sense of the words, as accom-
modated unto Christ, "'Thou hast laid the foundation of the earth ;'
that is, 'the world was made for thy sake.' " But this interpretation
c- violent detortion of the words destroys itself; for if they were spoken
of God absolutely, and not of the Messiah, to whom they are accom-
modated, how can it be said that the world was made for his sake,
and not by hiin? Both senses of the words cannot be true. But
this is indeed plainly to deny the authority of the apostle.

It appeareth, then, that many things in this psalm are spoken
directly and immediately of the Son; though it be probable, also, that
sundry things in it are affirmed distinctly of the person of the Father.
And hence, it may be, are those frequent variations of speech from
the second to the third person that occur in this psalm.

2. As to the second inquiry, the Socinians, who grant the divine
authority of this epistle, and therefore cannot deny but that these
words some way or other belong unto the Lord Cinist, yet plainly
perceiving that if they are wholly understood of him, there is an
end of all their religion (the creation, not of a new world, but of
that which was made of old, and which shall perish at the last day,
being here ascribed unto him), fix here upon a new and peculiar
evasion. " Some words," they say, " of this testimony belong unto
Christ" (so much they will yield to the authority of the apostle),
" but not all of them;" whereby they hope to secure their own error.
Now, because if this pretence hold not, this testimony is fatal to
their persuasion, I hope it will not be unacceptable if in our pas-
sao-e we do consider the distribution they make of the words accord-
ing to their supposition, and the arguments they produce for the
confirmation of their exposition, as they are managed by Crellius
and Schlichtingius in their comment on this place.

(1.) He says that "this testimony doth so far belong unto Christ,
as it pertaineth unto the scope of the writer of the epistle. This



VER. 10-12.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 199

scripture," saith he, " as appears from verse 4, is to prove that after



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