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selves to the contrary; somewhat that assures them of an after
reckoning, and that the things which now they do will be called
over in another world. Besides, the conviction of the word, with
them that enjoy it, puts the matter out of question. They cannot
evade the testimony it gives unto their eternal subsistence.

3. Hence men are exposed to double trouble and perplexity : —
First, That whereas their eternal subsistence, as to the enjoyment
of good or bad, depends upon their present life, that is frail, fad-
ing, perishing. They are here now; but when a few days are



21 R AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. T.

come and gone, they must go to the place from whence they shall
not return. They find their subsistence divided into two very un-
equal parts, a few days and eternity, and the latter to be regulated
by the former. This fills them with anxiety, and makes them some-
times weary of life, sometimes hate it, almost always solicitous about
it, and to bewail the frailty of it. Secondly, That no perishing
thing will afford them relief or supportment in this condition. How
should it? They and these are parting every moment, and that for
eternity. There is no comfort in a perpetual taking leave of things
that are beloved. Such is the life of man as unto all earthly en-
joyments. It is but a parting with what a man hath; and the
longer a man is about it, the more trouble he hath with it. The
things of this creation will not continue our lives here, because of
our frailty ; they will not accompany us unto eternity, because of
tJieir otvn frailty. We change, and they change; we are vanity,
and they are no better.

4. An interest in the omnipotency, sovereignty, and eternity of
the Lonl Christ will yield a soul relief and satisfaction in this con-
dition. There is that in them which is suited to relieve us under our
present frailty, and to give satisfaction unto our future eternity ; for, —

(1.) What we have not in ourselves, by an interest in Christ we
have in another. In him we have stability and unchangeableness;
for what he is in himself, he is unto us and for us. All our con-
cernments are wrapped up and secured in him. He is ours: and
though we in our own persons change, yet he changeth not, nor our
interest in him, — which is our life, our all. Though we die, yet he
dieth not ; and because he liveth, we shall live also. Though all other
things perish and pass away that we here make use of, yet he abidetii
a blessed and satisfying portion unto a believing soul : for as we are
his, so all his is ours; only laid up in him and kept for us in him
So that under all disconsolations that may befall us from our own
frailty and misery, and the perishing condition of outward things,
we have sweet relief tendered us in this, that we have all good
things treasured up for us in him. And faith knows how to make
use of all that is in Christ, to the comfort and supportment of the
soul.

(2.) When our frailty and changeableness have had their utmost
effect upon us, when they have done their worst upon us, they only
bring us to the full enjoyment of what the Lord Christ is unto us,
■ — that is, an exceeding great reward, and a full satisfaction unto
eternity. Then shall we live for ever in that which we now live
uj)on, being present with him, beholding his glory, and made par-
takers of it. So that both here and hereafter there is relief, com-
fort, and satisfaction for believers, laid up in the excellencies of the
person of Jesus Christ. And this should teach us, —



VER. 10-12.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 217

[1.] The misery of those who have no interest in him, and have
tlierefore nothing to relieve themselves against the evils of any con-
dition. All their hojDes are in this life, and from the enjoyments of
it. When these are once past, they will be eternally and in all
things miserable, — miserable beyond our expression or their appre-
hension. And what is this life? " A vapour, that a[)peareth for a
little while." What are the enjoyments of this life? Dying, i^evi.sh-
ing things; and unto them, fuel to lust, and so to hell. Suppose
they live twenty, thirty, iorty, sixty years, yet every day they fear,
or ought to fear, that it will be their last. Some die oft every day
from the first to the last of the utmost extent of the life of man : so
that every day may be the last to any one; and whose then will be all
their treasures of earthly things? And the relief which men have
against the tormenting fears that the frailty of their condition doth
expose them unto is no whit better than their troubles. It is
sinful security, which gives tlie fulness of their misery an advantage
to surprise them, and themselves an advantage to aggravate that
misery by the increase of their sin. In the meantime, " spes sibi
quisque,"' — " every one's hope is in himself alone;" which makes it
perpetually like the giving up of the ghost. Surely the content-
ment that dying man can take in dying things is very contemptible.
We must not stay to discover the miseries of the life of man, and
the weakness of the comforts and joys of it; but whatever they be,
what becomes of them when they have serious thoiights of their
present frailty and future eternity? This following eternity is like
Pharaoh's lean kine, which immediately devours all the fat plea-
sures of this present life, and yet continues as lean and miserable
as ever. The eternal misery of men will not be in the least eased,
yea, it will be greatened, by the enjoyments of this life, when once
it hath devoured them. And this is the portion of them that have
no interest in the eternity and immutability of the Son of God.
Their present Jrailty makes them continually fear eternity, and
their fear of eternity imbitters all things that they should use
for the relief of their frailty; and that security which they provide
against both increaseth tiieir misery, by sin here and suffering
hereafter.

[2.] This also will teach us how to use these earthly things, how
dying persons should use dying creatures ; that is, to use them for
our present service and necessity, but not as those that look after
rest or satisfaction in them, which they will not afford us. Use the
world, but live on Christ.

[3.] Not to despond under a sense of our present frailty. We
see what blessed relief is provided against our fainting on that
account.



218 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

Yerse 13.

The next verse contains the last testimony produced by the
apostle for the confirmation of the pre-eminence of the Lord Christ
above angels, in the words ensuing: —

Ver. 1 3. — Tipog rha hi ruiv ayyiXc/jv e'jpr}X.s tots' KaSov Jx dBi^io^jv /j^ov,
'dug uv SS Tovg syjpovg aou vrro-TTodiov ruiv Toduv aow

There is no difference about the reading of these words. As they
are here expressed by the apostle so are they in the translation ol
the LXX., and the original text is exactly rendered by them.

Yer. 13. — But unto which of the angels said he at any
time, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make \^put,
place] thine enemies thy footstool [the footstool oj thy

feet]!.

The usefulness of this testimony for the confirmation of the dig-
nity and authority of the Messiah is evidenced by the frequent quo-
tation of it in the New Testament: as by our Saviour himself, Matt,
xxii. 44 ; by Peter, Acts ii. 34, 35 ; and twice by our apostle, in this
place and 1 Cor. xv. 25.

As the words are here used, we may consider the introduction of
the testimony, and the testimony itself.

The introduction of the testimony is by way of interrogation :
" Unto which of the angels said he at any time?" And herfcia
three things may be observed: —

1. That in the interrogation a vehement negation is included :
* He said not at any time to any angels;' he never spake these
words or the like concerning them; there is no testimony unto that
purpose recorded in the whole Book of God. The way of expres-
sion puts an emphasis upon the denial. And the speaking here
relates unto what is spoken in the Scripture; which is the only
means of our knowledge and rule of our faith in these things.

2. That he makes ap{)lication of this testimony to every angel in
heaven severally considered; for whereas he had before sufficiently
proved the pre-eminence of the Messiah above the angels in general,
to obviate their thoughts about the especial honour and dignity of
any one or more angels, or angels in a singular manner, such as
indeed they conceived, he applies the present testimony to every
one of them singly and individually considered : " Unto which of
the angels said he at any time?"

3. A tacit application of this testimony unto the Son, or the
Messiah : ' Unto the angels he said not, but unto the Son he said,
Sit thou on my right hand/



VER. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 21 9

That the testimony itself doth clearly prove the intendment of
the apostle, provided the words were originally spoken of him or to
him unto whom they are applied, is beyond all exce])tions ; for they
contain an eulogium of him of whom they are spoken, and an assig-
nation of honour and glory to him, beyond whatever was or can be
ascribed unto any angel whatever. It remains, therefore, that this
be first proved, and then the importance of the testimony is self-
explained.

1. For those that believe the gospel, the authority of the Lord
Clirist and his apostles applying this testimony unto him is sufficient
for their conviction. By our Saviour, as was observed, it is appHed
unto the Messiah in thesi, Matt. xxii. 42-44. And had not this
been generally acknowledged by the scribes and Pharisees, and
whole church of the Jews, as it had not been to his purpose to have
mentioned it, so they had not been reduced unto that conviction
and shame by it as they were. The apostles apply it unto the true
Messiah in hypothesi; and herein doth our faith rest.

2. But a considerable part of the controversy which we have with
the Jews relating much unto this 110th psalm, we must yet further
clear the aj^plication of it unto the Messiah from their exceptions.

Of the Targum or Chaldee paraphrase there are two copies, — one
printed in Arias' Bible, the other in the Basle edition by Buxtorf.
The title of the psalm in both of them is, i<nn3trn in 1* bn, — " A
song by the hand of David," and the beginning of it is thus ren-
dered by the former of them : " The Lord said by his Word that he
would give me the kingdom, because I studied the doctrine of the
law of his right hand. Wait thou until I make thine enemies thy
footstool." By the other thus: "The Lord said by his Word that
he would appoint me the lord of all Israel. But he said unto me
again. Stay, for Saul, who is of the tribe of Benjamin, until he die,
for a kingdom will not admit of a companion; and after that I will
make thine enemies thy footstool.'"

Besides what appears from other considerations, it is hence suffi-
ciently evident that this Targum was made after the Jews began to
be exercised in the controversy with Christians, and had learned to
corrupt by their glosses all the testimonies given in the Old Testa-
ment unto the Lord Christ, especially such as they found to be
made use of in the New. Their corrupting of the sense of the
Holy Ghost in this place by a pretended translation is openly
malicious, against evident light and conviction. The psalm they
own from the title to be written by David; but they would have
him also to be the subject of it, to be spoken of in it. And there-
fore these words, " The Lord said unto my Lord," they translate,
"The Lord said unto me:" which assertion is contrary to the text
and false in itself ; for whoever was the penman of the psalm, he



220 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

speaks of another person ; — " The Lord said unto my Lord ;" say
they, " The Lord said unto me." And thereunto are annexed
those imaginations ahout studying the law and waiting for tlie
death of S;iul, which in no case belong to the text or matter in
hand.

Others, therefore, to avoid this rock, affirm that the psalm speaks
of David, but was not composed by him, being the work of some
other who calls him lord. So David Kimchi on the place. And
this he endeavours to prove from the inscription of the psalm. li?2fp
^n^: that is, saith he, " A psahn spoken to David;" for it denotes
the third, and not the second case or variation of nouns.

But this is contrary to the use of that prefix throughout the whole
Book of Pt^alms; and if this observation might be allowed, all psalms
with this title, 1^. , " le David," which are the greatest part of those
composed by him, must be adjudged from him, contrary to the re-
ceived sense and consent of Jews and Christians. But fully to
■manifest the folly of this pretence, and that the author of it contra-
dicted his own light out of hatred unto the gospel, there are sundry
psalms with this title, '^)J?, " le David," which are expressly affirmed
to be composed and sung by him unto the Lord ; as Ps. xviii. whose
title is, " To the chief musician, ^Tl? ^V^] "'?^?/' (where the prefix is
repeated) — " to David, the servant of the Lord, who spake unto
the Lord the words of this song." So directly do the modern
rabbins contiadict their own light, out of hatred unto the gospel.

Evident, then, it is that David is not treated of in this psalm, in
that he, being the penman of it, calleth him his Lord concerning
whom he treats. Besides, to omit other instances of a like cogency,
hov^r or when did God swear unto David that he should be a priest,
and that for ever, after the order of Melchizedek? The Jews knew
well enough that David had nothing to do with the priesthood. So
that David had no concernment in this psalm, but only as he was
the penman of it. He was not herein so much as a tyjje of the
Messiah, but speaks of him as his Lord.

Wherefore others of them, as Jarchi, and Lipman, and I^izz.achon,
affirm that it is Abraham who is spoken of in this psalm; of whom
the one says it was composed by Melchizedek; the other, by his
servant, Eliezer of Damascus. But the fondness of these presump-
tuous figments is evident. Melchizedek, on all accounts, was greater
than Abraham, above him in degree, dignity, and office, as being a
king and priest of the most high God ; and therefore blessed him, and
received tithes of him, and on no account could call him his lord.
Eliezer did so, being his servant; but how could he ascribe unto
him the sitting at the right hand of God? how the sending forth the
rod of his power from Zion? how being a priest for ever after the
order of Melchizedek ? or, indeed, any one thing mentioned in the



VER. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 221

psalm ? These things deserve not to be insisted on, but only to
manifest the woful pretences of the present Judaical infidelity.

li appears from the Dialogue of Justin Martyr with Trypho, that
some of them of old applied this psalm to Hezekiah. But not one
word in it can rationally be conceived to respect him; especially that
which is spoken about the priesthood utterly excludes him, seeing
his great-grandfather, a man of more power than himself, was
smitten with leprosy, and lost the administration of his kingdom,
for one single attempt to invade that office, 2 Chron. xxvi.

It remains, then, that this psalm was written concerning the Mes-
siah and him alone, for no other subject of it can be assigned. And
this use in our passage we may make of the Targum, that whereas
these words, " The Lord said/' do not intend a word spoken, but
the stable purpose or decree of God, as Ps. ii. 7, its author hath
rendered them n"i?o''KDa ''"''' tOX, — "The Lord said in" (or "by") "his
Word;" that is his Wisdom, his Son, with whom and to whom he
speaks, and concerning whom his decree and purpose is here de-
clared.

It remaineth only that we consider the objections ot the Jews
against our application of this psalm unto the Messiah. And these
are summed up by Kimchi in his exposition of the text. "The
heretics," saith he, "expound this psalm of Jesus. And in the
first verse they say the Father and Son are designed. And they read
' Adonai' with kamets under Nun; in which use the true God is sig-
nified by that name. And verse the third, in "i^J/ they read khirik
under Ain ; so making it signify 'with thee.' And what is there said
of the ' beauty of holiness/ they ascribe unto that which is from the
womb. But in all copies that are found, from the rising of the sun
to the going down of it, khirik is with Nun in ' Adonai,' and pathakh
with Ain in 'Hammeka.' And Gerolmus [Jerome] erred in his trans-
lation. And for the error, if the Father and Son be the Godhead,
how doth one stand in need of the other? and how can he say unto
him, 'Thou art a priest?' He is a priest who offers sacrifice, but
Gud doth not." Of the like nature are the rest of his exceptions
inito the end of his notes on that psalm. To this Lipman adds a
bitter, blasphemous discourse about the application of these words,
" from the womb," verse 3, uiito the womb of the blessed Virgin.

A71S. Our cause is not at all concerned in these mistakes, whether
of Jews or Christians. For the Jews, their chief enmity lies against
the deity of our Lord Jesus Christ; and therefore, whatever testi-
mony is produced concerning him, they presently imagine that it is
for the proof of his divine nature. This lies at the bottom of tiiese
exceptions of Kimchi. Hence he conceives that our argument from
this place lies in the word ''J'"'^, and the pointing it Avith kamets,
" Adonai/' so making it to be the proper name of God; when we



2'22 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAR I.

acknowledge that it is Adoni, pointed with khirik, and signifies, " my
Lord." So it is rendered by the evangelist, Matt. xxii. 44; so by
tlie LXX. ; and by Jerome, "Domino meo.'' And the argument
of our Saviour lies not in the word V"^^ ; but that he being the son
of David was also then the lord of David, which he could no other-
wise be but upon the account of his divine nature.

In the words reflected on by Kimchi it is confessed that there
have been mistakes amongst translators and expositors. These
words, n"^1? "^^V, are rendered by the LXX. Mera aoij ri afyj]' and by
the Vulgar from them, "Tecum principium," — "With thee is the be-
ginning;" which hath misled many expositors. But Kimchi knew
that Jerome had translated them, " Populi tui duces spontanei," —
" Tiiy people shall be willing leaders;" giving both the significations
of rib'iJ^ though one would suffice, "Thy people are" (or "shall be")
" willing." But this pertains not to the cause under consideration.

Lr like manner have these other words been misrendered by the
same translation, '^X}'p\ ''P "^P "'C'r'^r' '^Ov'?- 'E;^ yasrp'os Tpo 'Eojcpopou
h/ivvriGd as, say the LXX. ; and the Vulgar, " Ex utero ante luciieruui
genui te," — " From the womb before the morning star have I be-
gotten thee:" which gave occasion to many uncouth expositions in
Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Epiphanius, Austin, and others. But
the words are rightly rendered, " The dew of thy birth is from the
womb of the morning," and express the rise and flourishing of the
kingdom of the Messiah. These things prove, indeed, that it is dan-
gerous to interpret the Scripture without heedful attending unto the
original text ; but that the Messiah is not intended in this psalm
they prove not.

For what they further object, on our supposition of the divine
nature of Christ, " That there was no need that God should promise
God his assistance," it is but an open effect of their ignorance or
malice. Assistance is not promised the Messiah as God, but as
made man for our sakes. And so as a priest did he offer that sacri-
fice without an interest wherein both they and we must eternally
perish.

To conclude this discourse, we have many of their own masters
concurring with us in the assignation of this psalm unto the Mes-
siah ; and to that purpose they freely express themselves when their
minds are taken off from the consideration of the difference that
they have with Christians, Thus the author of ^:)n npn« nsD, in his
signs of the coming of the Messiah. " Armillus shall stir up all the
world," saith he, " to war against the Messiah, l^n^^'D lyj^ n^pn ?x'
"•^''Q''!' 2^'^ "1D1X S^X nnn^D^;" — "whom the holy God shall not compel
to war, but shall only say unto him, * Sit thou at my right hand ;'"
referring unto this place. So Saadias Gaon on Dan vii. 13: IT'C'D "ini
''y^^'? 2U '':ii6 " "• DN*3 mnan^ l^pn^; — " This is Messiah our righteous-



VKR. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREAVb. 2!? 3

ness, as it is written, ' The Lord said unto ray Lord, Sit thou on
my right hand.'" They affirm the same in Midrasli Tehihim; on
Ps. xviii. ;j5: Dwnc^ )y^'h n^ti'Q ibo n'-D'io nnpn Nai? iTiy!' irox pvi
''J''0''55 3E^ "'Jix!' nin^; — " Kabbi Joden said, In the world to come, the
holy, blessed God shall cause Messiah the king to sit on his right
hand; as it is written, 'The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on
my right hand.' " And to the same purpose are the words of R.
Moses Haddarshan in Bereshith Rabba on Gen. xviii. 1 : n^ma'i
i?Dh 2'uv2 T]2pn xn*? iTiy^ ""jnyDn i^o"''! ']V^'< po •'^ jrim nns '-i^'-i qco
Dn-i3N ^3Di ^hufDU ^y 2\y' Dmnxi ^T^'b 2^ '':ii6 nin^ QHTDiy i^vo^i^ n-ron
1^ -\D)ii) iD"'3o n2pr] bar^'c^n bv 21^ '-jsi rD\-i bv 2'^'' ':2 p noisi d^ddd
Ijmn "irruyi ''in iro"- ^y ^JSI ''yo' bv V2 p; — " Rabbi Berechia, in the
name of Rabbi Levi, opened that which is spoken, ' Thou shalt give
me the shield of thy salvation, and thy right hand shall sustain me,'
Ps. xviii. 3o. In the world to come, the holy, blessed God shall
cause Messiah the king to sit on his right hand; as it is written,
' The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand.' And
Abraham shall sit at his left hand. And the face of Abraham shall
be pale, and he shall say, 'The son of my son sits on the right hand,
and I on the left.' But God shall appease him, and say unto him,
' The son of thy son sits at my right hand, but I am at thy right
hand;' as it is written, ' Thy loving-kindness shall increase me.'"
And so on Ps. xvii.: Rabbi Joden in the name of R. Chijah, ITiy^
•'ji-is!' n^n'' D1J -lOXJK' iro''^ n'ci^n i^^d^ 2''Cf)D n2pn t<3^, — " In the
world to come the holy blessed God shall place Messiah the king at
his right hand, as it is said, ' The Lord said unto my Lord.' "

Thus, setting aside the mixture of their follies and impieties,
wherein we are not concerned, we have a sufficient suffrage from
the Jews themselves unto our assignation of this prophetical psalm
to the Messiah; which is enough to stop the mouths of their
modern gainsayers, who are not able to assign any other person
unto whom it .'should belong. Having, then, removed their objec-
tions, we may return unto the interpretation of the words.

The matter intended in the first part of these words, or sitting at
the right hand of God, hath been somewhat spoken unto already,
and I shall add but little in the further explanation of it in this
place.

Some things controverted on these words we may well omit the con-
sideration of; as whether were the more honoural)le place of old, the
right hand or the left. Besides, they have been suthciently spoken
unto already on verse 3. For whereas there is no mention made
anywhere of sitting at the left hand of God, as was observed, there
is no comparison to be feigned between the one and the other.
Besides, the pretence of the left hand to have been the most hon-
ourable place of old is most vain, insisted on by some who had a
VOL,. XII. — 15



224 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

desire to vent new observations on old matters to little purpose.
And Bellarraine shows what good leisure he had in managing of
controversies, when he spent more time and labour in answering an
objection against the pope's supremacy, from Peter's being placed
in old seals on the left hand of Paul, than on many texts of Scrip-
ture plainly overthrowing his pretensions.

Neither shall we consider their claim unto this testimony, who,
understanding the human n?t,ure of Christ to be only intended
and spoken to, affirm that its sitting at the right hand of God con-
sists in a real communication of all divine properties and attributes
unto that nature; a pretence very remote from the apostle's design
and importance of the words.

For the introductory preface of this testimony, " Unto which of
the angels said he at any time?" we have already considered it.
In the testimony itself we must consider, — 1. The 'person speaking,
"The Lord." 2. The person spoken unto, "my Lord." S. The
nature and manner of this speaking, " said." 4. The thing spoken,



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