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" Sit on my right hand." 5. The end hereof as to work and opera-
tion, " make thine enemies thy footstool." 6. The limitation of it
as unto duration, " until."

L The person speaking is the Lord, " The Lord said." In the
Greek, both the person speaking and the person spoken unto are
expressed by the same name, Kvpiog, " Lord ;" only the person spoken
unto is not absolutely called so, but with relation to the psalmist,
xup/w fiov, " to my lord." David calls him his lord. Matt. xxii. 45.
But in the Hebrew they have different denominations. The person
speaking is Jehovah, "^p^ CiXJ^ — that is, God the Father; for though
the name be often used where the Son is distinctly spoken of, and
sometimes in the same place each of them is mentioned by that
name, as Gen. xix. 24, Zech. ii. 8, 9, because of their equal partici-
pation of the same divine nature, signified thereby, yet where Jeho-
vah speaketh unto the Son or of him, as here, it is the person of the
Father that is distinctly denoted thereby, according as was showed
at the entrance of this epistle.

2. The person spoken unto is the Son, l^"'^^, "the Lord," David's
Lord ; in what respect we must now inquire. The Lord Christ, the
Son, in respect of his divine nature, is of the same essence, power,
and glory, with the Father, John x. 80. Absolutely, therefore, and
naturally, in that respect he is capable of no subordination to the
Father or exaltation by him, but what depends on and flows from
his eternal generation, John v. 26. By dispensation he humbled
himself, and emptied himself of this glory, Phil. ii. 7, 8 ; not by a
real parting with it, but by the assumption of human nature into
personal union with himself, being made flesh, John i. 14; wherein
his eternal glory was clouded for a season, John xvii. 5, and his



VER. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 225

pprson humbled to the discharge of those acts of his mediatioQ
which were to be performed in the human nature, Phil. ii. 9, 10.
This person of Christ is here spoken unto, not in respect of his
divine nature only, which is not capable of exaltation or glory by
the way of free gift or donation ; nor in respect of his human nature
only, which is not the king and head of the church ; but with respect
unto his whole person, wherein the divine nature, exerting its power
and glory with the will and understanding of the human nature, is
the principle of those theandrical acts whereby Christ ruleth over
all in the kingdom given him of his Father, Rev. i. 17, 18. As he
was God, he was David's Lord, but not his son; as he was man,
he was David's son, and so absolutely could not be his Lord;
in his person, as he was God and man, he was his Lord and
his son, — which is the intention of our Saviour's question. Malt,
xxii. 45.

3. For the nature and manner of this speaking, when and how
God said it, four things seem to be intended in it: — (1.) The eteru d
decree of God concerning the exaltation of the Son incarnate. So
David calls this word the "decree," the statute or eternal appoint-
ment of God, Ps. ii. 7. This is Xoyog hdiddsTog, the internal and
eternal word, or speaking of the mind, will, and counsel of God,
referred unto by Peter, 1 Epist. i. 20. God said this in the eternal
purpose of his will, to and concerning his Son. (2.) The covenant
and compact that was between the Father and Son about and con-
cerning the work of mediation is expressed also in this saying. That
there was such a covenant, and the nature of it, I have elsewhere
declared. See Prov. viii. 30, 31 ; Isa. liii. 10-12; Zech. vi. 12, 13;
John xvii. 4-6. In this covenant God said unto him, " Sit thou at
my right hand ;" which he also pleaded in and upon the discharge
of his work, Isa. 1. 8, 9 ; John xvii. 4, 5. (3.) There is also in it
the declaration of this decree and covenant in the prophecies and
promises given out concerning their accomplishment and execution
from the foundation of the world, Luke i. 70; 1 Pet. i. 11, 12; Gen.
iii. 15, He said it " by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have
been since the Avorld began." And in this sense David only re-
counts the prophecies and promises that went before, Luke xxiv.
25-27. And all these are comprised in this speaking here men-
tioned, — thus "the Lord said unto him;" and all these were past
when recorded by David. (4.) But he yet looks forward, by the Spirit
of prophecy, unto the actual accomplishment of them all, when, upon
the resurrection of Christ, and the fulfilling of his work of humilia-
tion, God actually invested him with the promised glory, (which is
the fourth thing intended in the expression,) Acts ii. 33, 36, v. 31;
1 Pet. i. 20, 21. All these four things centre in a new revelation
now made to David by the Spirit of prophecy. This he here de-



226 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

dares as the stable purpose, covenant, and promise of God the
Fatlier, revealed unto him: "The LoRD said."

And this also gives us an account of the manner of this expres-
sion, as to its imperative enunciation, " Sit thou." It hath in it the
force of a promise that he should do so, as it respected the decree,
covenant, and declaration thereof from the foundation of the world.
God, engaging his faithfulness and power for the effecting of it in
its appointed season, speaks concerning it as a thing instantly to be
done. And as those words respect the glorious accomplishment of
the thing itself, so they denote the acquiescence of God in the work
of Christ, and his authority in his glorious exaltation.

4. The thing spoken about, is Christ's sitting at the right hand of
God. Wherein that consists hath been declared on verse 8. In
])rief, it is the exaltation of Christ unto the glorious administration
of the kingdom granted unto him, with honour, security, and power;
or as in one word our apostle calls it, his reigning, 1 Cor. xv. 25;
concerning which we have treated already at large.

And lierein we shall acquiesce, and not trouble ourselves with
the needless curiosity and speculation of some about these words.
Such is that of Maldonate on Matt, xvi., before remarked on verse 3.
Saith he, " Cum Filius dicitur sedere ad dextram Patris, denotatur
comparatio virtutis Filii et Patris, et potentia Filii major dicitur
ratione functionis officii et administrationis ecclesise. Paterque vi-
detur fecisse Filitim quodammodo se superiorem, et donasse illi
uomen etiam supra ipsum Dei nomen, quod omnes Christiaui tacite
significant, cum audito nomine Jesu detegunt caput, audito autem
nomine Dei, non item;" — than which nothing could be more pre-
sumptuously nor foolishly spoken; for there is not in the words the
least intimation of any comparison between the power of the Father
and the Son, but only the Father's exaltation of the Son unto power
and glory expressed. But, as was said, these things have been
already considered.

5. There is in the words the end aimed at in this sitting down at
the right hand of God ; and that is, the making of his enemies the
footstool of his feet. This is that which is promised unto him in
the state and condition whereunto he is exalted. For the opening
of these words we must inquire, — (1.) Who are these enemies of
Christ; (2.) How they are to be made his footstool; (3.) By whom.

(1.) For the first, we have showed that it is the glorious exaltation
of Christ in his kingdom that is here spoken of; and therefore tlie
enemies intended must be the enemies of his kingdom, or enemies
unto him in his kingdom, — that is, as he sits on his throne carrying
on the work designed and ends of it. Now, the kingdom of Christ
may be considered two ways ; — first, In respect of the internal, spi-
ritual power and efficacy of it in the hearts of his subjects; secondly,



■VT.R. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 227

With respect unto the outward, glorious administration of it in the
world. And in both these respects it hath enemies in abundance,
all and every one whereof must be made his footstool. We shall
consider them apart.

The kingdom, rule, or reigning of Christ in the first sense, is the
authority and power which he puts forth for the conversion, sancti-
fication, and salvation of his elect. As he is their king, he quickens
them by his Spirit, sanctifies them by his grace, preserves tliem l)y
his faithfulness, raiseth them from the dead at the last day by his
power, and gloriously rewardeth them unto eternity in his righteous-
ness. In this work the Lord Christ hath many enemies; as the
law, sin, Satan, the world, death, the grave, and hell. All these
are enemies to the work and kingdom of Christ, and consequently
to his person, as having undertaken that work.

[].] The law is an enemy unto Christ in his kingdom, not abso-
lutely, but by accident, and by reason of the consequents that attend
it where his subjects are obnoxious unto it. It slays them, Rom.
vii. 9-11, which is the work of an enemy; is against them and con-
trary unto them. Col. ii. 14; and contributes strength to their other
adversaries, 1 Cor. xv. 56; which discovers the nature of an enemy,

[2.] Sm is universally and in its whole nature an enemy unto
Christ, Rom. viii. 7- Sinners and enemies are the same, Rom. v.
S, 10; Col. i. 21. It is that which makes special, direct, and im-
mediate opposition to the quickening, sanctifying, and saving of his
people, Rom. vii, 21, 23; James i, 14, 15 ; 1 Pet, ii. ] 1.

[.'}.] Satan is the sworn enemy of Christ, the adversary that
openly, constantly, avowedly opposeth him in his throne. Matt, xvi,
]8; Eph. vi. 12; 1 Pet. v. 8, And he exerts his enmity by tempta-
tions, 1 Cor, vii. 5; 1 Thess. iii, 5; accusations. Rev. xii, 10; perse-
cutions, Rev, ii, 10; — all which are the works of an enemy.

[4,] The world is also a professed enemy of the kingdom of
Christ, John xv, 18. In the things of it, the men of it, the rule of
it, it sets Itself against the work of the Lord Christ on his tlirone,
Tlie things of it, as under the curse and subject to vanity, are suited
to alienate the hearts of men from Christ, and so act an enmity
against him, James iv. 4; 1 John li. 15-17; 1 Tim. vi, 9, 10; Matt.
xiii. 22. The men of the world act the same part, Matt. x. 22,
xxiv. 9. By examples, by temptations, by reproaches, by persecu-
tions, by allurements, they make it their business to oppose the
kingdom of Christ. But to that end, [that all things may be under
his feet], is the rule of it for the most part directed or overruled,
1 Cor. XV, 24, 25.

[5 ] Death is also an enemy ; so it is expressly called, 1 Cor.
XV. 26. It designs the execution of the first curse against all lie-
lievers, and therein contributes aid and assistance unto all otner



228 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

adversaries; giving up itself to the service of Satan, and therefore
said to be in his power, chap. ii. 14 of this epistle; and it borrows a
sting from sin, 1 Cor. xv. 56, to make itself the more terrible and sharp.
[6.] The grave is an adversary also. It fights against the faith
of the sulvjects of Christ by reducing their mortality unto corruption,
and holding fast the dead until they are powerfully rescued from
the jaws of it.

[7.] Lastly, hell is that enemy in a subordination whereunto all
these others do act. They all aim to bring men into hell; which is
an eternal enemy where it prevails. This attends the workings and
successes of those other adversaries, to consume and destroy, if it
were possible, the whole inheritance of Christ, Rev. vi. 8. All these
are enemies to Christ in his work and kingdom, with every thing
that contributes aid or assistance unto them, every thing that they
make use of in the pursuit of their enmity against him.

Now, all these enemies, as far as they oppose the spiritual, inter-
nal carrying on of the work of Christ, must be made the footstool
of his feet.

The expression is metaphorical, and is to be interpreted and ap-
plied variously, according to tlie nature and condition of the enemies
with whom he hath to do. The allusion in general is taken from
what was done by Joshua, his type, towards the enemies of his
people. Josh. x. 24. To show the ruin of their power, and his abso-
lute prevalency against them, he caused the people to set their feet
u]Don their necks. See 2 Sam. xxii. 39 ; Ps. viii. 6. To have his
enemies, then, brought under his feet, is to have an absolute, complete
conquest over them ; and their being made his footstool implies their
perpetual and unchangeable duration in that condition, under the
weight of whatever burden he shall be pleased to lay upon them.

(2.) This being that which is to be done, we may consider how it is
accomplished. Now, this whole work of conquest and prevalency
overall his enemies is done, — [1.] Meritoriously; [2.] Exemplarily;
[3.] Efficiently.

[ ] . j Meritoriously. By his death and blood-shedding he hath pro-
cured the sentence of condemnation in the cause depending between
him and them to be pronounced against them; so that they siudl
have no more right to exert their enmity against him or his. He
hath given them all their death's wounds, and leaves them to die
at his pleasure. \st. So hath he prevailed against the law. Gal.
iii. 13; Col. ii. 14; Rom. vii. 6. He hath removed that strength
which it gave to sin, 1 Cor. xv. 55, 56 ; so that it hath no right
to disquiet or condemn any of his subjects for the future. And,
tdly. Against sin, Rom. viii. 2, 3, so that it should not reign in nor
condemn his anymore. And, odly. Satan also, Heb. ii. 14, 15, as to
all pretence of liberty or right unto any part of his cursed work.



VER. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS 229

And, Stilly. So likewise the world, John xvi. 83 ; Gal. i. 4. And
against, bthly. Death, Heb. ii. 14, 15; 1 Cor. xv. bo, 5G; witli, Qthly.
The grave; and, Itldy. Hell, or the wrath to come, I Tliess. i. 10.
They are all meritoriousl}' conquered in his death and resurrection.
And all this hath he done for his church.

[2.] Exemplarily. All these adversaries peculiarly exercised their
enmity against and tried their strength and power upon his own
person. The law brought its curse upon him. Gal. iii. 13; sin its
guilt, 2 Cor. V. 21; Rom. viii. 2, 3; Satan put forth all his power
against him. Col. ii. 15 ; as also did the world, in all sorts of things
and persons, in all kinds of oppositions and persecutions; death also
he tasted of, Heb. ii. 9; and lay in the grave, descending into the
lower parts of the earth, Eph. iv. 9; and he was not unassaidted by
the pains of hell when he bare our iniquities, Isa. liii. 4-6", 10.
Now all of them did he absolutely conquer in his own person : for
he satisfied the law, removed the curse, and took it away, Kom.
vih. 3; made an end of sin, Dan. ix. 24; destroyed the devil, Heb.
ii. 14, and triumphed over him. Col. ii. 15; subdued the world,
John xvi. 33 ; conquered death. Acts ii. 24, and the grave, verse 27,
and hell also. And in his own person hath he set an example of
what shall be done in and for the whole church.

[3.] It is done ejjiciently in, by, and for his whole church ; and this
in three instances : — \st. Initially, m their union with himself
When and as he unites any of them unto himself, he begins the
conquest of all enemies in them and for them, giving them a ri^ht
to tlie complete, total, and final victory over them all. 2dly. Gra-
dually he carries them on in their several seasons towards perfec-
tion, treading down their enemies by degrees under them. And
odly. Perfectly at the last day, when, having freed them from the
law and sin, trodden down Satan, prevailed against the world, reco-
vered them from death, rescued them from the grave, and delivered
them from hell, he shall be himself perfectly victorious in them,
and they made completely sharers in his victory ; wherein the
making of all his enemies his footstool consisteth.

Secondly,^he kingdom of Christ respects his administration of
it visibly in this world, in the profession and obedience of his sub-
jects unto him; and this also, with the opposition made unto it, is"
respected in this expression. God the Father, in the exaltation of
Jesus Christ, hath given unto Idm all nations for his inheritance,
and the utmost parts of the earth for his possession, Ps. ii. 8. Upon
this grant a twofold right ensued: — [1.] A right to call, gather, and
erect his church, in any nation, in any part of the world, and to give
unto it his laws and ordinances of worship, to be owned and ob-
served by them in a visible and peaceable manner. Matt, xxviii.
18-20. [2.] A right, power, and authority to dispose of and order



2:30 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. L

all nations and persons for the good, benefit, and advantage of his
kingdom. In pursuit of this grant and right, expecting his churchy
and therein his visible kingdom, in the world, great opposition is
made unto him by all sorts of persons, stirred, excited, and insti-
gated thereunto by Satan. And as this enmity was first acted
against himself in his own person, Ps. ii. 1-8, so it hath continued
against him in his church in all ages and places, and will do so
unto the end of the world. The world understands not his right,
hates his government, and would not have him to reign. Hence
hath been all that rage which hath been executed upon the profes-
sors of his name. Kings, rulers, potentates, counsellors, the multi-
tude, have set themselves against him. They are arftl have been,
many of them, his enemies. Great havoc and destruction liave they
made of his subjects all the world over, and continue to do so in
most places unto this very day. Especially, in these later ages,
after other means failed him, Satan hath stirred up a fierce, cruel,
subtle adversary unto him, whom he hath foretold his disciples of
under the name of antichrist, the beast, and false prophet. After
the ruin of many others, this enemy by various subtleties and pre-
tences hath drawn the world into a new combination against him,
and is at this day become the greatest and most pernicious adver-
sary that he hath in this world. Now, the aim and design of all
these is to detlirone him, by the ruin of his kingdom which he hath
set up in the world. And this in every age they have hoped to
accomplish, and continue to do so unto this day, but in vain; for
as hitherto his kingdom and interest in the world have been main-
tained against all their enmity and opposition, themselves been
frustrated and brought to destruction one after another, so by virtue
of this promise he shall reign in security and glory until all their
heads be broken, their strength ruined, their opposition finished,
and themselves brought under his feet unto all eternity, as our
apostle declares, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25. And this may suffice to declare
the meaning of these words.

(8.) We are to coiisider hy whom these enemies of Christ
shall be made thus his footstool. ' I will make then),' saith God
the Father unto him. And this expression wanteth not its diffi-
culty; for is it not the work of Christ himself to subdue and con-
quer his enemies? is it not said that he shall do so? So doing is
he described in the Revelation with glory and power, chap. xix.
11-16, from Isa. Ixiii, 1-6. Whom should this work more become
or belong unto than him who was persecuted and oppressed by
them? And dotli it not directly belong unto his kingly power?
Whence is it, then, that he is here described as one resting in
glory and security at his Father's right hand, whilst he subdues his
enemies ?



VEE. 13.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 281

Ans. There is no doubt but that the work of subduing the ene-
mies of tlie mediation and kingdom of Christ is immediately wiought
by himself. All propliecies of him, all promises made unto liim,
the nature of his oflfice, do all require that so it should be; and so
the apostle directly expresseth it, 1 Cor. xv. 26. But yet there are
sundry reasons why that work which is immediately wrought by
the Son may by the way of erninency be ascribed unto the Father,
as we see this to be.

[1.] Power and authority to subdue and conquer all his ene-
mies is given unto the Lord Christ by the Father in the way of
reward; and it is therefore said to be his work, because the auth( rity
for it is from him. See Isa. liii. 12; John v. 27; Phil. ii. .9; E,om.
xiv. 9. This power then, I say, of subduing all his enemies being
granted unto the Lord Christ in the love of the Father, as a reward
of the travail of his soul which he underwent in his work on the
earth, is ascribed unto the Father as his. And this expression sig-
niiies no more but that as God haih given him authority for it, so
he will abide by him in it until it be accomplished ; and on this
account he takes it on himself as his own.

[2.] The work of subduing enemies is a work of power and
authority. Now, in the economy of the holy Trinity, among the
works that outwardly are of God, tliose of power and authority are
peculiarl}^ ascribed unto the Father; as those of wisdom, or wisdom
iu the works of God, are unto the Son, who is the eternal Wisdom of
the Father. And on this account the same works are ascribed unto
the Father and the Sou. Not as though the Father did them first,
or only used the Son as an immediate instrumental cause of tliem,
but that he worketh by him as his own eternal and essential Wis-
dom, John V. 17, 19. But there is also more in it, as the Son is con-
sidered as mediator, God and man; for so he receives and holds Ids
especial kingdom by grant from his Father, and therefore the works
of it may be said to be his.

6. The last thing remaining for the exposition of these words, is
the consideration of the appearing limitation of this administration
of the kingdom of Christ, in his sitting at the right hand of God:
^^, sug C/.V, " until:" " Until I make thine enemies," etc.

First, it is confessed, and may be proved by instances, that those
particles thus used are sometimes exclusive of all things to the con-
trary before the time designed in them, but not assertive of any
such thing afterwards. In this sense no limitation of the duration
of the kingdom of Christ is here intimated, but only his secure and
glorious reign unto the accomplishment of his work in the subduing
of his enemies is asserted. The onl}'' time of danger is whilst there
is opposition; but this saith God, 'I will carry it through unto tlie
end/ And this .sense is embraced by many, to secure thereljy the



5S2 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. I.

promises that are made unto the Lord Christ of the perpetuity of
his kingdom. So Isa. ix. 7, " Of the increase of his government
and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and
upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and
with justice from henceforth even for ever." His " kingdom shall
never be destroyed," but "shall stand for ever," Dan. ii. 4-i; it is an
" everlasting kingdom," cliap. vii. 27.

Others suppose that this perpetuity. of the kingdom of Christ is
not absolutely exclusive of all limitation, but that these two tJjings
only are intimated in those j)rophecies and promises: —

(1.) That his kingdom shall not be like the kingdoms of the earth,
obnoxious to change and mutation, by intestine divisions, or out-
ward force, or secret decay; by which means all the kingdoms of
the earth have been ruined and brought to nought. In opposition
hereunto, the kingdom of Christ is asserted to be perpetual, as that
which no opposition shall ever prevail against, no means ever im-
pair; which yet hinders not but that a day ma}^ be jDretixed for
its end.

(2.) The continuance of it unto the total, full accomplishment of all
that is to be performed in it or by it, in the eternal salvation of all
his subjects and final destruction of all his enemies, is in these and
the like places foretold; but yet when that work is done, that king-
dom and rule of his may have an end.

And in this sense the term of limitation here expressed seems to
be expounded by the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 24, "Then cometh the end,
when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the
Father;" for although these words may admit of another interjDreta-
tion, — namely, that he shall give up an account unto the Father of
the accomplishment of the whole work committed unto him as king
ot his church, which he may do and not cease from holding the same
kingdom still, — yet as they are further interpreted by the Son's com-
ing into a neio subjection unto the Father, "that God may be all in all,"
as verse 28, they seem to imply directly the ceasing of his kingdom.

Though this matter be not indeed without its difficulty, yet the
different opinions about it seem capable of a fair reconciliation, which



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