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be conformed unto them, holy. This is the way to have Christ dwell
plentifully in us, and for ourselves to "grow up into him who is our
head." And is it nothing, to get our minds purged from an evil habit,
inclining unto earthly things, or continually forging foolish and hurt-
ful imaginations in our hearts? This meditation wil 1 cast the soul into
another mould and frame, making the heart "a good treasure," out of
which may be drawn at all times good things, new and old. [2.] Con-
solation and supportment under all afflictions will from hence spring
up in the soul. When the apostle would describe that property of
faith v/hereby it enables a believer to do and suffer great things joy-
fully and comfortably, he doth it by its work and effect in this matter.
It is, saith he, " the substance of things hoped for, and the evidence
of things not seen," Heb. xi. 1 ; that is, it brings into the soul, and
makes evident unto it, the great things of this salvation, the great
thing's of the love and grace of God therein. And this it doth no
otherwise than by a constant contemplation and holy admiration of
them. And when this is once done, he multiplies instances to evince
what great effects it will produce, especially in its enabling of us to
go through difficulties, trials, and afflictions. And the same also he
ascribeth unto hope; which is nothing but the soul's waiting and
expectation to be made partaker of the fulness of this salvation,
whose greatness and satisfactory excellency it doth admire, Rom.
V. 2-5. When any affliction or tribulation presseth upon a believer, "l
he can readily divert his thoughts from it unto the rich grace of l^
God in this salvation ; which will fill his heart with such a sense of I
his love as shall carry him above all the assaults of his trouble. And
a direction to this purpose the apostle pursues at large, Rom. viii.
15-18, 24, 25, 31-39. This is a safe harbour for the soul to betake
itself unto in every storm; as he teacheth us again, 2 Cor. iv. 16-18.
Whatever befalls us in our " outwai-d man," though it should press so
sore upon us as to ruin us in this world, yet ^' we faint not/' we de-
spond not; and the reason is, because those things which we suffer
bear no proportion unto what we enjoy or ex[)ect. And the way
whereby this consideration is made effectual unto us, is by a constant



316 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. IT.

contemplation by faith on the great unseen things of this salvation,
which takes off our minds and spirits from a valuation of the things
which we presently suffer and endure. And this experience assures
us to be our only relief in afflictions; which undoubtedly it is our
wisdom to be provided for. [3.] The same may be said concerning
j)ersecution, one especial part of affliction, and commonly that wliich
most entangles the minds of them that suffer. Now, no man can
endure persecution quietly, patiently, constantly, according to the
will of God, especially when the devil pursues his old design of
bringing it home unto their persons, Job ii. 5, unless he hath in
readiness a greater good, v^hich shall in itself and in his own mind
outbalance the evil which he suffers. And this the grace of this
salvation will do. The soul that is exercised in the contemplation
and admiration of it, will despise and triumph over all his outward
sufferings which befall liim on the account of his interest therein, as
all persecution doth. This the apostle declares at large, B,om. viii.
Verses 31—34, he directs us unto a holy meditation on God's electing
love, and on the death and mediation of Christ, the two springs of
this meditation; and thence leads us, verses 35, 36, to a supposition
of the great and sore persecutions that may befall us in this world ;
and from the former consideration triumphs over them all, verse 37,
with a joy and exultation beyond that of conquerors in a battle,
which yet is the greatest that the nature of man is capable of in
and about temporal things. When the soul is prepossessed with
the glory of this grace and his interest therein, it will assuredly bear
him up against all the threatenings, reproaches, and persecutions of
this world, even as it did the apostles of old, making them esteem
that to be their glory and honour which the world looked on as
their shame, Acts v, 41 ; and without this the heart will be very
ready to sink and faint. [4.] This also will greatly tend unto the
covfirmation of our faith, by giving iis a full experience of the
things that we do believe. Then the heart is immovable, when it
is established by experience, when we find a substance, a reality, a
spiritual nourishment in things proposed unto us. Now, how can
this be obtained, unless we are conversant in our minds about them?
unless we dwell in our thoughts and affections upon them ? for
thereby do we taste and find how good the Lord is in this work of
his grace.

Thus this duty being on many accounts of so great importance,
we may do well to consider wherein it consisteth. And there are
these four things belonging unto it: —

(1.) Intense prayer for the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, to give
us an acquaintance with the mystery and grace of this great salva-
tion. In ourselves we have no inbred knowledge of it, nor can we
by our own endeavours attain unto it. We must have a new under-



VER. 2-4.] EPISTLE TO Tin: HEBREWS. 817

standing given us, or we shall not " know him that is true," 1 John v.
20. For notwithstanding the declaration that is made of this mys-
tery in the gospel, we see that the most of men live in darkness and
ignorance of it. It is only the Spirit of God which can search these
" deep things of God," and reveal them unto us, 1 Cor. ii. 10. By him
must " he who commanded light to shine out of darkness shine into
our hearts, to give us the light of the knowledge of the glory of God
in the face of Jesus Christ," 2 Cor. iv. 6. And therefore the apostle
prays for the Ephesians that God would give unto them " the Spirit
of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him ; that, the eyes
of their understandings being enlightened, they may know what is
the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his in-
heritance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of his
power to US-ward who believe," chap. i. 17-19; and for the Colos-
sians, that they might come unto " all riches of the full assurance
of understanding, to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God,
and of the Father, and of Christ," chap. ii. 2, — that is, that they
might have a spiritual and saving acquaintance with the mystery of
this great salvation, the love, grace, and wisdom of God therein,
which without this Spirit of wisdom and revelation from above we
shall not attain unto. This, then, in the first place, is to be sought
after, this are we to abide in, — constant prayers and supplications
for the teaching, instructing, revealing, enlightening work and effi-
cacy of this Spirit, that we ma}'- be enabled to look into these deep
things of God, that we may in some measure with all saints com-
prehend them, and grow wise in the mystery of salvation. Solomon
tells us how this wisdom is to be obtained : Prov. ii. 3-5, " If thou
criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding;
if thou seekest her as for silver, and searchest for her as for hid
treasures; then shalt thou understand the fear of the LoilD, and
find the knowledge of God." It is by praying, crying, supplications,
with diligence and perseverance, that we attain this wisdom. Abide
herein, or all other attempts will prove but vain. How many poor
souls, otherwise weak and simple, have by this means grown exceed-
ing wise in the mystery of God ! and how many more, wise in this
world, through the neglect of it, do walk in darkness all their days !

(2.) Diligent study of the word, wherein this mystery of God
is declared and proposed unto our faith and holy contemplation;
but this hath been spoken unto in part already, and must again
be considered, and so need not here be insisted on.

(3.) Sincere love unto and delight in the things that are by
the Spirit of God revealed unto us, is another part of this duty.
Herein our apostle declares what was his frame of heart, Phil. iii. 8.
How doth his heart triumph in and rejoice over the knowledge he
had obtained of Jesus Christ! and then, indeed, do we know any



SI 8 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. 11.

tiling of the grace of God aright, when our hearts are affected with
what we know. Peter tells us that the saints of old, in their be-
lieving, "rejoiced with joy unspeakable and full of glory," 1 Epist.
i. 8. They discovered that in Christ which made their hearts leap
within theui, and all their affections to overflow with delight and
joy. And this is an essential part of this holy admiration, which
distinguisheth it from that barren, fruitless, notional speculation of
it, which some are contented withal. This are we to stir up our-
hearts unto in all our meditations of the grace of God, and not to
rest until we find them affected, satisfied, and filled with a holy
complacency ; which is the most eminent evidence of our interest in
and union unto the things that are made known unto us.

(4.) All these things are to be attended with thankfulness and
praise. This the apostle was full of, and broke forth into, when
he entered upon the description of this grace, Eph. i. 3, 4 ; and this
will be the frame of his heart who is exercised unto a holy admira-
tion of it. When our Lord Jesus Christ considered the grace of
God in revealing the mysteries of this salvation unto his disciples,
it is said of him that he "rejoiced in spirit," nyaXkidearo, Luke x. 21,
"his spirit leaped in him;" and he breaks forth into a solemn doxo-
logy, giving praise and glory unto God. And is it not their duty
to whom they are revealed to do that which, out of love unto them,
our Lord Jesus Christ did on their behalf? Thankfulness for the
things themselves, thankfulness for the revelation of them, thank-
fulness for the love of God and tlie grace of Jesus Christ in the one
and the other, is a great part of this thity.

2. This will teach us what esteem we ought to have of the word
of the gospel, by which alone tliis great salvation is revealed and
exhibited unto us, the great means and instrument which God is
pleased to use in bringing us unto a participation of it. This one con-
sideration is enough to instruct us as to what valuation we ought to
make of it, what price we should set upon it, seeing we cannot have
the " treasure" without the purchase of this "field." Some neglect it,
some despise it, some persecute it, some look upon it as foolishness,
some as weakness; but unto them that believe, it is "the power of
God, and the wisdom of God," To further us in this duty, I shall
take up some of those considerations which the words we insist upon
do offer unto us, and thereby also pass through what yet remains
for our instruction in them. And we may consider, — (L) The ex-
cellency and pre-eminence of the gospel, which ariseth from the first
revealer, that is, the Lord Christ, the Son of God. It was " begun to
be spoken unto us by the Lord." Herein the apostle prefers it before
the law. It is that word which the Son came to reveal and declare
from the bosom of the Father; and surely he deserves to be attended
unto. Hence it is so often called "the word of Christ" and "the



YER. 5 9.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. SI 9

gospel of Christ ;" not only because it treateth of him, but because
it pioceedeth from him, and on that account is "wortliy of all accep-
tation." And, (2.) To neglect the gospel is to neglect and despise
the Son of God, who is the author of it, and consequently the love
and grace of God in sending him. So the Lord Christ tells tliem
that preach the gospel, " He that despisetli you despiseth me, and
he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me." Neglect of the
gospel reflects immediately upon the Lord Christ and the Father;
and therefore our apostle bids us take heed that we despise not
l)im who spake from heaven; which can be no otherwise done bat
by neglect of his word. Some pretend to honour Clirist, but they
have no regard for his word ; yea, they may say of it as Ahab of
Micaiah, that they hate it, and have therefore some of them endea-
voured to extirpate the preaching of it out of the world, as the
Papists have done, — at least, have looked on it as a useless thing,
that the church might be well enough without. But such men will
find themselves mistaken when it is too late to seek after a remedy.
The true cause of their hatred unto the word, is because they can
find no other way to express their hatred unto Christ himself;
neither did ever any man hate or loathe the gospel, but he that first
hated and loathed Jesus Christ, But against the word they have
many pretences, against the person of Christ none, that are as yet
passable in the world. This makes the word to bear that which is
intended against Christ himself; and so will he interpret it at the
last day. (3.) Consider that this word was confirmed and witnessed
uuto from heaven, by the mighty works and miracles which attended
the dispensation thereof So our apostle here informs us. And
though we saw not those miracles, yet we have them left on infallible
record for our use, that by them we might be yet stirred up to value
and attend unto the word in a due manner. God hath so ordered
things in his holy providence, that none can neglect the word with-
out shutting his eyes against such light and evidence of conviction
as will leave him abundantly inexcusable at the last day. Now,
from these and the like considerations the duty proposed may be
enforced.

Verses 5-9.

The apostle in these verses proceeds in the pursuit of his former
design. From the doctrine of the first chapter, he presseth the
exhortation at the beginning of this, which we have passed through.
The foundation of that exhortation was the pre-eminence of the
Lord Christ, the author of the gospel, above the angels by whom
the law was spoken and delivered. This he now further confirms,
and that by an instance suited to his present purpose, and not as
yet by him insisted on. And he doth it the rather because, by the

V®L. XII. — 21



820 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAR II.

testimonies wherewith he proves his assertion, he is led to the con-
sideration of other concernments of the mediation of Christ, wliich
he thought meet to declare unto these Hebrews also. And this
method he is constant unto throughout this whole epistle. In the
midst of his reasonings and testimonies for the explanation or con-
firmation of what he delivers dogmatically, he lays hold on some
occasion or other to press his exhortations unto faith, obedience, with
constancy and perseverance in the profession of the gospel. And in
the arguments wliich he interweaveth, and testimonies which he
ptoduceth for the enforcement of his exhortations, something still
otfers itself, which accordingly he lays hold upon, leading him to
some further explication of the doctrine which he had in hand; so
insenhibiy passing from one thing unto another, that he might at
the same time inform the minds and work upon the affections of
them with whom he dealt. All which will ajDpear in our ensuing
exposition of these verses.

Ve7\ 5. — Ou yap ayy's'ko/g vrrira^i rriv o/'xou/isvjji' rriv fJ!,iXXovffav, Tipi
^g XaXov/MV

' T'jTSTal?, " subjecit," " in ordinem coe»it," "put into subjection," "brought
into orJer, under rule." T'^v oIkov^svyiv rvii/ fii?^7^ov<rxv. Vol., '* orbein terrre f'utu-
rum,""the habitable earth to come;" Arias, " habitat ani f'uturain," to the same
purpose, improperly; Syr., "'T?."I '*'???. "rnundum," or "seculum futuruin," •' the
world" (ur '• age") " to come;" Beza, " niundum ilium futurum," "that world
to come." And indeed the repetiti<in of the article, with the words following,
" concerning which we speak," requires that it be so expressed, " That world to
come," or " the world that is to come." Olicovfiivn, Heb., '^^ . So most totn-
nionly ex|iressed i>y the LXX. ; as sometimes, though seldom, liy yii, •' the earth;"
and sometimes by roivvo oi/pctvcHv, "the things under the heavens." The apostle
useth this word from Ps. viii., wdiere it denotes a mixture of inhabitants, there
described. Uspl vji'ha.'Kwfiiv, that is, '6ixhiy6f4,idot,, " concerning which we treat,"
"about which we rea-on." The Vulgar Latin adds " Deus" to the text: " Deus
non su! jecit," " God hath not put in subjection ;" needlessly, as is acknowledged.
"De quo Christo," saith the interlinear gloss; but Hipt ijs is not " of Christ."

Ver, 5. — For unto the angels liatli he not made subject
that world to come whereof we speak [concerning which
we treat],

Yer. 6. — Anf^aprvparo d's vou rig, X'syuv T/ lertv dvdpwxog, on fii/ivyjffXT]
avTOu; Yj v'log avSpuTrou, on sT/ffxi'Trr^ avrov,

Syr., ■"?^J *'='!;:'? ■'"="?'! TS ^}^., " But as the Scripture witnesseth nnd saith;"
needlessly limiting what was spoken indefinitely by tlie apostle, the words them-
selves dtclaring who spake them and where. Uov, Vul , " in quodam loco," " in
a certain p'aee ;" Beza, " alicubi," "somewhere," that is, Ps. viii. 5. T/ iartv oLu-
ipuTTog; ■'^"^.?"~^, "quid homo mortalis?" — jiporrog, fipoTo; dvtip, "frail, mortal
man," or " the son of man." °"? 1?' " ^''"^ hommis terreni;" yjjysvsjj, " e terra
editus," — " man of the earth," or " an earthy man.



VER. 5-9.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. Ji21

Ver. 6. — But one [a certain man] testified \^Iiath icit-
nessed], in a certain place [somewhere, that is, in the
Scripture, from whence he is arguing], saying, What is
man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man,
that thou visitest him?

ver. 7. — 'HXd-rooSag alirhv ^pa-xP ^ '^"/'' ayysXoug' h(it,yi xa! rifMr,
sffrg(pdv'j}aag aCrciV, xa/ zocricrrjaa; aCrov kiri rd 'ifya tmv yf.ifZiV aov, Tocira
V'^rsra^ocg l-zoKdrM ruv 'Trodojv avrou.

The latter words, which are commonly placed at the beginning of the eighth
vei-se. I have added unto this seventh, the sense and Hebrew text so requiring it.

' HAKTTaffccs eti/rov. So the apostle renders '^~.'??v'? in the psalmist, and th:it
properly. Vul., "niinuisti;" which is not "thou hast made less," but "th'iu
hast lessened," which hath another sense than that here intended. Syr., ""Tr^''.*
" depressiti," "thou hast depressed," or "made him less," or "lower than I.e
was." Beza, " fecisti eum inferiorem," "thou hast made him lower;" and so
ours. Rhemists, " thou didst minish him a little less;" obscurely. 'EA«tt^6) is
"iinmiuuo," "diminuo," "to make less," "to take from," as to state and condi-
tion. So in Isocrates, iK^rrovv rvii/ nzohiv is to lessen the dignity, state, and con-
dition of the people; as in Latin, " capitis diminutio" is lessening of state or dig-
nity, as b}' loss of liberty. For when one was made a captive by the enemy he lost
his dignity, until he recovered it "jure postliminii ;" so Regulus is termed by the
poet, ''capitis minor," when a prisoner to the Carthaginians: or by change of
family, as when Clodius, a patrician, was adopted by a plebeian : or by banisii-
inent. All such are ij'Kxrrovf/.iuoi, lessened in state or dignity. '^r)~^, the word
used by the psalmist, hath the same signification; and though it be variously
rendered by the LXX., yet they never nuich depart from its native signification.
' 'E'huTTO'Au, " to minish," "make less," "take from;" i'hxTrou, the same: hdi:^;
•yivof/.oci, "to become indigent;" iu^kof^xi, "to be in want;" sTrthtof^ce.t, Trpoaoioiiccn,
ecTTopiu, all to the same purpose; aTipiaica, " to deprive ;" vanpiu, " to want," " to
be indigent," "to come short;" and anpiu, and x-ivov -Troiiu, "to make eMipty;"
that is, Kivou, the word used Phil. ii. 7. I observe this various rendering ot' the
word by the LXX. on^y to show that it doth constantly denote a diminution of
state and condition, with an addition of indigency; which will give us light into
the interpretation of the place.

Jipcx^ rt, " breve quiddam;" Vul., " paulo minus;" Syr., 'vi?, " paululum,"
"a little," or" paulisper," "a little while." "?? is frequently by the LXX. ren-
dered fiiKpoti, "parvum," "paululum," — "a little," intending quantity; hoinctiuies
ohiyav, which they refer to number, "a few;" and sometimes (ipof^u, and then it
constantly respects time, " a little while." So that lipc^xv rt is as much as ivt
(ipx)c-t> t-bat is xP^'-'¥'j •'■'' '^ that saying, 'O (iiog lipx)(v?, h Ts^vyi frnxpoi, — " Life is
short," that is, of short continuance. Whether a little in degree or a short time
be here intended we shall afterwards inquire.

Hup' d.y/i'hovg, Syr. ^.^^;? 1^ , " prie angelis," "more thin angels," "above
the angels," "more destitute than the angels;" Heb., °"~"*''H» "the anuels of
God." So all old translations ren ler the words. And to render it " a Deo," in
the p<alm, is needless, groumlless, contradictDry to the apostle.

Ao'lpj Kdl ri^tivi e(7Ti(p<x,i/o)(Tcis cti/rov, "gloi'ia et honore coronasti eum," "with glory
and honour hast thou crowned him;" Syr., ~?'"? =''^ ^"^iV- **~~'^-r\!' , "glory
and honour hast thou placed on his head;" Heb. ^n-cii'n -inrn -'"=31, " thou hast
crowned him " (or " adorned his head") " with glory and beauty," or " linnour,"



822 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. 11.

The first word denotes the weight and worth, the latter the beauty and splen-
dijur of this crown.

K«J KccTiarnaa,; uvrov eTri, " thou hast set him over ;" that is, appointed hitn
to be in authority, as Pharaoh set Joseph over the land of Egypt. Syr.,
*''7'C^-"— ! " authoritatem," " potestatem ei tribuisti;" "thou hast given him
power," or "authority;" made hira sultan, or lord. Heb., ^"p.'r'r'i), "made him
lord," or " ruler," as Gen. i. 18. So y^oc^hrytfit stti is used. Acts vi., Luke xii.

'TTreTci^otg v7!w.ccxoi ruv ■xohuv cciirov, " hast put," "put down," " subjected all
things under his feet." The words all of them emphatically denote subjection
and depression, and as thus conjoined, the most absolute sulijection that can be
apprehended.

Ver. 7. — Thou madest liim lower for a little while than
the angels; thou crownedst him with gloiy and honour,
and didst set him [cjave him authority^ over the works
of thy hands: all things hast thou put in subjection
under his feet.

Ver. 8. — 'Ei/ yap T(M I'TTord^ai airuJ ra craira, ovdh d(prjzBV dvviro-
raXTOV vuv ds o8tw opu/z^sv avru rd crav7-a 'vxcnray/jjiva,

Ver. 8. — For in that he made all things subject unto
him, he hath left nothing not put in subjection; but
now we see not all things made subject unto him.

Ver. 9. — Tov hi ^payj) rt crap' dyyiXoug riXarru/Mivov f3Xf.'Xo/j,sv ^Irjffouv,
hid TO ird&riiMa tov ^avdrov hc^j^ xai riij^fi ioTi<pa)ic/>iJjhov, oVwg -^dpiTi
Giov V'jTBp 'Ttavrhg yBvffyiTai ^a^a^ou.

The words of this dvohocris have most of them been considered in the -Trpodiaig,
and they must have the same sense in both places, or the reasoning of the apostle
would be equivocal. For x^P''^' 0£oy, some old copies read, x'^P'^i Qsov, " besides
God," " God excepted." The Syriac copies also vary. Some read, " For God
himself by his grace tasted death." Others, " For he, God excepted, tasted
death;" which came from %up\; Qsov, and shows that variety to be ancient.
Hence some have imagined it to be a corruption of theNestorians, who, dividing the
person of Christ, would not grant that God might be said to die, contrary to Acts
XX. 28. Xapiri Qioi>, is "gratia," "beneficentia," "beneficio Dei," "by the grace,"
"goodness," "good-will of God," expressing the first spring and moving cause of
the sufferings of Christ, Tivamxi Sictvoirov, "should taste of death;" an Hebraism
for to die, intimating withal the truth, reality, and kind of bis death, which was
bitter, and which was called his "cup." 'T-Trsp ivoLwlg, in the masculine, not neuter
gender, for •j'trip •Kctvruv, by an enallage of number, that is, vluv, of whom he
treats; all and every one of the children unto whom he was a captain of salvation. i

Ver. 9. — But we see Jesus crowned with glory and
honour, who for the suffering of death was a little
while made lower than the angels, that he by the
grace of God might taste of death for all.

* Various Readings. — The clause, K«T£o-T)7(7«f usque aw, verse 7, is omitted
by Griesbach, Scholz, and Tischendorf. Knapp, Lachmann, and Hahn enclose it
within In-ackets, as doubtful.

Translations. — '^pctxii. " For a little while." — Valckenaer. De Wette, Com/-
beare and Ilowson, Ebrard. " A little " (in respect of degree). — Stuart, Scliule-



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