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But what if he had been unwilling to be humbled and to suffer for
us? If the same mind had been in Christ as is in us, what had
been our state and condition unto eternity? In this grace, love, and
willingness of Christ, lies the foundation of all our happiness, of all
our deliverance from misery and ruin ; and shall we reckon our-
selves to have an interest therein, and yet find ourselves altogether
unready to a conformity unto him? Besides, the Lord Christ was
really rich when he made himself poor for our sakes; he was in the
form of God when he took upon him the form of a servant, and be-
came for us of no reputation. Nothing of this was due to him or
belonged unto him, but merely on our account. But we are in our-
selves really poor, and obnoxious unto infinitely more miseries for
our own sins than what he calls us unto for his name. Are we un-
willing to suffer a little, light, transitory trouble in this world for
him, without whose sufferings for us we must have suffered misery,
and that eternal, whether we would or no? And I speak not so
much about suffering itself as about the mind and frame of spirit
wherewith we imdergo it. Some will suffer when they cannot avoid
it, but so unwillingly, so uncheerfully, as makes it evident that they
aim at nothing, and act from no principle, but merely that they dare
not go against their convictions. But " the mind that was in Christ"



VEE. 6-9.] > EPISTLE TO THE HEBllEWS. S73

•will lead us unto it out of love unto him, with freedom and enlarged-
ness of heart; which is reqiared of us,

III. The blessed issue of the abasement of Jesus Christ, in his
exaltation unto honour and glory, is an assured pledge of the final
glory and blessedness of all that believe in him, whatever difficulties
and dangers they may be exercised withal in the way.

His humiliation and exaltation, as we have seen, proceeded out
of God's condescension and love to mankind. His electing love, the
eternal gracious purpose of his will to recover lost sinners, and to
bring them unto the enjoyment of himself, was the ground of t is
dispensation; and therefore what he hath done in Christ is a certain
pledge of what he will do in and for them also. He is not crowned
with honour and glory merely for himself, but that he may be a
captain of salvation, and bring others unto a participation of his
glory

IV. Jesus Christ, as the mediator of the new covenant, hath ab-
solute and supreme authority given unto him over all the worlcs of
God in heaven and earth.

This we have so fully manifested and insisted on upon the fore-
going chapter, that we shall not here further pursue it; but only mind
by the way, that blessed is the state and condition, great is the spi-
ritual and eternal security of the church, seeing all things are under
the very feet of its Head and Saviour.

V. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only lord of the gospel state of
the church, called under the old testament "the world to come;"
and therefore he only hath power to dispose of all things in it relat-
ing unto that worship of God which it is to perform and celebrate.

It is not put into subjection unto any other, angels or men. This
privilege was reserved for Christ; this honour is bestowed on the
church. He is the only head, king, and lawgiver of it; and no-
thing is it to be taught to observe or do but what he hath com-
manded. But this will fall more directly under our consideration in
the beginning of the next chapter.

VI. The Lord Jesus Christ in his death did undergo the penal
sentence of the law, in the room and stead of them for whom he died.

Death was that which, by the sentence of the law, was due unto
sin and sinners. For them did Christ die, and therein tasted of the
bitterness of that death which they were to have undergone, or ehse
the fruit of it could not have redounded unto them ; for what was it
towards their discharge, if that which they had deserved was not
suffered, but somewhat else, wherein the least part of their concern-
ment did lie? But this being done, certain deliverance and salva-
tion will be the lot and portion of them, of all them, for whom he
died; and that upon the rules of justice and righteousness on tho
part of Christ, though on theirs, of mere mercy and grace.



374 an exposition of the fchap. il

Verse 10.

The apostle in the verses foregoing made mention of that which,
of all other things, the Jews generally were most offended at, and
which was of the greatest importance to be believed, namely, the
sufferings of the Messiah, wherein a great part of the discharge of
his sacerdotal office, whereunto he here makes a transition, did con-
sist. This his own disciples were slow in the belief of. Matt. xvi. 21,
22, xvii. 22, 23; Luke xxiv. 25, 26, and the Jews generally stumbled
at. They thought it strange that the Messiah, the Son of God, the
Saviour of his people, and Captain of their salvation, concerning whom
so great and glorious things were promised and foretold, should be
brought into a low despised condition, and therein to suffer and die.
Hence they cried unto him on the cross, " If thou be the Christ,
come down and save thyself;" intimating that by his suffering he was
assuredly proved not to be so, for why any one should suffer that
could deliver himself they saw no reason.

Besides, they had inveterate prejudices about the salvation pro-
mised by the Messiah, and the way whereby it was to be wrought,
arising from their love and over-valuation of temporal or carnal
things, with their contempt of things spiritual and eternal. They
expected a deliverance outward, glorious, and kingly, in this world,
and that to be wrought with arms, power, and a mighty hand. And
what should they expect from a Messiah that suffered and died?
Wherefore the apostle, having asserted the sufferings of Christ, saw
it necessary to proceed unto a full confirmation of it, with a declara-
tion of the reasons, causes, and ends of it; partly to evert that false
persuasion which prevailed amongst them about the nature of the
salvation to be wrought b}' Christ ; partly to show that nothing would
thence ensue derogatory unto what he had before delivered about
his pre-eminence above angels; but principally to instruct them in the
sacerdotal office of the Messiah, the redemption which he wrought,
and the means whereby he accomplished it, — which was the great
business that he had designed to treat with them about. [As] for the
salvation itself, he declares that it was not to be of the same kind
with that which they had of old, when they were brought out of
Egypt and settled in the land of Canaan under the conduct of
Joshua, but spiritual and heavenly, in a deliverance from sin, Satan,
death, and hell, with a manuduction into life and blessedness eter-
nal. He informs them that the way whereby this was to be
wrought, was by the sufferings and death of the Messiah, and that
no other way it could be accomplished ; on which account they were
indispensably necessary. And the first reason hereof he expressetb
in this tenth verse.

Fer. 10. — -"ET/sfWo yu.0 alrifj, di' o¥ ru Toura xa/ di* ov ra vavra, ffsK-



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 375

Xoiig viovg stg Bo^av ayayovra, rhv afy^riyhv r^g ffurrjpiag ahruv hia •^aOri-
/idruv TiXiiMCOLi.

One or two copies read, S<a ■Trud^fixro; xvrov re'Knovadxt, against the sense and
design of tiie place. Avtov is needlessly repeated, unless put for kavrov, ami then
it disturbs the whole meaning of the verse, and is inconsistent with the passive
verb following in this reading. Ucid'/]fioi.rog, in the singular number, relates only
unto death, expressed in the verse foregoing by TrxS^fcx Bxvocrov; but here all the
sufferings of Christ, as well those antecedent unto death as death itself, are in-
tended. TeAsioiadat, in the passive, is followed by some copies of the Vulgar ti'ans-
lation, reading '• consummari;" both inconsistent with the sense of the place, as
we shall see.

Translations differ but little about these words. "ETrpe-Trs ya.p xvtm. Most,
" decebat enim eum," "for it became him;" Beza, " decebat enim ut iste,"
"for it was meet that he," to make the folliwing words flow regularlv. At Sv
TO. -Trocvrct., "propter quern omnia;" Syr., '.^l '^.', '• cui omnia," "for whom are
all things;" Beza, " pi-opter quern sunt hsec omnia," expressing the article as
restrictive to the things spoken of, " for whom are all these things." One Syriae
copy adds, ^""''?, " in his hand;" which somewhat corrupts the sense. Kai ot ov
Tci ■xtxurx, "et per quern omnia," " by whom are all things;" Beza, " ha;c omnia,"
as before, without cause: for the article is frequently prefixed unto -Tca-vrx, where
all things absolutely are intended; as Eph. i, 11. TiaXKwq vtov; tig oo^xv
xyxyovrx. Vulg., "qui multos filios ad glnriam adduxerat," '"who had brought
many sons unto glory;" Arias, "multos filios ad gloriam adducentem;" Beza,
" adducendo," "bringing many sons unto glory;" Syr., " adduxerat in gloriam
suam," " had brought many sons into his glory." To// a/j^^/jyo'i/. Vulg., " aueto-
rem," ''the author;" Beza, " principem ;" Syr., >'"^"''?, "the head" (or " prince") 'of
their salvation." Aix vxdnf^xTuv rehnuaxi, "per passionem consummare," "to
consummate" (or "complete")" by suffering;" Beza, "per perpessiones,""by suffer-
ings;" Syr., "perficere," " perfectum reduere," "to perfect," " to make perfect."

The proper signification of the words in this verse is much to be heeded, as that
which will give us much light into the sense of the whole. UpiTnt is " decet,"
"convenit," " dignum est;" " it becometh," it is " meet," "convenient, or "just."
UpiTTov Oiotg, in Plato, is rendered by Cicero, "Deo decorum," "that which be-
cometh God;" and saith he, " TLpi'^ov, appellant hoc Grseci, nos dicanaus sane
decorum;" that which becometh any one in his state and condition, in a moral
sense; as, " Holiness becometh the house," — that is, the people of God. Kxrx to
'jrpi'Trov, " ut decet," " ut par est ;" that which is equal and right to be done.
Upi'Tc-ovcx rif<.7], is " honour justly deserved ;" and -x-psTrovax ^npci'x, "Just loss" or
" punishment." The word, then, signifies that decency and becomingness which
justice, reason, and equity require, so that the contrary would be unmeet, be-
cause unequal and unjust. Thus every one's duty, that which is morally incum-
bent on him in his place and station, is that which becomes him; and hence in
the New Testament, that which is not xxrx to vpiTrou, thus decent, is condemned
as evil, 1 Cor. xi. 13; 1 Tim. ii. 10. And itself is commended as a rule of vir-
tue, Matt. iii. 15; Eph. v. 3.

At ov. Aix with an accusative case constantly denotes the final cause, " prop-
ter quem," " for whom:" Rev. iv. 11, 2v Ix-rtaxg rx ttxvtx, "Thou hast created
all things" (all thins^s universally, with the article prefixed, as in this place), kxX
"tix TO Bi'hyif^oi aov dsl, xxl exrtardmxi/, "an:l for thy will" ('• thy pleasure," " thy
glory") ''they are, and were created." Rom. xi. 36, E/V ov rx -jrxvrx, "To
whom" (f.o hirn, or for him, or his glory) "are all things." Prov. xvi. 4.
^~?Zi'^ "";"■'. ''?f '= ,— " The Lord hath made all things for himself;" his glory is
the iinal cause of them ail.



S76 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. It

Keel 3/ ov roc. 'xu.VTct, " and by whom are all things." A/« with a genitive de-
notes the efficient cause. Some from this expression would have the Son to be the
person here spoken of, because concerning him it is fre(juently said that all thing.s
are 3/ xurou, John i. 3. 1 Cor. viii. 6, Heb. i. 3; but it is used also with reference
unto the Father, Rom. xi. 36, G.il. i. 1. Schlichtiiigius here gives it for a rule,
that when lice relates unto the Father, it denotes the principal efficient cause;
when unto the Son, the instrumental. But it is a rule of his own coining, a
gioundless efflux of his T^-purou ■\pivhog, that the Son is not God : on which kind of
presumptions men may found what rules they please. The principal efficiency or
supreme production of all things by God is intended in this expression.

' kya,-/6vra., " bringing," a word of common use and known signification, but
in this place attended with a double difficulty, from a double enallage in the use
of it: — First, in the case; for whereas it seems to relate unto ainw, " it beciinie
hiin in bringing," it should then regularly be d'yocyouTt, not oLyctyouru. Hence
some, by supposing a cvyx'J'f"^ in the words, refei* it unto tx,py;,r]yov, ■' the author;"
as if the apostle had said, Tov dp^criyoii rij; aurnpiu; ctvruv Tro'hT^ov; vioii; dynyoyTot,
• — "To make perfect the captain of their salva'.ion, who brought many sons unto
glory." But this transposition of the words, neither the context nor the addition
of otiirZiv, " their," unto acnnpietg, " their salvation," relating unto the sons before
mentioned, will by any means allow. Wherefore an enallage of the case is neces-
sarily to be allowed, dyuyovrot, for dyotyovzi, unless we suppose a repetition of
iTzpiTri, which frequently admits of the accusative case ; but the principal author
is unquestimiabiy intended. Again, dyayowoe, is a participle of the second aoris-
tu<-, which usually denotes the time past, and thence is it translated by many,
" adduxit," "adduxerat," and " filiis adductis;" — "after he had brought many
sons to glory." And this some refer to the saints who died under the old testa-
ment, unto whom the Lord Christ was no less a captain of salvation than to us.
And so the apostle shows that after they were saved on his account, it was meet
that he should answer for them, according to his undertaking. But neither doth
this restraining of the word answer the apostle's intentiim : ior it is evident that
he principally minded them unto whom the Lord Jesus became eminently a cap-
tain of salvation after he was perfected by sufferings, though not exclusively unto
them that went before. 'Ay«yo'i/T«, then, is put fov dyovrct, unless we shall sup-
pose that the act of God here intended was on purpose thus expressed to com-
prehend all the sons, both those that lived before and those that lived after the
sufferings of Christ, — " bringing," "leading," " bearing unto glory." It concerns
the whole execution of the design of G >d for the salvation and glorification of
believers. IloXXovf viov;, " many sons," Jews and Gentiles, all that were by faith
to become his sons.

ToV dp-jcnyov, " the author." Wherever this word is used in the New Testa-
ment it is applied unto Christ. Acts iii. 15, he is called dpxnyo; rr,; ^coi;?, "the
prince of life;" and chap. v. 31, God is said to make him dp^nyou x«i auriipoc.,
"a prince and a saviour;" that is, dpx^yov rvii aurnpiot.g, as here, " the prince of
our salvation." Heb. xii. 2, the apostle calls him, rou riig 'xlarioig dpxyiyov xal
tihituT'/lv, as we render it, "the author and finisher of faith;" as here God is
said nMiuaut rov dpxnyov, to finish or perfect this author of our salvation. No-
where else is this word used in the New Testament. It answers justly the
Hebrew "'"'^J, which the LXX. render «,px<'>v and iiyov^ivog, the signification of
both which words is included in dpxnyog, " princeps," " dux," " prseses,"
"auctor," — " a prince," " captain," " ruler," " author." And it is used in writers
with respect to works good and bad. ^ Apxfiyog Kctl ZiZti.ax.ei'hog ruv 'ipyuu roiovruv,
Isncrat. ; — " The author and teacher of such works." And dpxfiyh toD y.ot.Kov(>-
y'/;,u»rog, " artifex maleficii," — " the principal contriver of mischief." It is also
used for the author of a stock, race, or kindred of men. In this place it is



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 377

limited by acyrnpleti. It denotes the chief or principal operator or worker of tliat
salvation, with especial reference unto the kingly or princely power whereuiito
he was advanced aftor his s-uffcrings; as he is also absolutely a prince, a ruler,
and the author or spring of the whole race and kind of believers, according unto
the other senses of the word.

Ti'hiiuaa.t. This word is variously used and variously rendered: "to consum-
mate," " to perfect," " to make perfect ;" " to consecrate," " dedicate," " sanctify."
Some woulil have it in this place to be the same with oLyitv ilg lo^uu, " to brin^y
unto glory." But what is the precise signification of the word we shall dear
in the exposition ensuing, when we declare what act of God it is that is hei-e
intended.

Before we proceed to the exposition of the several parts of this text, we must
consider the order of the words, to prevent some mistakes that divers learned com-
mentators have fallen into about them. Some suppose a hyperbaton in them, and
that these expressions, "For whom are all things, and by whom are all things,
in bringing many sons unto glory," do intend the Son, the captain of salvation.
The word uvru, " him," " it became him," they confess to relate unto Qiov,
" God," in the verse foregoing, and to relate unto the Father. In whicli order
this would be the sense of the words: " It became him," that is, G'xi, " to make
perfect through sufferings the captain of their salvation, for whom are all things,
and by whom are all things, who bringeth many sons unto glory." But there
is no just reason why we should arbitrarily thus transpose the words. And that
separation of " for whom are all things, and by whom are all things," from
"it became him," takes away one main foundation of the apostle's reasoning, as
we shall s '6. And the reason alleged for this ordering of the words is infirm,
namely, that it is Christ who brings the many sons unto glory, not the Father;
for it is also assigned unto him, as we shall see, upon many accounts.

Some refer the whole words unto Christ, to this purpose, " It became him,"
that is, the Son incarnate, " for whom," etc , "bringing many sons unto glory, to
be consummated" or " made perfect by sufferings." So Tena, an I tho~e whom he
foUoweth. But this exposition of the words is directly contrary to the scope of the
apostle, declared in the verse foregoing and that following. It leaves also ctvr^,
'' him," nothing to relate unto, nor allows the causal yxp, " for," to give an ac-
count of any act of God before mentioned. And, besides, the whole of it is built
on the corruption or mistake of one word in the Vulgar translation, "consura-
mari " for " consummare," and that but in some copies, as is acknowledged by the
most learned Romanists, who here adhere unto the original : for taking that word
actively, and the object of the act expressed in it being the captain of salvation,
some agent distinct from him must needs be signified, which is God the Father.

Some suppose an eXXsii^/f in the words, and therefore in the reading of those,
"in bringing many sons unto glory," they supply, "by affli«:tions" or ''.-ufferings:"
" Having brought many sons to glory iiy afflictions, it became him to make the
cap'.ain of their salvation perfect through sufferings." So Cappellus. But this
imaginary defect arose merely from a mistake, that the to ■n-ps'z-oy, or condeceney
here mentioned, hath a re.-pect unto the things done, — that seeing the sons had
suffered, it was meet and convenient that their captain should do so in an eminent
manner. But the truth is, it respects only the doer of them; it was on his part
requisite so to do the things mentioned.*

* Exposition. — TiT^itaaui. This word refers either to Christ's consecration to
offii e or to his exaltation to his reward. Turner holds it difficult to conceive how
suffi-ring could be the means of consecrating Christ to his priestly office, and that
he must have been priest before his sufferings commenced, whereas th • other view
is in accordance with various p;irts of the New Testament, and \v ith all the [ilacea
in the epistle in which the word occurs. Conybeare and Howson hold that it



S78 AN EXPOSITION OF THE [CHAP. II.

Ver. 10. — For it became him for whom are all things, and
by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto
glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect
throuorh sufferings.

There are in the words, — 1. The causal connection unto the verse
foregoing, — " for." 2. A design of God intimated as the founda-
tion of the discourse, — which was, to " bring many sons unto glory."
3. The means he fixed on for the accomphshment of that design, —
namely, the appointing unto them a " captain of their salvation." 4.
The especial way of his dedicating him unto that office, — he "made
him perfect by sufferings." 5. The reason of this his proceeding and
dealing with him, — it "became him" so to do. 6. An amplification
of that reason, in a description of his condition, — "him for whom
are all things, and by Avhom are all things."

1. A reason is rendered in the words of what he had asserted in
the foregoing verse, namely, that Jesus, the Messiah, was to suffer
death, and by the grace of God to "taste of death for all." Why he
should do this, on what account, what ground, necessity, and reason
there was for it, is here declared. It was so to be, " for it became
hira," etc.

2. The design of God is expressed in this whole matter, and that
was, to " bring many sons unto glory." And herein the apostle de-
clares the nature of the salvation which was to be wrought by the
Messiah, about which the Jews were so greatly mistaken, and con-
sequently in and about the way whereby it was to be wrought. (His
purpose herein was not now to carry his children into a new Canaan,
to bring them into a wealthy country, an earthly kingdom ; which
must or might have been done by might, and power, and arms, as
of old: but his design towards his sons, in and by the Messiah, was
of another nature ; it was to bring them unto glory, eternal glory
with himself in heaven. / And so it is no wonder if the way whereby
this is to be accomplished be quite of another nature, than that
whereby their temporal deliverance was wrought, namely, by the
death and sufferings of the Messiah himself. And here, in reference
unto this design of God, it is supposed, — First, That some who were
created for the glory of God had by sin come short of it ; so that
without a new way of bringing them unto it, it was impossible that
they should ever be made partakers of it. This is here supposed by
the apostle, and is the foundation of all his doctrine concerning the

means literally to bring to the appointed accomplishment, to develop the full idea
of the cliaracter, to consummate. The last word, thev state, would be the best
translation, if it were not so unusual as applied to persons.

Translation. — "It became him, for whom and through whom all things sub-
fii-t, to make perfect through suffering the captain of their salvation, as one who
should bring tnany sons unto glory." — Ebrard. — Ed.



VER. 10.] EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. 879

Messiah. Secondly, That the way whereby God will at length
bring them who are designed unto glory thereunto, is by taking of
them first into a state of souship and reconciliation with hiraseJf ; tliey —
must be sons before they are brought to glory, f There is £(,^oubleact^.^
of God's predestination : the first is his designation of some unto grace,
to be sons, Eph. i. 5; the other, his appointment of those sons unto
glory; both to be wrought and accomplished by Christ, the captain of
their salvation. The latter, and the execution of it, — namely, the
bringing of those unto glory who by grace are made sons, — is that
which the apostle here expresseth. He dealeth not with the He-
brews in this epistle about the conversion of the elect, the traduc-
tion of them into a state of grace and sonship, but of the government
of them being made sons, and their guidance unto glory. And
therefore the sufferings of Christ, which absolutely and in them-
selves are the cause of our sonship and reconciliation with God, are
mentioned here only as the means whereby Christ entered into a ^
condition of leading sons unto glory, or of saving them who, upon
the account of his sufferings, are made sons by grace. But yet this
is not so precisely respected neither, but that the apostle withal inti-
mates the necessity of the suffering of Christ, as to the whole effect
of it towards the elect. Now these sons, thus to be brought unto
glory, are said to be " many ;" — not all absolutely, not a few, or of
the Jews only, which they looked for, but all the elect of God, who
are many. Rev. vii. 9. And this work, of bringing many sons unto
glory, is here signally assigned by the apostle unto God the Father;
whose love, wisdom, and grace, believers are principally to eye in



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